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FIRST edit 

Ion, published in three volumes, 

1768— 1771. 


> »> ten „ 

1777— 1784. 


, „ eighteen „ 

1788— 1797. 


, ,, twenty „ 

1801— 1810. 


, ,, twenty „ 



, ,, twenty „ 

1823 — 1824. 


, „ twenty-one „ 

1830 — 1842. 


, „ twenty-two „ 

1853— 1860 


, ,, twenty-five „ 



, ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 

1902 — 1903. 


, published in twenty-nine volumes, 

1910 — 1911. 


in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 



of the 

All rights reserved 










New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 


The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 


A. A. R.* 

Arthur Alcock Rambaut, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. f* 

Radcliffe Observer, Oxford. Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin -j Schonfeld Eduard. 
and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1892-1897. [ ' 




C. G. 


E. H. 

A.E. J. 


F. L. 

A. F. P. 

A. Ge. 
A. Go.* 
A. H. S. 
A. H.-S. 
A. J. G. 

A. L. 

A. H. CI. 
A. N. 

Arthur Ernest Cowley, M.A., Litt.D. 

Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. 

Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Guenther, M.A., M.T3., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist, _ 
Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, Salientia, ' 
and Fishes in the British Museum ; &c. 

A. E. Houghton. 

Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the - 
Bourbons in Spain. 

Arthur Ernest Jolliffe, M.A. 

Fellow, Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer, Cornus Christi College, Oxford. Senior - 
Mathematical Scholar, 1892. 

Arthur Francis Leach, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. 
Formerly Assistant-Secretary of the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools at the Reformation; &c. 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- - 
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of 
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B. 

See the biographical article : Geikie, Sir Archibald. 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. 

Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester. 

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D; 
See the biographical article : Sayce, A. H. 

Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E. 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. 

Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. 

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent 
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of 
Mysore Educational Service. 

Andrew Lang, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Lang, Andrew. 

Rev. Allan Menzies, D.D. 

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, St Mary's College, St Andrews. Author 
of History of Religion ; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy. 

Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde). 

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources 
of Roman History, 133-70 B.C. 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. 

f Samaritans; 
1 Seadiah. 

Shark {in part). 

Serrano y Dominguez, 



Sanders, Nicholas. 

f Scotland: Geography and 
\ Geology (in part). 

fSaravia, Adrian; 
I Servetus, Michael. 
J" Sardanapalus; Sargon; 
1 Sennacherib; Shalmaneser. 
fSeistan (in part); Shiraz; 
I Shushter. 

J, Septuagint, The. 

f Scotland: History; 
t Second Sight. 

-< Scotland, Church of. 


Sand-grouse; Sandpiper; 
Scaup; Scoter; Scrub-bird; 
Secretary-bird; Seriema; 
Shearwater; Sheathbill; 
Sheldrake; Shoe-bill; 
Shoveler; Shrike. 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 



A. No. 

A. S. P.-P. 

B. R.* 

B. S. P. 

C. A. G. B. 

C. El. 

C. F. A. 
C. F. B. 

C. H. 

C. H.* 
C. H. Ha. 

C. J. F. 

C. L. K. 

C. H. 

C. Mi. 

C. M. W. 
C. PL 
C. R. B. 

C. W. R. 

D. B. Ha. 


Scandinavian Languages. 

Adolf Gotthard Noreen, Ph.D. 

Professor of Scandinavian Languages at the University of Upsala. Author of. 
Geschichte der Nordischen Sprachen; Altislandische und AUnorwegische Gram- 
matik; &c. L 

Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. C 

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford J Scepticism; 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 191 1. Fellow of the British Academy. J Scholasticism. 
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos ; The Philosophical Radicals ; &c. L 

Founder and First President of \ Sa ^ s B * nks: 

L United States. 

\ Scandinavian Civilization. 

Hon. Bradford Rhodes. 

Head of Banking Firm of Bradford Rhodes & Co. 
34th Street National Bank, New York. 

Bertha Surtees Phillpotts, M.A. (Dublin). 

Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge. 

Sir Cyprian Arthur George Bridge, G.C.B. f 

Admiral. Commander-in-Chief, China Station, 1901-1904. Director of Naval J Sea, Command Of the; 
Intelligence, 1889-1894. Author of The Art of Naval Warfare; Sea-Power and other 1 Sea-Power. 
Studies; &c. I 

Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, 
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East- 
Afrka Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for 
German East Africa, 1 900-1 904. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal ■ 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

Charles Francis Bastable, M.A., LL.D. 


Seven Weeks' War (in part). 

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of J Seigniorage. 
Dublin. Author of Public Finance ; Commerce of Nations ; Theory of International | 
Trade; &c. I 

Charles Hose, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc. 

Jesus College, Cambridge. Formerly Divisional Resident and Member of the. 
Supreme Council of Sarawak. Knight of the Prussian Crown. Author of A 
Descriptive Account of the Mammals of Borneo ; &c. 

Sir Charles Holroyd. 

See the biographical article: Holroyd, Sir C. 


Short, Francis Job. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. f 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member i Sforza. 
of the American Historical Association. I 

Lieut.-Col. Charles James Fox, F.R.G.S. 

Chief Officer, London Salvage Corps. President of Association of Professional Fire 
Brigade Officers. Vice-President of National Fire Brigades Union ; &c. 

Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant-Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor 
, of Chronicles of London, and Stow's Survey of London. 

Salvage Corps. 

(Salisbury, Thomas de Monta- 
cute, Earl of; 
Shore, Jane; 
Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of. 

Salic Law. 

Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th. I 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik ~\ Sardica, Council of. 
im Zeitalter Gregor VII. ; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums ; &c. l 

Chedomille Mijatovich. f 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- J Servia. 
potentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James', 1895-1900 and 1902- 
1903. L 

Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B. f 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Deputy- Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896- A Sepulchre, The Holy. 
1902. Served under General Gordon in the Soudan, 1874-1875. I 

Christian Pfister, D.-es-L. 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author 
Etudes sur le rlgne de Robert le Pieux. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. - 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. 

Charles Walker Robinson, C.B., D.C.L. 

Major-General (retired). Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, 
1890-1892. Lieut.-Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 
1895-1898. Author of Strategy of the Peninsular War; &c. I 

Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. r 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. I «i..f>t_ 

Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional j oa » u '• 

Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious AttituJe and Life in Islam; &c. I 



Sanuto, Marino; 
Schiltberger, Johann. 

Salamanca: Battle, 1812. 



D. F. T. 

D. G. H. 

D. H. 

D. 0. 

E. A. M. 

Donald Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow 
of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; 
Ephesus, 1904-1905. Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 
1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hannay. 


Samsun; Sardis; 
Scala Nuova; 
Schliemann, Heinrich. 

' Saints, Battle of the; 
St Vincent, Earl of; 
St Vincent, Battle of; 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal -{ Santa Cruz, Marquis of; 

Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c. 

Seven Years' War: 

Naval Operations. 























E. K. C. 

Ed. M. 

E. M. T. 

E. 0.* 

E. R. B. 

E. Wa. 

Douglas Owen. 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer at the Royal Naval War College, 
Portsmouth, and at London School of Economics. Hon. Secretary and Treasurer -l Shipping. 
of the Society of Nautical Research. Author of Declaration of War; Belligerents 
and Neutrals ; Ports and Docks ; &c. 

Edward Alfred Minchin, M.A., F.Z.S. r 

Professor of Protozoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of Merton J Seyphomedusae. 
College, Oxford, and Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, j 
University College, London. I 

Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Tylor, Edward Burnett. 

Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A. , O.S.B., Litt.D. 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius ' 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Fry. 
See the biographical article: 



Fry, Sir Edward. 

4 Selborne, 1st Earl of. 

f Samain, Albert Victor; 
• \ Sermon. 

-1 Samos {in part). 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article : Gosse, Edmund. 

Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895). 

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; 

Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. f Sarmatae; 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian < e cv *jjj a 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. [ 

Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac. 

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 
and Works. 

Samos (in part). 

Author of A. Scarlatti: his Life) Scarlatti, Alessandro. 

Edmund Kerchever Chambers. 

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christi 

College, Oxford. Chancellor's English Essayist, 1891. Author of The Medieval -{ Shakespeare. 

Stage. Editor of the "Red Letter" Shakespeare; Donne's Poems; Vaughan's 

Poems; Sec. 

EdUard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt., LL.D. r s ana t ru ces- Satrap- 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des 1 c . . . _', j ... 

Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstdmme. [_ Seieucia; anapur 1.-111. 

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader in 
Bibliography, Cambridge University, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, 
Oxford. Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian - 
Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor 
of Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society, 
the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles. 

Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of " 
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A. 

New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus ; Jerusalem under the High ■ 

Rev. Edmond Warre, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., C.B., C.V.O. 
Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. 
College, 1884-1905. Author of Grammar of Rowing; &c. 

Headmaster of Eton ■ 


Shorthand: Greek and Roman 

Scalp: Surgery; 

Seleucid Dynasty. 

Ship: History to the Invention 
of Steamships. 


f. E. 


F. G. 



F. G. 




F. LI 


F. N. M. 

F. R. C. 
F. S. 

F. W. R.* 

G. A. B. 

G. C. T. B. 

G. D. 
G. E. D. 

G. G. S. 
G. H. Bo. 

G. Sa. 
G. W. R. 
G. W. T. 

H. A. R. 
H. Ch. 

H. De. 
H. F. G. 

H. F. T. 


Rev. Frank Edward Brightman, M.A., Ph.D., D.Litt. f 

Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen College, Oxford. Prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral. J SeraDion. 
Pusey Librarian, Oxford, 1884-1903. Author of Liturgies: Eastern and Western; } OBrB P ,QI, « 
&c. I 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 

H Saxons. 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer onj S(. a in # 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, ' 
London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Major-General Sir Frederick John Goldsmid. 
Seethe biographical article: Goldsmid (family). 

Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis ; 

Col. Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B. 

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the 
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign; &c. 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Francis Storr. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 
d'Academie, Paris. 


Seistan (in part). 


r Sedan: Battle of; 

\ Seven Weeks' Wat (in part); 

{- Seven Years' War (in part). 

J" St Helena (in part); 

I Senegal; Senussi. 

Editor of the Journal of Education, London. Ofncier ■< Sand, George 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 

George A. Boulenger, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. 

Sir George Christopher Trout Bartley, K.C.B. (1842-1910). 

Founder of the National Penny Bank. M.P. for North Islington, 1885-1906. Author 
of Schools for the People; Provident Knowledge Papers; &c. 

George Dobson. 

Author of Russia's Railway Advance into Central Asia; &c. 

George Edward Dobson, M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., F.R.S. (1848-1895). 

Army Medical Department, 1868-1888. Formerly Curator of the Royal. 
Victoria Museum, Netley. Author of Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera, &c. ; 
A Monograph of the Insectivora, Systematic and Anatomical. 

George Gregory Smith, M.A. 

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University, Belfast. Author of The Days 
of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots, &c. 

Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A. 

Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors' School, 
London. Lecturer in the Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, 1908-1909. " 
Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah ; &c. 

George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George Edward Bateman. 

Major George William Redway. 

Author of The War of Secession, 1861-1862; Fredericksburg: a Study in War. 

Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 

Henry A. Rowland. 

See the biographical article: Rowland, Henry Augustus. 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition. 

Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S J. 

Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Acta Sanctorum; and the Analecta Bollandiana. 

Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author 
of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History; &c. 

Rev. Henry Fanshawe Tozer, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the 
British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece. 
Author of History of Ancient Geography; Classical Geography; Lectures on the 
Geography of Greece ; &c. 

J Sapphire; 
\ Serpentine. 

Salmon and Salmonidae. 

Savings Banks (in part). 
I Saltykov, Michael. 

j Scotland: Literature; 
1 Scott, Alexander. 


f Saint-Simon, Due de; 
iSevigng, Madame de. 

/Seven Days' Battle; 

t Shenandoah Valley Campaigns. 

f Shahrastani; 
[ Shi'ites. 


Screw: Errors of Screws. 

Salisbury, Marquess of; 
Shakespeare: The Shakespeare- 
Bacon Theory; 
Sherbrooke, Viscount. 

("Sebastian, St; 
I Sergius, St. 





H. L. H. 
H. R. T. 


J. A. M. 
J. A. PI. 
J. A. R. 

J. Bt. 

J. B. A. 
J. E. 
J. E. S.* 

J. F. S. 

J. G. Ft. 

J. G. H. 
J. G. K. 

J. G. R. 

J. G. Sc. 

J. G. Si. 

J. H. A. H. 
J. H. M. 

J. H. R. 

i. m. ft. 

Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. 

Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A. 

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. 

| Sepsis. 

1 Shakespeare: Bibliography. 

Scillitan Martyrs. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. f . 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J Samuel 01 Nenardea; 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short | Shekel. 
History of Jewish Literature ; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages ; Judaism ; &c. I 

James Alexander Manson. f 

Formerly Literary Editor of the Daily Chronicle, and Chief Editor, Cassell & Co., Ltd. 1 Scotland: Geography {in part). 
Author of The Bowler's Handbook ; &c. I 

John Arthur Platt, M.A. f 

Professor of Greek in University College, London. Formerly Fellow of Trinity -j Sappho. 
College, Cambridge. Author of editions of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey ; &c. I 

Very Rev. Joseph Armitage Robinson, M.A., D.D. 

Dean of Wells. Dean of Westminster, 1902-1911. Fellow of the British 
Academy. Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the King. Hon. Fellow of Christ's College, 
Cambridge. Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, 1893- 
1899. Author of Some Thoughts on the Incarnation; &c. 

James Bartlett. f Scaffold; 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation', Quantities, &c, King's College, i Seweraee' 
London. Member of Society of Architects, Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity | « 

Surveyors' Association. Author of Quantities. I Snoring. 

Joseph Beavington Atkinson. f 

Formerly Art-critic of the Saturday Review. Author of An Art Tour in the Northern \ Schadow. 
Capitals of Europe; Schools of Modern Art in Germany. L 

H. Julius Eggeling, Ph.D. f 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Edinburgh University. Formerly J Sanskrit. 
Secretary and Librarian to the Royal Asiatic Society. ■ l. . 

John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. r 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical "* 
Scholarship ; &c. 

Rev. John Frederick Smith. 

Author of Studies in Religion under German Masters; translated G. H. A. von - 
Ewald's Commentaries on the Prophets of the Old Testament and the Book of Job. 

James George Frazer, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University. Fellow of Trinity College, - 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden Bough; &c. 

Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E. 

Author of Plating and Boiler Making ; Practical Metal Turning ; &c. 

John Graham Kerr, M.A., F.R.S. 

Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator 
in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ's College, ■ 
Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royai 
Society of Edinburgh, 1904. 

John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. 

Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Editor of the 
Modern Language Journal. Author of History of German Literature ; Schiller after ' 
a Century; &c. 

Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E. 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. 

Scaliger {in part). 

Schleiermacher {in part). 

Saturn {in part). 


Shark {in part). 

Author of Burma; 

Rev. James Gilliland Simpson, M.A. • 

Canon of St Paul's, London. Principal of Leeds Clergy School and Lecturer of Leeds . 
Parish Church, 1900-1910. 

John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; 
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 

John Horace Round, M. A., LL.D. ( Seutaee* 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family -i ocuiage, 
History ; Peerage and Pedigree. [_ SerjeBnty. 

John Holland Rose, M.A. , Litt.D. -\ f 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge J gavary. 
University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic 1 
Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c. I 


Salween: River; 
Shan States 

Scotland, Episcopal Church of. 
-j Scribes. 

Sculpture {in part). 


J. H. V. C. 

J. K. I. 
1. L. M. 

J. M. M. 

J. P.-B. 
J. S. F. 

J. S. R. 

J. T. Be. 
J. T. C. 

J. T. S.* 
J. W. 

J. W. He. 

K. G. J. 
K. S. 
L. Be. 

L. J. S. 

L. V. 
L. V.* 

M. A. C. 


John Henry Verrinder Crowe. r 

Lieut. -Colonel, Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of 
Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History -j Shipka PaSS. 
and Tactics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome of the 
Russo-Turhish War, 1877-1878; &c. I 

John Kells Ingram, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Ingram, John Kblls. 

f Say, Jean Baptiste; 
I Senior, Nassau. 

Salamis: Cyprus. 

John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of 
Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient . 
Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in the 
University of Oxford, and Student and Tutor of Christ Church. Author of A History 
of Rome ; &c. 

John Malcolm Mitchell. [ Sehelling (in part) ; 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London ■{ Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl Of 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. I (in part). 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. ( Sheraton, Thomas. 

Editor of the Guardian, London. \ «•«»«, * »"»•• 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. fSand; Sandstone; 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formerly Lecturer J coannli+o ( T? rhA- 
on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of 1 » c »P 0Ule Knocks), 
Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I Schorl. 

James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Christ's College. 
Browne's and Chancellor's Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero's Academia; De 
Amicilia; &c. 

John Thomas Bealby. 

Joint-auth<jr of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical - 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow 
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 

Severus, Lucius Septimius. 

St Petersburg (in part) ; 
Sakhalin (in part) ; Samara: 

Government (in part) ; 
Samarkand: City (in part) ; 
Saratov: Government (in part). 

Sea-Serpent (in part). 

J Saint-Simon, Comte de 

\ (in part). 

Seamen, Laws relating to; 

James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. 

All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln 
College. Author of Wills and Succession ; &c. 

James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A. r 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education, London. 

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient J. Schmerling, Anton von. 
History at Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the foundation of 
the German Empire ; &c. I 

Kingsley Garland Jayne. 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. 
Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. 

Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. -I Salamanca. 

Author of The Instruments of the ■ 

Sambuca; Saxhorn; 
Saxophone; Serpent: Music; 
Shawm; Shofar. 

CheV tnSs he A L u e fn or ol SCU,ptUr6: Mod ™ **"*■ 


Leonce Benedite. 

Keeper of the Musee National du Luxembourg, Paris. 
Honour. President of the Societe des Peintres orientalistes 
Histoire des Beaux Arts; &c. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the * 
Mineralogical Magazine. 

Linda Mary Villari. 

See the biographical article : Villari, Pasquale. 

Luigi Villari. r 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in the East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Phila- -i Savoy, House of. 
delphia, 1907, and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town 
and Country ; &c. I 

Maurice Arthur Canney, M.A. r 

Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. Formerly] c-honVol nnnfol 
Exhibitioner of St John's College, Oxford. Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew Scholar, 1 ocnenKel » UUUM ' 
Oxford, 1892; Kennicott Hebrew Scholar, 1895; Houghton Syriac Prize, 1896. I 







D. Ch 




H. S. 




0. B. 





T. H. 






G. K. 










A. S. H 


A. W. 


C. C. 


D. H. 





Malcolm Bell. f_. _ „ _, . 

Author of Pewter Plate ; &c. \ Sheffield Plate. 

MiCHAEif Brett f 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. \ Salvage: Military. 

Sir Mackenzie Dalzell Chalmers, K.C.B., C.S.I., M.A. f 

Trinity College, Oxford, Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Permanent Under-Secretary J 
of State for the Home Department, London, and First Parliamentary Counsel to 1 Sale 01 Goods, 
the Treasury. Author of Digest of the Law of Bills of Exchange ; &c. ' l 

Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. _ f 

Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of " Protozoa," in the "j Sarcodina. 
Cambridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals. I 

Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco- 
British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait 

Painting to the Opening of the iglh Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British 
Sculpture and Sculptors of To-Day; Henriette Ronner; Sec. 

Sculpture (in part) ; 
Shakespeare: Portraits. 

Morris Jastrow, Ph.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion -J Shamash. 
of the Babylonians and Assyrians ; &c. 

Maximiltan Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. f Sa i amis . 

Reader in Ancient History in London University. Lecturer in Greek in Birmingham ■{ * a,amls > 
University, 1905-1908. I Samos (m part). 

Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet. f 

Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). -! St Neetaire; 
Author of L' Industrie du sel en Franche-Comte. |_ St Pol, Counts Of. 

M. Th. Houtsma. f 

Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Utrecht. \ Seljuks. 

Osmund Airy, M.A., LL.D. f 

H.M Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of Education, J ofc .. „, A . _, , . 

London. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles II.; &c.1 SnaltesDury, 1st Earl 01. 
Editor of the Lauderdale Papers ; &c. I 

P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince, P. A. 

St Petersburg {in part) ; 
Sakhalin {in part) ; 
Samara: Government {in part) ; 
Samarkand: City (in part) ; 
. Saratov: Government (in part). 

P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D. 

Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- I - 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. 1 sex< 
Author of Outlines of Biology ; &c. I 

Percy Gardner, LL.D., F.S.A., D.Litt. -fennnae 

See the biographical article : Gardner, Percy. \ »««?»»• 

Paul George Konody. f 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. < Sculpture (in part). 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. L 

Percy Somers Tyringham Stephens, J.P. J* 

Contributor to the Badminton Magazine. \ Snooting. 

Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L., LL.D. J 

See the biographical article: Vinogradoff, Paul. ^Serittom. 

Sir Phillip Watts, K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D. f «..-t». ttj?i^.«, <■;*,,„ it,* t**** 

Director of Naval Construction for the British Navy. Chairman of the Federation I Sm ?- Htstory since the Inven- 
of Shipbuilders. Naval Architect and Director of War Shipbuilding Department 1 <*"» °J Steamships-. 
of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., 1885-1901. [ Shipbuilding. 

Robert Adamson, LL.D. J Cb |,,,ii„,_ (s „ A/tW \ 

See the biographical article : Adamson, Robert. \ » eneuln S tf » pan). 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A. , F.S.A. f Samaria* 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Ex- ■{ choohom 
ploration Fund. L&neenem. 

Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., CLE. f 

Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimitation. Served with Tirah J «-_. 
Expeditionary Force, 1897-1898, and on the Anglo-Russian Boundary Com- 1 o*" 8 - 
mission, Pamirs, 1895. I 

Richard Copley Christie. f g „ a ii,, er u n j, art \ 

See the biographical article: Christie, Richard Copley. \ » cau B er V n P an >- 

Robert Drew Hicks, M.A. I seneca (in part). 

Fellow, formerly Lecturer in Classics, Trinity College, Cambridge. \ 

Richard Garnett, LL.D. J Sarpi, Paolo; 

See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard. \ Satire. 

Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. J Scorpion. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. L 



R. J. H. 

R. L.* 

R. L. A. 
R. N. B. 

R. P.* 

R. S. C. 

R. W. 

S. A. C. 

T. As. 

T. A. A. 
T. A. I. 
T. Ba. 

T. C. A. 

T. F. 

T. G. C. 

T. K. 
T. K. C. 
T. L. H. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. 

Gazette (London). 

Formerly Editor of the St James's 

St John, Oliver; 

St Leger, Sir Anthony; 

Scroggs, Sir William; 

Scrope Family; 


Shrewsbury, Duke of. 

Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. r 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J Seal {in part) ; 
Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer\ Serow; Sheep (in part), 
of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. |_ 

Sir Reginald Laurence Antrobus, K.C.M.G. f 

Crown Agent for the Colonies, London. Assistant Under-Secretary of State for -J St Helena {in part). 
the Colonies, 1 898-1909. [ 

Robert Nisbet BAiN(d. 1909). f 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: The c hne*<»H Hannihai- 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15 13-1900; The First Romanovs, \ ° e "° 5lea > Mannioai, 
1613-172$; Slavonic Europe: The Political History of Poland and Russia from Shaflrov, Peter. 
1469 to 1796 ; &c. I 

Robert Peele. 

Professor of Mining in Columbia University, New York. 


Robert Seymour Conway, M. A., D.Litt. r 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J Cai«irt«c 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff ; and Fellow of Gonville | "arnrUuJS. 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. [ 

Robert Wallace, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.L.S. 

Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh University, and Garton 
Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C.,_ 
Cirencester, 1882-1885. Author of Farm Live Stock of Great Britain; The Agri- 
culture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming Industries of 
Cape Colony; &c. 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. f c . e 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, SaMSOn; Samuel; 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of -I Samuel, Books of; 
Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Saul* Serpent-worship. 
Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. I ' 

Sheep {in part). 

Simon 'Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc. 

See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon. 


Saturn: Planet. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of 
Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member, 
of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topo- 
graphy of the Roman Campagna. 

Thomas Andrew Archer, M.A. 

Author of The Crusade of Richard I. ; &c. 

Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 

Salerno; Sardinia; 
Sassari; Satricum; 
Saturnia; Segesta; 
Segusio; Selinus; 
Sessa Aurunca; 
Severiana, Via. 


Savings Banks {in part). 

Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy ; &c. 
burn, 1910. 

M.P. for Black- 


Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, K.C.B., M.A., M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. r 

Regius Professor of Physic in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Gonville J Semmelweiss Ienatz 
and Caius College. Physician to Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Editor of 1 > 8 • 

Systems of Medicine. [ 

Rev. Thomas. Fowler, M.A. , D.D., LL.D. (1832-1904). r 

President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1881-1904. Honorary Fellow of chaHochtiro *JrH TParl «f 
Lincoln College. Professor of Logic, 1873-1888. Vice-Chancellor of the University \ &nalle5Dur y> a ™ J"*" 0I 
of Oxford, 1899-1901. Author of Elements of Deductive Logic; Shaftesbury and (tn part). 
Hutcheson; &c. I 

Thomas Gilbert Carver, M.A., K.C. (1848-1906). r 

Formerly Judge of County Courts. Author of On the Law relating to the Carriage-} Salvage. 
of Goods by Sea. ' [ 

Thomas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D. 

Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c. 

Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.Litt., D.C.L., D.D. 
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K. 

Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D.Sc 

Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. Author of Treatise on Conic Sections ; &c. 

J Saint-Simon, Comte de 

I {in part). 

I Seraphim. 

Serenus "of Antissa. 



rh. N. 

T. T. 
T. W. F. 

T. W. R. D. 

W. A. B. C. 

W. A. D. 

W. A. P. 

W. Ba. 

W. C. D. W. 

W. E. A. A. 

W. E. Ho. 

W. Fr. 





















W. L.-W. 


See the biographical article: Noldeke, Theodor. 

Sir Travers Twiss, K.C., B.C.L., F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Twiss, Sir Travers. 


Semitic Languages, 

-I Sea Laws. 

Thomas William Fox. f 

Professor of Textiles in the University of Manchester. Author of Mechanics of J. Shuttle. 

Weaving. [_ 

Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali 
Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists ; Early Buddhism ; Buddhist India ; Dialogues of the Buddha ; &c. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1 880-1 881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range 
of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald ; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and 
in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-188 1 ; &c. 

Sasana Vamsa. 

St Gall: Canton; St Gall: 

Town; St Gotthard Pass; 
St Moritz; Sarnen; 
Saussure, Horace Benedict de; 
Savoie; Schaflhausen: Canton; 
Schaflhausen: Town; 
Scheuchzer, Johann; 
Schwyz; Sempach. 

Sherman, John. 

William Archibald Dunning, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Lieber Professor* of History and Political Philosophy, Columbia University, New 
York. Author of Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction ; A History of Political ' 
Theories. [_ 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. r St John of Jerusalem, Order 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, J of ; - 

Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c. |_ Sehleswig-Holstein Question. 

William Backer, Ph.D. 

Professor of Biblical Science at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest. 


William Cecil Dampier Whetham, M.A., F.R.S. 
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Recent Development of Physical Science ; &c. 

Author of Theory of Solution ; -i Science. 

William Edmund Armytage Axon, LL.D. r 

Formerly Deputy Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries. On Literary J c a if 0H i 
Staff of Manchester Guardian, 1874-1905. Member of the Gorsedd, with the bardic j 
name of Manceinion. Author of Annals of Manchester; &c. [ 

William Evans Hoyle, M.A., D.Sc, F.Z.S., M.R.C.S. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Director of the National Museum of Wales. 
Manchester Museum, 1889-1899. 

William Fream, LL.D. (d. 1906). f 

Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and J Sheep (in part). 
Agricultural Correspondent of The Times. [_ 

Winifred F. Knox. 

Author of The Court of a Saint. 

Director of the -i Sea-Serpent (in part). 


Seeley, Sir J. R. 


Rev. William Hunt, M.A., Litt.D. 

President of the Royal Historical Society, 1 905-1 909. Author of History of the 
English Church, 5 Q7-1 066; The Church of England in the Middle Ages; Political' 
History of England, 1760-1801. I 

William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. r 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London, j 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 1 
College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c. [ 

Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S. J Seal (in part). 

See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H. ]^ 

William Henry Hadow, M.A., Mus.Doc. 

Principal of Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Formerly Fellow and Tutor Schubert. 
of Worcester College, Oxford. Member of Council, Royal College of Music. Editor " 
of Oxford History of Music. Author of Studies in Modern Music ; &c. 

Walter Lynwood Fleming, A.M., Ph.D. f 

Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Editor of Documentary History J Secession. 
of Reconstruction ; &c. ( 

William Lawson Grant, M.A. r , . . . , 

Professor of History at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit j St John: Canada; 
Lecturer in Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy 1 St Pierre and MiquelOE. 
Council (Colonial Series) ; Canadian Constitutional Development- [_ 

Sir William Lee-Warner, M.A., G. C.S.I. f 

Member of the Council of India. Formerly Secretary in the Political and Secret J Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Sir. 
Department of the India Office. Author of Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie;^ 
Memoirs of Field -Marshal Sir Henry Wylie Norman; &c. v 






















William Minto, M.A. 

See the biographical article : Minto, William. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article : Rossetti, Dante G. 

Lieut.-Colonel William Patrick Anderson, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.G.S} 

Chief-Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the 
Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. 

William Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Smith, W. R. 

William Thomas Calman, D.Sc, F.Z.S. 

Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. 
Author of " Crustacea," in a Treatise on Zoology, edited by Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

William Wallace. 

See the biographical article: Wallace, William (1844-1897). 

William Walker Rockwell, Lie. Theol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 
Author of Die Doppelehe lies Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen. 

•| Scott, Si 

Sir Walter {in part). 

f Sebastiano del Piombo; 
1 Shelley. 

St Lawrence: River. 

/Salt: Ancient History and 
\ Religious Symbolism. 



■j Schopenhauer {in part), 
i Saragossa, Councils ok 


St Vitus's Dance. 

Sal Ammoniac. 

Salicylic Acid. 


Salt Lake City. 




Salvation Army. 





San Francisco. 

Santo Domingo. 






Saxe- Weimar-Eisenach. 


Scarlet Fever. 


Scilly Isles. 















Servo-Bulgarian War. 



Sewing Machines. 












Shorthand (modern). 





French chemist, was born on the nth of March 1818 in the 
island of St Thomas, West Indies, where his father was French 
consul. Together with his elder brother Charles he was educated 
in Paris at the College Rollin. In 1844, having graduated as 
doctor of medicine and doctor of science, he was appointed to 
organize the new faculty of science at Besancon, where he acted 
as dean and professor of chemistry from 1845 to 1851. Return- 
ing to Paris in the latter year he succeeded A. J. Balard at the 
ficole Normale, and in 1859 became professor at the Sorbonne 
in place of J. B. A. Dumas, for whom he had begun tc lecture 
in 1853. He died at Boulogne-sur-Seine on the 1st of July 1881. 

He began his experimental work in 1 84 1 with investigations of oil 
of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered 
toluene. But his most important work was in inorganic and thermal 
chemistry. In 1849 he discovered anhydrous nitric acid (nitrogen 
pentoxide), a substance interesting as the first obtained of the 
so-called " anhydrides " of the monobasic acids. In 1855, ignorant 
of what Wohler had done ten years previously, he succeeded in 
obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method 
by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid 
of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed. With 
H. J. Debray (1827-1888) he worked at the platinum metals, his 
object being on the one hand to prepare them pure, and on the 
other to find a suitable metal for the standard metre for the Inter- 
national Metric Commission then sitting at Paris. With L. J. 
Troost (b. 1825) he devised a method for determining vapour 
densities at temperatures up to 1400 ° C, and, partly with F. Wohler, 
he investigated the allotropic forms of silicon and boron. The 
artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isorhor- 
phous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in 
which he made many experiments. But his best known contribution 
to general chemistry is his work on the phenomena of reversible 
reactions, which he comprehended under a general theory of " dis- 
sociation." He first took up the subject about 1857, and it was in 
the course of his investigations on it that he devised the apparatus 
known as the " Deville hot and cold tube." 

His brother, Charles Joseph Sainte- Claire Deville 
(1814-1876), geologist and meteorologist, was born in St Thomas 
on the 26th of February 1814. Having attended at the Ecole 
des Mines in Paris, he assisted Elie de Beaumont in the chair 
of geology at the College de France from 1855 until he succeeded 
him in 1874. He made researches on volcanic phenomena, 
especially on the gaseous emanations. He investigated also 
the variations of temperature in the atmosphere and ocean. 
He died at Paris on the 10th of October 1876. 

Hjs published works include: Etudes geologiques sur les ties de 
Teneriffe et de Fogo (1848); Voyage geologique aux Antilles et aux 
ties de Teneriffe et de Fogo (1848-1859); Recherches sur les princi- 
paux phenomenes de meteorologie et de physique generate aux Antilles 
(1849); Sur les variations periodiques de la temperature (1866), and 
Coup d'cEil historique sur la giologie (1878). 

xxiv. 1 

ST ELMO'S FIRE, the glow accompanying the slow discharge 

of electricity to earth frem the atmosphere. This discharge, 
which is identical with the " brush " discharge of laboratory 
experiments, usually appears as a tip of light on the extremities 
of pointed objects such as church towers, the masts of ships, 
or even the fingers of the outstretched hand: it is commonly 
accompanied by a crackling or fizzing noise. St Elmo's fire is 
most frequently observed at low levels through the winter 
season during and after snowstorms. 

The name St Elmo is an Italian corruption through Sant' 
Ermo of St Erasmus, a bishop, during the reign of Domitian, 
of Formiae, Italy, who was broken on the wheel about the 2nd 
of June 304. He has ever been the patron saint of Mediterranean 
sailors, who regard St Elmo's fire as the visible sign of his guar- 
dianship. The phenomenon was known to the ancient Greeks, 
and Pliny in his Natural History states that when there were 
two lights sailors called them Castor and Pollux and invoked 
them as gods. To English sailors St Elmo's fires were known 
as " corposants " (Ital. corpo santo). 

See Hazlitt's edition of Brand's Antiquities (1905) under " Castor 
and Pollux." . 

ST EMILION, a town of south-western France, in the depart- 
ment of Gironde, i\ m. from the right bank of the Dordogne 
and 27 m. E.N.E. of Bordeaux by rail. Pop. (1906), town, 
1091; commune, 3546. The town derives its name from a 
hermit who lived here in the 7th and 8th centuries. Pictur- 
esquely situated on the slope of a hill, the town has remains 
of ramparts of the 12th and 13th centuries, with ditches hewn 
in the rock, and several medieval buildings. Of these the chief 
is the parish, once collegiate, church of the 12th and 13th 
centuries. A Gothic cloister adjoins the church. A fine belfry 
(12th, 13th and 15th centuries) commanding the town is built 
on the terrace, beneath which are hollowed in the rock the ora- 
tory and hermitage of St Emilion, and adjoining them an 
ancient monolithic church of considerable dimensions. Remains 
of a monastery of the Cordeliers (15th and 17th. centuries), of 
a building (13th century)known as the Palais Cardinal, and a 
square keep (the chief relic of a stronghold founded by Louis 
VIII.) are also to be seen. Disused stone quarries in the side' 
of the hill are used as dwellings by the inhabitants. St Emilion 
is celebrated for its wines. Its medieval importance, due to 
the pilgrimages to the tomb of the saint and to the commerce 
in its wines, began to decline towards the end of the 13th century 
owing to the foundation of Libourne. In 1272 it was the first 
of the towns of Guyenne to join the confederation headed by 


DE (1697-1781), French scholar, was born at Auxerre on the 
6th of June 1697. His father, Edme, had been gentleman of 
the bed-chamber to the duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV. 
Sainte-Palaye had a twin brother to whom he was greatly 
attached, refusing to marry so as not to be separated from him. 
For some time he held the same position under the regent 
Orleans as his father had under the duke of Orleans. He had 
received a thorough education in Latin and Greek, and had a 
taste for history. In 1724 he had been elected an associate of the 
Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Leltres, merely from his 
reputation, as nothing haji been written by him before that date. 
From this time he- devoted himself exclusively to the work of 
this society. After having published numerous memoirs on 
Roman history, he began a series of studies on the chroniclers 
of the middle ages for the Historiens des Gaules et de la France 
(edited by Dom Bouquet) : Raoul Glaber, Helgaud, the Gesta 
of Louis VII., the chronicle of Morigny, Rigord and his con- 
tinuator, William le Breton, the monk of St Denis, Jean de 
Venette, Froissart and the Jouvencel. He made two journeys 
into Italy with his brother, the first in 1739-1740, accompanied 
by his compatriot, the president Charles de Brosses, who related 
many humorous anecdotes about the two brothers, particularly 
about Jean Baptiste, whom he called " the bilious Sainte- 
Palaye ! " On returning from this tour he saw one of Join- 
ville's manuscripts at the house of the senator Fiorentini, well 
known in the history of the text of this pleasing memorialist. 
The manuscript was bought for the king in 1741 and is still 
at the Bibliotheque nationale. After the second journey (1749) 
Lacurne published a letter to de Brosses, on Le Goilt dans les arts 
(1751). In this he showed that he was not only attracted by 
manuscripts, but that he could see and admire works of art. 
In 1 7 59 he published the first edition of his Memoir es sur I'ancienne 
chevalerie, consideree comme un etablissement politique el militaire, 
for which unfortunately he only used works of fiction and ancient 
stories as sources, neglecting the heroic poems which would 
have shown him the nobler aspects of this institution so soon 
corrupted by " courteous " manners; a second edition appeared 
at the time of his death (3 vols. 1781, 3rd ed. 1826). He prepared 
an edition of the works of Eustache Deschamps, which was never 
published, and also made a collection of more' than a hundred 
volumes of extracts from ancient authors relating to French 
antiquities and the French language of the middle ages. His 
Glossaire de lalanguefrancaise was ready in 1 7 56, and a prospectus 
had been published, but the great length of the work prevented 
him finding a publisher. It remained in manuscript for more than 
a century. In 1 764 a collection of his manuscripts was bought by 
the government and after his death were placed in the king's 
library; they are still there (fonds Moreau), with the exception 
of some which were given to the marquess of Paulmy in exchange, 
and were later placed in the Arsenal. Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye 
ceased work about 1771; the death of his brother was greatly felt 
by him, he became childish, and died on the 1st of March 1781. 

Sainte-Palaye had been a member of the Academie Francaise since 
1758. His life was written for this Academie by Chamfort and for 
the Academie des Inscriptions by Dupuy; both works are of no 
value. See, however, the biography of Lacurne, with a list of his 
published works and those in manuscript, at the beginning of the 
tenth and last volume of the Dictionnaire historique de I'ancien 
langage francois, ou glossaire de la langue frangoise depuis son origine 
jusqu'au siecle de Louis XIV., published by Louis Favre (1875- 

SAINTES, a town of western France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of Charente-Inferieure, 47 m. S.E. of La 
Rochelie by the railway from Nantes to Bordeaux. Pop. (1906), 
•town, 13,744; commune, 19,025. Saintes is pleasantly situated 
on the left bank of the Charente, which separates it from its 
suburb of Les Dames. It is of interest for its Roman remains, 
of which the best preserved is the triumphal arch of Germanicus, 
dating from the reign of Tiberius. This formerly stood on a 
Roman bridge destroyed in 1843, when it was removed and 
reconstructed on the right bank of the river. Ruins of baths 
and of an amphitheatre are also to be seen. The amphitheatre, 

larger than that of Nimes, and in area surpassed only by the 
Coliseum, dates probably from the close of the 1st or the beginning 
of the 2nd century and was capable of holding 20,000 spectators. 
A Roman building known as the Capitol was destroyed after 
the capture of the town from the English by Charles of Alencon, 
brother of Philip of Valois, in 1330, and its site is occupied by a 
hospital. Saintes was a bishop's see till 1790; the cathedral of 
St Peter, built in the first half of the 12th century, was rebuilt 
in the 15th century, and again after it had been almost destroyed 
by the Huguenots in 1568. The interior has now an unattractive 
appearance. The tower (15th century) is 236 ft. high. The 
church of St Eutropius (founded at the close of the 6th century, 
rebuilt in the nth, and had its nave destroyed in the Wars 
of Religion) stands above a very interesting well-lighted crypt — • 
the largest in France after that of Chartres — adorned with 
richly sculptured capitals and containing the tomb of St 
Eutropius (4th or 5th century). The fine stone spire dates from 
the 15th century. Notre-Dame, a splendid example of the 
architecture of the nth and 12th centuries, with a noble clock- 
tower, is no longer devoted to religious purposes. The old hotel 
de ville (16th and 18th centuries) contains a library, and the 
present hotel de ville a museum. Bernard Palissy, the porcelain- 
maker, has a statue in the town, where he lived from 1542 to 
1562. Small vessels ascend the river as far as Saintes, which 
carries on trade in grain, brandy and wine, has iron foundries, 
works of the state railway, and manufactures earthenware, 
tiles, &c. 

Saintes (Mediolanum or Mediolanium), the capital of the Santones, 
was a nourishing town before Caesar's conquest of Gaul; in the middle 
ages it was capital of the Saintonge. Christianity was introduced 
by St Eutropius, its first bishop, in the middle of the 3rd century. 
Charlemagne rebuilt its cathedral. The Normans burned the town 
in 845 and 854. Richard Cceur de Lion fortified himself within its 
walls against his father Henry II., who captured it after a destructive 
siege. In 1242 St Louis defeated the English under its walls and 
was received into the town. It was not, however, till the reign of 
Charles V. that Saintes was permanently recovered from the English. 
The Protestants did great damage during the Wars of Religion. 

ST ETIENNE, an industrial town of east-central France, capital 
of the department of Loire, 310 m. S.S.E. of Paris and 36 m. 
S.S.W. of Lyons by rail. Pop. (1906), town, 130,940; commune, 
146,788. St Etienne is situated on the Furens, which flows 
through it from S.E. to N.W., partly underground, and is an 
important adjunct to the silk manufacture. The town is uni- 
formly built, its principal feature being the straight thoroughfare 
nearly 4 m. long which traverses it from N. to S. The chief 
of the squares is the Place Marengo, which has a statue of F. 
Gamier, the explorer, and is overlooked by the town hall and the 
prefecture, both modern. The church of St Etienne dates from 
the 15th century, and the Romanesque church of the abbey of 
Valbenoite is on the S.E. outskirts of the town. A valuable collec- 
tion of arms and armour, a picture gallery, industrial collections, 
and a library with numerous manuscripts are in the Palais des 
Arts. St Etienne is the seat of a prefect, and has an important 
school of mining, and schools of music, chemistry and dyeing, &c. 

The town owes its importance chiefly to the coal-basin which 
extends between Firminy and Rive-de-Gier over an area 20 m. long 
by 5 m. wide, and is second only to those of Nord and Pas-de-Calais 
in France. There are concessions giving employment to some • 
18,000 workmen and producing annually between 3,000,000 and 
4,000,000 tons. The mineral is of two kinds — smelting coal, said 
to be the best in France, and gas coal. There are manufactures of 
ribbons, trimmings and other goods made from silk and mixtures 
of cotton and silk. This industry dates from the early 17th century, 
is carried on chiefly in small factories (electricity supplying the 
motive power), and employs at its maximum some 50,000 hands. 
The attendant industry of dyeing is carried on on a large scale. 
The manufacture of steel and iron and of heavy iron goods such as 
armour-plating occupies about 3000 workmen, and about half that 
number are employed in the production of ironmongery generally. 
Weaving machinery, cycles, automobiles and agricultural imple- 
ments are also made. The manufacture of fire-arms, carried on 
at the national factory under the direction of artillery officers, 
employs at busy times more than 10,000 men, and can turn out 
480,000 rifles in the year. Private firms, employing 4500 hands, 
make both military rifles and sporting-guns, revolvers, &c. To 
these industries must be added the manufacture of elastic fabrics, 
glass, cartridges, liqueurs, hemp-cables, &c. 


At the close of the 12th century St fitienne was a parish of 
the Pays de Gier belonging to the abbey of Valbenoite. By 
the middle of the 14th century the coal trade had reached a 
certain development, and at the beginning of the 15th century 
Charles VII. permitted the town to erect fortifications. The 
manufacture of fire-arms for the state was begun at St fitienne 
under Francis I. and was put under the surveillance of state 
inspectors early in the 18th century. In 1789 the town was 
producing at the rate of 12,000 muskets per annum; between 
September 1794 and May 1796 they delivered over 170,000; and 
100,000 was the annual average throughout the period of the 
empire. The first railways opened in France were the line between 
St fitienne and Andrezieux on the Loire in 1828 and that between 
St fitienne and Lyons in 1831. In 1856 St fitienne became the 
administrative centre of the department instead of Montbrison. 

ST EUSTATIUS and SABA, two islands in the Dutch West 
Indies. St Eustatius lies 12 m. N.W. of St Kitts in 17 50' N. 
and 62° 40' W. It is 8 sq. m. in area and is composed of several 
volcanic hills and intervening valleys. It contains Orangetown, 
situated on an open roadstead on the W., with a small export 
trade in yams and sweet potatoes. Pop. (1908) 1283. 

A few miles to the N.W. is the island of Saba, 5 sq. m. in extent. 
It consists of a single volcanic cone rising abruptly from the sea 
to the height of nearly 2800 ft. The town, Bottom, standing on 
the floor of an old crater, can only be approached from the shore 
800 ft. below, by a series of steps cut in the solid rock and known 
as the " Ladder." The best boats in the Caribbees are built 
here; the wood is imported and the vessels, when complete, 
are lowered over the face of the cliffs. Pop. (1908) 2294. The 
islands form part of the colony of Curacao (q.v.) . 

SAINT-DENIS, Seigneur de (1610-1703), was born at Saint- 
Denis-le-Guast, near Coutances, the seat of his family in 
Normandy, on the 1st of April 1610. He was a pupil of the 
Jesuits at the College de Clermont (now Louis-le- Grand), Paris; 
then a student at Caen. For a time he studied law at the 
College d 'H at court. He soon, however, took to arms, and in 
1629 went with Marshal Bassompierre to Italy. He served 
through great part of the Thirty Years' War, distinguishing 
himself at the siege of Landrecies (1637), when he was made 
captain. During his campaigns he studied the works of Montaigne 
and the Spanish and Italian languages. In 1639 he met Gassendi 
in Paris, and became one of his disciples. He was present at 
Rocroy, at Nordlingen, and at Lerida. For a time he was person- 
ally attached to Conde, but offended him by a satirical remark 
and was deprived of his command in the prince's guards in 
1648. During the Fronde, Saint-fivremond was a steady royalist. 
The duke of Candale (of whom he has left a very severe portrait) 
gave him a command in Guienne, and Saint-fivremond, who 
had reached the grade of martchal de camp, is said to have saved 
50,000 livres in less than three years. He was one of the numerous 
victims involved in the fall of Fouquet. His letter to Marshal 
Crequi on the peace of the Pyrenees, which is said to have been 
discovered by Colbert's agents at the seizure of Fouquet's 
papers, seems a very inadequate cause for his disgrace. Saint- 
fivremond fled to Holland and to England, where he was kindly 
received by Charles II. and was pensioned. After James II. 's 
flight to France Saint-fivremond was invited to return, but he 
declined. Hortense Mancini, the most attractive of Mazarin's 
attractive group of nieces, came to England in 1670, and set 
up a salon for love-making, gambling and witty conversation, 
and here Saint-fivremond was for many years at home. He 
died on the 29th of September 1703 and was buried in West- 
minster Abbey, where his monument still is in Poet's Corner 
close to that of Prior. 

Saint-fivremond never authorized the printing of any of his 
works during his lifetime, though Barbin in 1668 published an 
unauthorized collection. But he empowered Des Maizeaux to 
publish his works after his death, and they were published in 
London (2 vols., 1705), and often reprinted. His masterpiece in 
irony is the so-called Conversation du marechal d'Hocquincourt avet 
le pere Canaye (the latter a Jesuit and Saint-fivremond's master 

at school), which has been frequently classed with the Lettres 

His CEuvres melees, edited from the MSS. by Silvestre and Des 
Maizeaux, were printed by Jacob Tonson (London, 1705, 2 vols.; 
2nd ed. t 3 vols., 1709), with a notice by Des Maizeaux. His corre- 
spondence with Ninon de Lenclos, whose fast friend he was, was 
published in 1752; La Com&die des academistes, written in 1643, was 
printed in 1650. Modern editions of his works are by Hippeau 
(Paris, 1852), C. Giraud (Paris, 1865), and a selection (1881) with a 
notice by M. de Lescure. 

ST FLORENTIN, a town of north-central France, in the depart- 
ment of Yonne, 37 m. S.E. of Sens on the Paris-Lyon-Mediter- 
ranee railway. Pop. (1906) 2303. It stands on a hill on the 
right bank of the Armance, half a mile from its confluence with 
the Armancon and the canal of Burgundy. In the highest part 
of the town stands the church, begun in the latter half of the 
15th century, and though retaining the Gothic form, with great 
flying buttresses, is mainly in the Renaissance style. It is 
approached through a narrow alley up a steep flight of steps, 
and contains a fine Holy Sepulchre in bas-relief and a choir- 
screen and stained glass of admirable Renaissance workmanship. 
The nave, left incomplete, was restored and finished between 
1857 and 1862. The market-gardens of St Florentin produce 
large quantities of asparagus. The town stands on the site of 
the Roman military post Castrodunum, the sceneof themartyrdom 
in the 3rd century of Saints Florentin and Hilaire, round whose 
tomb it grew up. The abbey established here in the 9th century 
afterwards became a priory of the abbey of St Germain at Auxerre. 
The town and its territory belonged, under the Merovingians, to 
Burgundy, and in later times to the counts of Champagne, from 
whom it passed to the kings of France. Louis XV. raised it 
from the rank of viscounty to that of county and bestowed it 
on Louis Phelypeaux, afterwards Due de la Vrilliere. 

ST FLOUR, a town of south-central France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Cantal, situated at a height 
of 2900 ft. on a basaltic plateau overlooking the Lander, a tributary 
of the Truyere, 47 m. E.N.E. of Aurillac by rail. Pop. (1906) 
4090. The streets are dark and narrow, but the town has spacious 
promenades established in the 18th century. St Flour grew up 
round the tomb of St Florus, the apostle of Auvergne, who died 
there in the 4th century. The abbey founded there about the 
beginning of the nth century became in 1317 an episcopal 
chapter, and the town is still the seat of a bishopric. The 
cathedral (1396-1466) is the principal building. The manufacture 
of coarse woollen fabrics, of earthenware and candles is carried 
on. A few miles S.E. of the town the gorge of the Truyere is 
spanned by the fine railway viaduct of Garabit over 600 yds. 
long and at -a height of 400 ft. above the river. 

ST GALL (Ger. St Gallen), one of the cantons of north- 
east Switzerland, on the border of the Austrian province of the 
Vorarlberg and of the independent principality of Liechtenstein. 
It entirely surrounds the canton of Appenzell, which, like a great 
part of this canton, formerly belonged to the abbots of St Gall, 
while the " enclave " of Horn is in the canton of Thurgau. 

Its area is 779-3 sq. m., of which 710-1 sq. m. are reckoned " pro- 
ductive," forests covering 157-1 sq. m. and vineyards 1-8 sq. m., 
while of the remainder 2-8 sq. m. are occupied by glaciers. The 
altitude above the sea-level varies from 1306 ft. (the lake of Constance) 
to 10,667 ft. (the Ringelspitz). The canton includes portions of 
the lake of Constance (21 J sq. m.), of the Walensee (rather over 
7 sq. m.), and of the lake of Zurich (4 sq. m.), and several small lakes 
wholly within its limits. Hilly in its N. region, the height gradually 
increases towards the S. border, while to its S. W. and E. extend 
considerable alluvial plains on the banks of the Linth and of the 
Rhine. The two rivers just named form in part its frontiers, the 
principal stream within the canton being the Thur (as regards its 
upper course), with the middle reach of its principal affluent, the 
Sitter, both forming part of the Rhine basin. It has ports on the 
lake of Constance (Rorschach) and of Zurich (Rapperswil), as well as 
Weesen and Walenstadt on the Walensee, while the watering place 
of Ragatz (q.v.) is supplied with hot mineral waters from Pfafers. 
The main railway lines from Zurich past Sargans for Coire, and from 
Sargans past Altstatten and Rorschach for Constance.skirtits borders, 
while the capital is on the direct railway line from Zurich past Wil 
to Rorschach, and communicates by rail with Appenzell and with 
Frauenfeld. In 1900 the population of the canton was 250,285, 
of whom 243,358 were German-speaking, 5300 Italian-speaking and 
710 French-speaking, while there were 150,412 " Catholics " (whether 


Roman or " Old "), 99,114 Protestants and 556 Jews (mostly in the 1 extensive collection of embroideries of all ages and dates. There 

town of St Gall). Its capital is St Gall, the other most populous places 
being Tablat (pop. 12,590), Rorschach (914°). Altstatten (8724), 
Straubenzell (8090), Gossau (6055) and Wattwil (4971). In the 
southern and more Alpine portion of the canton the inhabitants 
mainly follow pastoral pursuits. In 1896 the number of " alps " or 
mountain pastures in the canton amounted to 304, capable of sup- 
porting 21,744 cows, and of an estimated total value of nearly 14 
million francs. In the central and northern regions agriculture is 
generally combined with manufactures. 

The canton is one of the most industrial in Switzerland. Cotton- 
spinning is widely spread, though cloth-weaving has declined. But 
the characteristic industry is the manufacture, mostly by machines, 
of muslin, embroidery and lace. It is reckoned that the value of 
the embroideries and lace exported from the canton amounts to 
about one-seventh of the total value of the exports from Switzerland. 
The canton is divided into fifteen administrative districts, which 
comprise ninety-three communes. 

The existing constitution dates from 1890. The legislature or 
Grossrat is elected by the communes, each commune of 1500 
inhabitants or less having a right to one member, and as many 
more as the divisor 1 500, or fraction.over 7 50, justifies. Members 
hold office for three years. For the election of the seven members 
of the executive or Regierungsrat, who also hold office for three 
years, all the communes form a single electoral circle. The two 
members of the federal Standerat are named by the legislature, 
while the thirteen members of the federal Nationalrat are chosen 
by a popular vote. The right of " facultative referendum " or of 
" initiative " as to legislative projects belongs to any 4000 
citizens, but in case of the revision of the cantonal constitution 
10,000 must sign the demand. The canton of St Gall was 
formed in 1803 and was augmented by many districts that had 
belonged since 1798 to the canton Linth or Glarus — the upper 
Toggenburg, Sargans (held since 1483 by the Swiss), Gaster and 
Uznach (belonging since 1438 to Schwyz and Glarus), Gams 
(since 1497 the property of the same two members), Werdenberg 
(owned by Glarus since 1517), Sax (bought by Zurich in 1615), 
and Rapperswil (since 171 2 under the protection of Zurich, 
Bern and Glarus). 

Authorities. — I. von Arx, Geschichte d. Kant. St Gall (3 vols., 
1810-1813); G. J. Baumgartner, Geschichte d. schweiz. Freistaates u. 
Kant. St Gall (3 vols., Zurich and Stuttgart, 1868-1890); H. Fehr, 
Stoat u. Kirche in St Gall (1899); W. Gotzinger, Die romanischen 
Namen d. Kant. St Gall (1891); O. Henne am Rhyn, Geschichte d. 
Kant. St Gall von 1861 (1896); Der Kanton St Gall, 1803-1(103 
(1903); J- Kuoni, Sagen des Kantons St Gotten (St Gall, 1903); 
St Gallische Geschichtsquellen, edited by G. Meyer von Kronau; 
Mitteilungen z. vaterldndischen Geschichte (publ. by the Cantonal Hist. 
Soc, from 1861); Th. Schlatter, Romanische Volksnamen und 
Verwandtes (St Gall, 1903); T. Schneider, Die Alpwirtschaft im 
Kanton St Gall (Soleure, 1896) ; A. Steinmann, Die ostschweizerische 
Slickerei-Industrie (Zurich, 1905) ; Urkundenbuch d. AJbtei St Gall, 
edited by H. Wartmann; H. Wartmann, " Die geschichtliche 
Entwickelung d. Stadt St Gall bis 1454 " (article in vol. xvi., 1868, 
of the Archiv f. Schweizer Geschichte), and Franz Weidmann, 
Geschichte d. Stiffs u. Landschaft St Gall (1834). (W. A. B. C.) 

ST GALL, capital of the Swiss canton of that name, is situated 
in the upland valley of the Steinach, 2195 ft. above the sea-level. 
It is by rail 9 m. S.W. of Rorschach, its port on the lake of 
Constance, and 53 m. E. of Zurich. The older or central portion 
of the town retains the air of a small rural capital, but the newer 
quarters present the aspect of a modern commercial centre. 
At either extremity considerable suburbs merge in the neighbour- 
ing towns of Tablat and of Straubenzell. Its chief building is 
the abbey church of the celebrated old monastery. This has been 
a cathedral church since 1846. In its present form it was con- 
structed in 1756-1765. The famous library is housed in the 
former palace of the abbot, and is one of the most renowned in 
Europe by reason of its rich treasures of early MSS. and printed 
books. Other portions of the monastic buildings are used as the 
offices of the cantonal authorities, and contain the extensive 
archives both of this monastery and of that of Pfafers. The 
ancient churches of St Magnus (Old Catholics) and of St Lawrence 
(Protestant) were restored in the 19th century. The town 
library, which is rich in Reformation and post-Reformation MSS. 
and books, is in the buildings of the cantonal school. The 
museum contains antiquarian, historical and natural history 

are a number of fine modern buildings, such as the Bourse. 
The town is the centre of the Swiss muslin, embroidery and lace 
trade. About 10,000 persons were in 1900 occupied in and near 
the town with the embroidery industry, and about 49,000 in the 
canton. Cold and fogs prevail in winter (though the town is 
protected against the north wind), but the heat in summer is 
rarely intense. In 1900 the population was 33,116 (having just 
doubled since 1870), of whom almost all were German-speaking, 
while the Protestants numbered 17,572, the Catholics (Roman 
or " Old ") 15,006 and the Jews 419. 

The town of St Gall owes its origin to St Gall, an Irish hermit, 
who in 614, built his cell in the thick forest which then covered 
the site of the future monastery, and lived there, with a few 
companions, till his death in 640. Many pilgrims later found 
their way to his cell, and about the middle of the 8th century the 
collection of hermits' dwellings was transformed into a regularly 
organized Benedictine monastery. For the next three centuries 
this was one of the chief seats of learning and education in 
Europe. About 954 the monastery and its buildings were 
surrounded by walls as a protection against the Saracens, and 
this was the origin of the town. The temporal powers of the 
abbots vastly increased, while in the 13th century the town 
obtained divers privileges from the emperor and from the abbot, 
who about 1205 became a prince of the Empire. In 1311 St 
Gall became a free imperial city, and about 1353 the gilds, 
headed by that of the cloth-weavers, obtained the control of the 
civic government, while in 141 5 it bought its liberty from the 
German king Sigismund. This growing independence did not 
please the abbot, who struggled long against it and his rebellious 
subjects in Appenzell, which formed the central portion of his 
dominions. After the victory of the Appenzellers at the battle 
of the Stoss (1405) they became (141 1) "allies" of the Swiss 
confederation, as did the town of St Gall a few months later, 
this connexion becoming an " everlasting " alliance in 1454, 
while in 1457 the town was finally freed from the abbot. The 
abbot, too, became (in 1451) the ally of Zurich, Lucerne, Schwyz 
and Glarus. In 1468 he bought the county of the Toggenburg 
from the representatives of its counts, a family which had died 
out in 1436, and in 1487 built a monastery above Rorschach 
as a place of refuge against the turbulent citizens, who, however, 
destroyed it in 1489. The Swiss intervened to protect the abbot, 
who (1490) concluded an alliance with them which'reduced his 
position almost to that of a " subject district." The townsmen 
adopted the Reformation in 1524, and this new cause of difference 
further envenomed their relations with the abbots. Both abbot 
and town were admitted regularly to the Swiss diet, occupying 
a higher position than the rest of the " allies " save Bienne, which 
was on the same footing. But neither succeeded in its attempts 
to be received a full member of the Confederation, the abbot 
being too much like a petty monarch and at the same time a kind 
of " subject " already, while the town could not help much in 
the way of soldiers. In 1798 and finally in 1805 the abbey was 
secularized, while out of its dominions (save the Upper Toggen- 
burg, but with the Altstatten district, held since 1490 by the 
Swiss) and those of the town the canton Santis was formed, with 
St Gall as capital. (W. A. B. C.) 

SAINT-GAUDENS, AUGUSTUS (1848-1907), American 
sculptor, was born in Dublin, Ireland, of a French father (a 
shoemaker by trade), and an Irish mother, Mary McGuinness, 
on the 1 st of March 1848, and was taken to America in infancy. 
He was apprenticed to a cameo-cutter, studying in the schools 
of the Cooper Union (1861) and the National Academy of Design, 
New York (1865-1866). His earliest work in sculpture was a 
bronze bust (1867) of his father, Bernard P. E- Saint-Gaudens. 
In 1868 he went to Paris and became a pupil of Jouffroy] in the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Two years later, with his fellow-student 
Mercie, he went to Italy, where he spent three years. At Rome 
he executed his statues " Hiawatha " and " Silence." He then 
settled in New York. In 1874 he-made a bust of the statesman, 
William M. Evarts, and was commissioned to execute a large 
collections, while the new museum of industrial art has an I relief for St Thomas's Church, New York, which brought him 


into prominence. His statue of Admiral Farragut, Madison 
Square, New York, was commissioned in 1878, exhibited at the 
Paris Salon in 1880 and completed in 188 1. It immediately 
brought the sculptor widespread fame, which was increased by 
his statue of Lincoln (unveiled 1887), for Lincoln Park, Chicago. 
In Springfield, Mass., is his " Deacon Chapin," known as " The 
Puritan." His figure of " Grief " (also known as " Death " and 
" The Peace of God ") for the Adams (Mrs Henry Adams) 
Memorial, in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C., has been 
described as " an idealization complete and absolute, the render- 
ing of a simple, natural fact — a woman in grief— yet with such 
deep and embracing comprehension that the individual is 
magnified into a type." His Shaw Memorial in Boston, a 
monument to Robert G. Shaw, colonel of a negro regiment in the 
Civil War, was undertaken in 1884 and completed in 1897; it is a 
relief in bronze, n ft. by 15, containing many figures of soldiers, 
led by their young officer on horseback, a female figure in the 
clouds pointing onward. In 1903 was unveiled his equestrian 
statue (begun in 1892) to General Sherman, at 59th street and 
Fifth avenue, New York; preceding the Union commander is a 
winged figure of " Victory." This work, with others, formed a 
group at the Paris Exposition of 1900. A bronze copy of his 
" Amor Caritas " is in the Luxembourg, Paris. Among his other 
works are relief medallion portraits of Robert Louis Stevenson 
(in St Giles's Cathedral, Edinburgh) and the French painter 
Jules Bastien-Lepage; Garfield Memorial, Fairmount Park, 
Philadelphia; General Logan, Chicago; the Peter Cooper 
Memorial; and Charles Stewart Parnell in Dublin. Saint-Gaudens 
was made an officer of the Legion of Honour and corresponding 
member of the Institute of France. He died at Cornish, N.H., 
on the 3rd of August 1907. His monument of Phillips Brooks 
for Boston was left practically completed. Saint-Gaudens is 
rightly regarded as the greatest sculptor produced by America, 
and his work had a most powerful influence on art in the United 
States. In 1877 he married Augusta F. Homer and left a son, 
Homer Saint-Gaudens. His brother Louis (b. 1854), also a 
sculptor, assisted Augustus Saint-Gaudens in some of his works. 

See Royal Cortissoz, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1907) ;Lorado Taft, 
History of American Sculpture (1903), containing two chapters de- 
voted to Saint-Gaudens ; Kenyon Cox, Old Masters and New (1905) ; 
C. Lewis Hind, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1908). 

ST GAUDENS, a town of south-western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Haute-Garonne, 1 m. from 
the left bank of the Garonne, 57 m. S.S.W. of Toulouse, on the 
railway to Tarbes. Pop. (1906), town, 4535; commune, 7120. 
The church, once collegiate, dates chiefly from the nth and 12th 
centuries, but the main entrance is in the flamboyant Gothic 
style. The town has sawing-, oil- and flour-mills, manufactures 
woollen goods, and is a market for horses, sheep and agricultural 
produce. St Gaudens derives its name from a martyr of the 5th 
century, at whose tomb a college of canons was afterwards 
established. It was important as capital of the Nebouzan, as the 
residence of the bishops of Comminges and for its cloth industry. 

SAINT-GELAIS, MELIN DE (1487-1558), French poet, was 
born at Angouleme on the 3rd of November 1487. He was the 
natural son of Octavien de St Gelais (1466-1502), afterwards 
bishop of Angouleme, himself a poet who had translated the 
Aeneid into French. Melin, who had studied at Bologna and 
Padua, had the reputation of being doctor, astrologer and 
musician as well as poet. He returned to France in 1515, and 
soon gained favour at the court of Francis I. by his skill in light 
verse. He was made almoner to the Dauphin, abbot of Reclus 
in the diocese of Troyes and librarian to the king at Fontaine- 
bleau. He enjoyed immense popularity until the appearance of 
Du Bellay's Defense et illustration ... in 1549, where St Gelais 
was not excepted from the scorn poured on contemporary poets. 
He attempted to ridicule the innovators by reading aloud the 
Odes of Ronsard with burlesque emphasis before Henry II., 
when the king's sister, Margaret of Valois, seized the book and 
read them herself. Ronsard accepted Saint-Gelais's apology 
for this incident, but Du Bellay satirized the offender in the 
Poete courtisan. In 1554 he collaborated, perhaps with Francois 

Habert (1520-1574?), in a translation of the Sopkomsbe of 
Trissino which was represented (1554) before Catherine de 
Medicis at Blois. Saint-Gelais was the champion of the style 
marotique and the earliest of French sonneteers. He died in 1558 
His CEuvres were edited in 1873 (3 vols., Bibl. elzevirienne) by 
Prosper Blanchemain. 

1875), French dramatist, was born in Paris on the 7th of 
November 1799. Saint-Louis ou les deux diners (1823), a 
vaudeville written in collaboration with Alexandre Tardif, 
was followed by a series of operas and ballets. In 1829 he 
became manager of the Opera Comique. Among his more 
famous libretti are: Le Val d'Andorre (1848) for Halevy, and 
La Fille du r&giment (1840) for Donizetti. He wrote some fifty 
pieces in collaboration with Eugene Scribe, Adolphe de Leuven, or 
Joseph Mazillier, and a great number in collaboration with other 
authors. Among his novels may be mentioned Un Manage de 
prince. Saint-Georges died in Paris on the 23rd of December 1875. 

SAINT-GERMAIN, Comte de (c. 1710-c. 1780) called der 
Wundermann, a celebrated adventurer who by the assertion of 
his discovery of some extraordinary secrets of nature exercised 
considerable influence at several European courts. Of his 
parentage and place of birth nothing is definitely known; the 
common version is that he was a Portuguese Jew, but various 
surmises have been made as to his being of royal birth. It was 
also stated that he obtained his money, of which he had abun- 
dance, from acting as spy to one of the European courts. But this 
is hard to maintain. He knew nearly all the European languages, 
and spoke German, English, Italian, French (with a Piedmontese 
accent), Portuguese and Spanish. Grimm affirms him to have been 
the man of the best parts he had ever known. He was a musical 
composer and a capable violinist. His knowledge of history was 
comprehensive, and his accomplishments as a chemist, on which 
be based his reputation, were in many ways real and considerable. 
He pretended to have a secret for removing flaws from diamonds, 
and to be able to transmute metals. The most remarkable of 
his professed discoveries was of a liquid which could prolong 
life, and by which he asserted he had himself lived 2000 years. 
After spending some time in Persia, Saint-Germain is mentioned 
in a letter of Horace Walpole's as being in London about 1743, 
and as being arrested as a Jacobite spy and released. Walpole 
says: " He is called an Italian, a Spaniard, a Pole; a somebody 
that married a great fortune in Mexico and ran away with her 
jewels to Constantinople; a priest, a fiddler, a vast nobleman." 
At the court of Louis XV., where he appeared about 1748, he 
exercised for a time extraordinary influence and was employed 
on secret missions by Louis XV.; but, having interfered in the 
dispute between Austria and France, he was compelled in June 
1760, on account of the hostility of the duke of Choiseul, to 
remove to England. He appears to have resided in London for 
one or two years, but was at St Petersburg in 1762, and is 
asserted to have played an important part in connexion with the 
conspiracy against the emperor Peter III. in July of that year, 
a plot which placed Catherine II. on the Russian throne. He 
then went to Germany, where, according to the Memoires 
authentiques of Cagliostro, he was the founder of freemasonry, 
and initiated Cagliostro into that rite. He was again in Paris 
from 1770 to 1774, and after frequenting several of the German 
courts he took up his residence in Schleswig-Holstein, where he 
and the Landgrave Charles of Hesse pursued together the study 
of the " secret " sciences. He died at Schleswig in or about 
1780-1785, although he is said to have been seen in Paris in 1789. 

Andrew Lang in his Historical Mysteries (1904) discusses the career 
of Saint-Germain, and cites the various authorities for it. Saint- 
Germain figures prominently in the correspondence of Grimm 
and of Voltaire. See also Oettinger, Graf Saint-German (1846); 
F. Bulau, Geheime Geschichten una rdthselhafte Menschen, Band i. 
(1850-1860); Lascelles Wraxall, Remarkable Adventures (1863); 
and U. Birch in the Nineteenth Century (January 1908). 

SAINT-GERMAIN, CLAUDE LOUIS, Comte de (1707-1778), 

French general, was born on the 15th of April 1707, at the 

Chateau of Vertamboz. Educated at Jesuit schools, he intended 

I to enter the priesthood, but at the last minute obtained from 


Louis XV. an appointment as sub-lieutenant. He left France, 
according to the gossip of the time, because of a duel; served 
under the elector palatine; fought for Hungary against the 
Turks, and on the outbreak of the war of the Austrian Succession 
(1740) joined the army of the elector of Bavaria (who later 
became emperor under the name of Charles VII.), displaying 
such bravery that he was promoted to the grade of lieutenant 
field-marshal. He left Bavaria on the death of Charles VII., 
and after brief service under Frederick the Great joined Marshal 
Saxe in the Netherlands and was created a field-marshal of the 
French army. He distinguished himself especially at Lawfeld, 
Rancoux and Maastricht. On the outbreak of the Seven Years' 
War (1756) he was appointed lieutenant-general, and although 
he showed greater ability than any of his fellow-commanders 
and was admired by his soldiers, he fell a victim to court intrigues, 
professional jealousy and hostile criticism. He resigned his 
commission in 1760 and accepted an appointment as field-marshal 
from Frederick V. of Denmark, being charged in 1762 with the 
reorganization of the Danish army. On the death of Frederick 
in 1766 he returned to France, bought a small estate in Alsace 
near Lauterbach, and devoted his time to religion and farming. 
A financial crisis swept away the funds that he had saved from 
his Danish service and rendered him dependent on the bounty of 
the French ministry of war. Saint-Germain was presented at 
court by the reformers Turgot and Malesherbes, and was ap- 
pointed minister of war by Louis XVI. on the 25th of October 
1775. He sought to lessen the number of officers and to establish 
order and regularity in the service. His efforts to introduce 
Prussian discipline in the French army brought on such opposition 
that he resigned in September 1777. He accepted quarters from 
the king and a pension of 40,000 livres, and died in his apartment 
at the arsenal on the 15th of January 1778. 

ST GERMAIN-EN-LA YE, a town of northern France, in the 
department of Seine-et-Oise, 13 m. W.N.W. of Paris by rail. 
Pop. (1906), town, 14,974; commune, 17,288. Built on a hill on 
the left bank of the Seine, nearly 300 ft. above the river, and on 
the edge of a forest 10,000 to 11,000 acres in extent, St Germain 
has a bracing climate, which makes it a place of summer residence 
for Parisians. The terrace of St Germain, constructed by 
A.Lenotre in 1672, is 15 m. long and 100 ft. wide; it was planted 
with lime trees in 1745 and affords an extensive view over the 
valley of the Seine as far as Paris and the surrounding hills: it 
ranks as one of the finest promenades in Europe. 

A monastery in honour of St Germain, bishop of Paris, was built 
in the forest of Laye by King Robert. Louis VI. erected a castle 
close by. Burned by the English, rebuilt by Louis IX., and again 
by Charles V., this castle did not reach its full development till 
the time of Francis I., who may be regarded as the real founder 
of the building. A new castle was begun by Henry II. and completed 
by Henry IV. ; it was subsequently demolished, with the exception 
of the so-called Henry IV. pavilion, where Thiers died in 1877. The 
old castle has been restored to the state in which it was under 
Francis I. The restoration is particularly skilful in the case of the 
chapel, which dates from the first half of the 13th century. In 
the church of St Germain is a mausoleum erected by George IV. 
of England (and restored by Queen Victoria) to the memory 
of James II. of England, who after his deposition resided in the 
castle for twelve years and died there in 1701. In one of the 
public squares is a statue of Thiers. At no great distance in the 
forest is the Couvent des Loges, a branch of the educational establish- 
ment of the Legion of Honour (St Denis). The fSte des Loges (end 
of August and beginning of September) is one of the most popular 
in the neighbourhood of Paris. 

ST GERMANS, a small town in the Bodmin parliamentary divi- 
sion of Cornwall, England, pleasantly situated on the river Lynher, 
9 § m. W. by N. of Plymouth by the Great Western railway. Pop. 
(1901) 2384. It contains a fine church dedicated to St Germanus. 
The west front is flanked by towers both of which are Norman in 
the lower parts, the upper part being in the one Early English and 
in the othei Perpendicular. The front itself is wholly Norman, 
having three windows above a porch with a beautiful ornate door- 
way. Some Norman work remains in the body of the church, 
but the most part is Perpendicular or Decorated. Port Eliot, a 
neighbouring mansion, contains an excellent collection of pictures, 
notably several works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

St Germans is supposed to have been the original seat of the 
Cornish bishopric. It was the see of Bishop Burhwold, who 
died in 1027. Under Leofric, who became bishop of Crediton 
and Cornwall in 1046, the see was removed to Exeter. Bishop 
Leofric founded a priory at St Germans and bestowed upon it 
twelve of the twenty-four hides which in the time of the Confessor 
constituted the bishops' manor of St Germans. There was then 
a market on Sundays, but at the time of the Domesday Survey 
this had been reduced to nothing owing to a market established 
by the count of Mortain on the same day at Trematon castle. In 
1302 the gr^nt of infangenethef, assize of bread and ale, waif and 
stray by Henry III. was confirmed to the bishop, who in 131 1 
obtained a further grant of a market on Fridays and a fair at the 
feast of St Peter ad Vincula. In 1343 the prior sustained his 
claim to a prescriptive market and fair at St Germans. After 
the suppression the borough belonging to the priory remained 
with the crown until 16 10. Meanwhile Queen Elizabeth created 
it a parliamentary borough. From 1563 to 1832 it returned two 
members to the House of Commons. In 1815 John Eliot was 
created earl of St Germans, and in 1905 the first suffragan 
bishop of Truro was consecrated bishop of St Germans. 

ST GILLES, a town of southern France, in the department of 
Gard, on the canal from the Rhone to Cette, 12J m. S.S.E. of 
Nimes by road. Pop. (1906) 5292. In the middle ages St Gilles, 
the ancient Vallis Flaviana, was the seat of an abbey founded 
towards the end of the 7th century by St Aegidius (St Gilles). It 
acquired wealth and power under the counts of Toulouse, who 
added to their title that of counts of St Gilles. The church, 
which survives, was founded in n 16 when the abbey was at 
the height of its prosperity. The lower part of the front (12th 
century) has three bays decorated with columns and bas-reliefs, 
and is the richest example of Romanesque art in Provence. 
The rest of the church is unfinished, only the crypt (1 2th century) 
and part of the choir, containing a spiral staircase, being of 
interest. Besides the church there is a Romanesque house 
serving as presbytery. The decadence of the abbey dates from 
the early years of the 13th century when the pilgrimage to the 
tomb of the saint became less popular; the monks also lost the 
patronage of the counts of Toulouse, owing to the penance 
inflicted by them on Raymond VI. in 1 209 for the murder of the 
papal legate Pierre de Castelnau. St Gilles was the seat of the 
first grand priory of the Knights Hospitallers in Europe (12th 
century) and was of special importance as their place of embarka- 
tion for the East. In 1226 the countship of St Gilles was united 
to the crown. In 1562 the Protestants ravaged the abbey, which 
they occupied till 1622, and in 1774 it was suppressed. 

ST GIRONS, a town of south-western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Ariege, 29 m. W. of Foix 
by rail. Pop. (1906) 5216. The town is situated on the Salat at 
the foot of the Pyrenees. There are mineral springs at Audinac 
in the vicinity, and the watering-place of Aulus, about 20 m. to 
the S.S.E., is reached by road from St Girons. St Lizier-de- 
Couserans (g.v.),nn ancient episcopal town, is 1 m. N.N.W. 

ST GOAR, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, 
on the left bank of the Rhine, opposite St Goarshausen and just 
below the famous Lorelei, 12 m. above Boppard by the railway 
from Coblenz to Mainz. Pop. (1905) 1475. It is in part sur- 
rounded by the ruins of its old walls, and contains an Evangelical 
church, with some Renaissance monuments, and a Roman 
Catholic church with an image of St Goar of Aquitania, around 
whose chapel the place originally arose. Below the town, high 
on an eminence above the Rhine, stands Schloss Rheinfels, the 
property of the king of Prussia, the most perfect of the feudal 
castles on the banks of the river. In the later middle ages St 
Goar was the capital of the county of Katzenelnbogen, and on 
the extinction of this family it passed to Hesse- Cassel. It came 
into the possession of Prussia in 181 5. 

ST GOTTHARD PASS, the principal route from northern 
Europe to Italy. It takes its name (it is not known wherefore) 
from St Gotthard, bishop of Hildesheim (d. 1038), but does 
not seem to be mentioned before the early 13th century, perhaps 
because the access to it lies through two very narrow Alpine 


valleys, much exposed to avalanches. The hospice on the 
summit is first mentioned in 1331, and from 1683 onwards was 
in charge of two Capuchin friars. But in 1775 the buildings 
near it were damaged by an avalanche, while in 1799-1800 
everything was destroyed by the French soldiery. Rebuilt 
in 1834, the hospice was burnt in March 1905. The mule path 
(dating from about 1293) across the pass served for many 
centuries, for though Mr Greville, in 1775, succeeded in taking 
a light carriage across, the carriage-road was only constructed 
between 1820 and 1830. Now the pass is deserted in favour of 
the great tunnel (pierced in 187 2-1880, 91 m. in length, and 
attaining a height of 3786 ft.), through which runs the railway 
(opened in 1882) from Lucerne to Milan (1755 m.), one of the 
greatest engineering feats of the 19th century. It runs mainly 
along the eastern shore of the Lake of Lucerne, from Lucerne 
to Fliielen (32J m.), and then up the Reuss valley past Altdorf 
and Wassen, near which is the first of the famous spiral tunnels, 
to Goeschenen (56 m. from Lucerne). Here the line leaves the 
Reuss valley to pass through the tunnel and so gain, at Airolo, 
the valley of the Ticino or the Val Leventina, which it descends, 
through several spiral tunnels, till at Biasca (38 m. from 
Goeschenen) it reaches more level ground. Thence it runs past 
Bellinzona to Lugano (305 m. from Biasca) and reaches Italian 
territory at Chiasso, 35 m. from Milan. In 1909 the Swiss 
government exercised the right accorded to it by the agreement 
of 1879 of buying the St Gotthard Railway from the company 
which built it within thirty years of that date. (W. A. B.C.) 

ST HELENA, an island and British possession in the South 
Atlantic in 15 55' 26" S., 5° 42' 30" W. (Ladder Hill Observatory). 
It lies 700 m. S.E. of the island of Ascension (the nearest land), 
1200 m. W. of Mossamedes (the nearest African port), 1695 N.W. 
of Cape Town, and is distant from Southampton 4477 m. It 
has an area of about 47 sq. m., the extreme length from S.W. 
to N.E. being ioj m. and the extreme breadth 8J. The island 
is of volcanic formation, but greatly changed by oceanic abrasion 
and atmospheric denudation. Its principal feature, a semi- 
circular ridge of mountains, open towards the south-east and 
south, with the culminating summit of Diana's Peak (2704 ft.) 
is the northern rim of a great crater; the southern rim has 
disappeared, though its debris apparently keeps the sea shallow 
(from 20 to 50 fathoms) for some 2 m. S.E. of Sandy Bay, which 
hypothetically forms the centre of the ring. From the crater 
wall outwards water-cut gorges stretch in all directions, widening 
as they approach the sea into valleys, some of which are 1000 ft. 
deep, and measure one-eighth of a mile across at bottom and 
three-eighths across the top (Melliss). These valleys contain 
small streams, but the island has no rivers properly so called. 
Springs of pure water are, however, abundant. Along the enclosing 
hillsides caves have been formed by the washing out of the softer 
rocks. Basalts, andesites and phonolites, represent the chief 
flows. Many dikes and masses of basaltic rock seem to have been 
injected subsequently to the last volcanic eruptions from the 
central crater. The Ass's Ears and Lot's Wife, picturesque 
pinnacles standing out on the S.E. part of the crater ridge, and 
the Chimney on the coast south of Sandy Bay, are formed out 
of such injected dikes and masses. In the neighbourhood of 
Man and Horse (S.W. corner of the island), throughout an 
area of about -40 acres, scarcely 50 sq. yds. exist not crossed by a 
dyke. On the leeward (northern) side of St Helena the sea-face 
is generally formed by cliffs from 600 to 1000 ft. high, and on 
the windward side these heights rise to about 2000 ft., as at 
Holdfast Tom, Stone Top and Oid Joan Point. The only 
practicable landing-place is on the leeward side at St James's 
Bay — an open roadstead. From the head of the bay a narrow 
valley extends for ij m. The greatest extent of level ground 
is in the N.E. of the island, where are the Deadwood and Long- 
wood plains, over 1700 ft. above the sea. 

Climate. — Although it lies within the tropics the climate of the 
island is healthy and temperate. This is due to the south-east 
trade- wind, constant throughout the year, and to the effect of the 
cold waters of the South Atlantic current. As a result the tempera- 
ture varies little, ranging on the sea level from 68° to 84° in summer 
and 57° to 70° in winter. The higher regions are about 10 cooler. The 

rainfall varies considerably, being from 30 to 50 in. a year in the 

Flora. — St Helena is divided into three vegetation zones: (1) 
the coast zone, extending inland for I m. to if m., formerly clothed 
with a luxuriant vegetation, but now " dry, barren, soilless, lichen- 
coated, and rocky," with little save prickly pears, wire grass and 
Mesembryanthemum; (2) the middle zone (400-1800 ft.), extending 
about three-quarters of a mile inland, with shallower valleys and 
grassier slopes — the English broom and gorse, brambles, willows, 
poplars, Scotch pines, &c, being the prevailing forms; and (3) the 
central zone, about 3 m. long and 2 m. wide, the home, for the most 
part, of the indigenous flora. According to W. B. Hemsley (in his 
report on the botany of the Atlantic Islands), 1 the certainly in- 
digenous species of plants are 65, the probably indigenous 24 and 
the doubtfully indigenous 5 ; total 94. Of the 38 flowering plants 
20 are shrubs or small trees. With the exception of Scirpus nodosus, 
all the 38 are peculiar to the island; and the same is true of 12 of 
the 27 vascular cryptogams (a remarkable proportion). Since the 
flora began to be studied, two species — Melhania melanoxylon and 
Acalypha rubra — are known to have become extinct; and at least 
two others have probably shared the same fate — Heliotropium 
pennifolium and Demazeria obliterata. Melhania melanoxylon, or 
" native ebony," once abounded in parts of the island now barren; 
but the young trees were allowed to be destroyed by the goats of the 
early settlers, and it is now extinct. Its beautiful congener Melhania 
erythroxylon (" redwood ") was still tolerably plentiful in 1810, but 
is now reduced to a few specimens. Very rare, too, has become 
Pelargonium cotyledonis, called " Old Father Live-for-ever," from 
its retaining vitality for months without soil or water. Commi- 
dendron robustum (" gumwood "), a tree about 20 ft. high, once the 
most abundant in the island, was represented in 1868 by about 1300 
or 1400 examples; and Commidendron rugosum (" scrubwood ") is. 
confined to somewhat limited regions. Both these plants are char- 
acterized by a daisy- or aster-like blossom. The affinities of the 
indigenous flora of St Helena were described by Sir Joseph Hooker 
as African, but George Bentham points out that the Compositae 
shows, at least in its older forms, a connexion rather with South 
America. The exotic flora introduced from all parts of the world gives 
the island almost the aspect of a botanic garden. The oak, thoroughly 
naturalized, grows alongside of the bamboo and banana. Among 
other trees and plants are the common English gorse ; Rubus pinnatus, 
probably introduced from Africa about 1775; Hypochaeris radicata, 
which above 1500 ft. forms the dandelion of the country; the 
beautiful but aggressive Buddleia Madagascariensis ; Physalis peru- 
viana; the common castor-oil plant; and the pride of India. The 
peepul is the principal shade tree in Jamestown, and in Jamestown 
valley the date-palm grows freely. Orange and lemon trees, once 
common, are now scarce. 

Fauna. — St Helena possesses no indigenous vertebrate land fauna. 
The only land groups well represented are the beetles and the land 
shells. T. V. Wollaston, in Coleoptera Sanctae Helenae (1877), shows 
that out of a total list of 203 species of beetles 129 are probably 
aboriginal and 128 peculiar to the island — an individuality perhaps 
unequalled in the world. More than two-thirds are weevils and a 
vast majority wood-borers, a fact which bears out the tradition of 
forests having once covered the island. The Hemiptera and the 
land-shells also show a strong residuum ofpeculiar genera and species. 
A South American white ant (Termes tenuis, Hagen.), introduced 
from a slave-ship in 1840, soon became a plague at Jamestown, 
where it consumed a large part of the public library and the woodwork 
of many buildings, public and private. Practically everything had 
to be rebuilt with teak or cypress — the only woods the white ant 
cannot devour. Fortunately it cannot live in the higher parts of 
the island. The honey-bee, which throve for some time after its 
introduction, again died out (cf. A. R. Wa.iace,' Island Life, 1880). 
Besides domestic animals the only land mammals are rabbits, 
rats and mice, the rats being especially abundant and building 
their_ nests in the highest trees. Probably the only endemic land 
bird is the wire bird, Aegialitis sanctae Helenae; the averdevat, Java 
sparrow, cardinal, ground-dove, partridge (possibly the Indian 
chukar), pheasant and guinea-fowl are all common. The pea-fowl, 
at one time not uncommon in a wild state, is long since exterminated. 
There are no freshwater fish, beetles or shells. Of sixty-five species 
of sea-fish caught off the island seventeen are peculiar to St Helena; 
economically the more important kinds are gurnard.eel, cod, mackerel, 
tunny, bullseye, cavalley, flounder, hog-fish, mullet and skulpin. 

Inhabitants. — When discovered the island was uninhabited. 
The majority of the population are of mixed European (British, 
Dutch, Portuguese), East Indian and African descent— the 
Asiatic strain perhaps predominating; the majority of the 
early settlers having been previously members of the crews of 
ships returning to Europe from the East. From 1840 onward 
for a considerable period numbers of freed slaves of West African 
origin were settled here by men-of-war engaged in suppressing 
the slave trade. Their descendants form a distinct element 

1 In the "Challenger" expedition reports, Botany, vol. i. (1885). 



in the population. Since the substitution of steamships for ' 
sailing vessels and the introduction of new methods of preserving 
meat and vegetables (which made it unnecessary for sailing vessels 
to take fresh provisions from St Helena to avoid scurvy) the 
population has greatly diminished. In 1871 there were 6444 
inhabitants; in 1909 the civil population was estimated at 3553. 
The death-rate that year, 6-4 per 1000, was the lowest on record 
in the island. The only town, in which live more than half the 
total population, is Jamestown. Longwood, where Napoleon 
died in 1821, is 3^ m. E. by S. of Jamestown. In 1858 the 
house in which he lived and died was presented by Queen 
Victoria to Napoleon III., who had it restored to the con- 
dition, but unfurnished, in which it was at the time of Bona- 
parte's death. 

Agriculture, Industries, &fc. — Less than a third of the area of the 
island is suitable for farming, while much of the area which might be 
(and formerly was) devoted to raising crops is under grass. The 
principal crop is potatoes, which are of very good quality. They 
were chiefly sold to ships — especially to " passing " ships. They 
are now occasionally exported to the Cape. Cattle and sheep were 
raised in large numbers when a garrison was maintained, so that 
difficulty has been found in disposing of surplus stock now that the 
troops have been withdrawn. The economic conditions which 
formerly prevailed were entirely altered by the substitution of 
steamers for sailing vessels, which caused a great decrease in the 
number' of ships calling at Jamestown. A remedy was sought 
in the establishment of industries. An attempt made in 1860-1872 
to cultivate cinchona proved unsuccessful. Attention was also 
turned to the aloe (Furcraea gigantea), which grows wild at mid 
elevations, and the New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax), an intro- 
duced plant, for their utilization in the manufacture of fibre. From 
1875 to 1 88 1 a company ran a mill at which they turned out both 
aloe and flax fibre, but the enterprise proved unremunerative. In 
1907 the government, aided by a grant of £4070 from the imperial 
exchequer, started a mill at Longwood for the manufacture of 
phormium fibre, with encouraging results. Fish curing and lace 
making are also carried on to some extent. 

Trade is chiefly dependent upon the few ships that call at James- 
town — now mostly whalers or vessels in distress. There is also some 
trade with ships that " pass " without " calling." 1 In thirty years 
(1877-1907) the number of ships " calling " at the port sank from 
664 with 449,724 tonnage to 57 with 149,182 tonnage. In the last- 
named year the imports were valued at £35,614; the exports (ex- 
cluding specie) at £1787 — but the goods supplied to " passing " 
vessels do not figure in these returns. In 1908 fibre and tow (valued 
at £3557) were added to the exports, and in 1909 a good trade was 
done with Ascension in sheep. St Helena is in direct telegraphic 
communication with Europe and South Africa, and there is a regular 
monthly mail steamship service. 

Government, Revenue, &c. — St Helena is a Crown colony. The 
island has never had any form of local legislative chamber, but the 
governor (who also acts as chief justice) is aided by an executive 
council. The governor alone makes laws, called ordinances, but 
legislation can also be effected by the Crown by order in council. 
The revenue, £10,287 in 1905, had fallen in 1909 to £8778 (including 
a grant in aid of £2500), the expenditure in each of the five years 
( 1 905-1 909) being in excess of the revenue. Elementary education 
is provided in government and private schools. St Helena is the seat 
of an Anglican bishopric established in 1859. Ascension and Tristan 
da Cunha are included in the diocese. 

History. — The island was discovered on the 21st of May 1502 
by the Portuguese navigator Joao de Nova, on his voyage 
home from India, and by him named St Helena. The 
Portuguese found it uninhabited, imported live stock, fruit- 
trees and vegetables, built a chapel and one or two houses, and 
left their sick there to be taken home, if recovered, by the next 
ship, but they formed no permanent settlement. Its first known 
permanent resident was Fernando Lopez, a Portuguese in India, 
who had turned traitor and had been mutilated by order of 
Albuquerque. He preferred being marooned to returning to 
Portugal in his maimed condition, and was landed at St Helena 
in 1 5 13 with three or four negro slaves. By royal command he 
visited Portugal some time later, but returned to St Helena, 
where he died in 1546. In 1584 two Japanese ambassadors to 
Rome landed at the island. The first Englishman known to 
have visited it was Thomas Cavendish, who touched there in 
June 1 588 during his voyage round the world. Another English 

1 " Calling " ships are those which have been boarded by the 
harbour master and given pratique. Since 1886 boatmen are allowed 
to communicate with ships that have not obtained pratique, and 
these are known as " passing " ships. 

seaman, Captain Kendall, visited St Helena in 159 1, and in 1593 
Sir James Lancaster stopped at the island on his way home from 
the East. In 1603 the same commander again visited St Helena 
on his return from the first voyage equipped by the East India 
Company. The Portuguese had by this time given up calling 
at the island, which appears to have been occupied by the Dutch 
about 1645. The Dutch occupation was temporary and ceased 
in. 1651, the year before they founded Cape Town. The British 
East India Company appropriated the island immediately after 
the departure of the Dutch, and they were confirmed in possession 
by a clause in their charter of 166 1. The company built a fort 
(1658), named after the duke of York (James II.), and established 
a garrison in the island. In 1673 the Dutch succeeded in obtaining 
possession, but were ejected after a few months' occupation. 
Since that date St Helena has been in the undisturbed possession 
of Great Britain, though in 1706 two ships anchored off James- 
town were carried off by the French. In 1673 the Dutch had 
been expelled by the forces of the Crown, but by a new charter 
granted in December of the same year the East India Company 
were declared "the true and absolute lords and proprietors" 
of the island. At this time the inhabitants numbered about 
1000, of whom nearly half were negro slaves. In 1810 the 
company began the importation of Chinese from their factory 
at Canton. During the company's rule the island prospered, 
thousands of homeward-bound vessels anchored in the road- 
stead in a year, staying for considerable periods, refitting and 
revictualling. Large sums of money were thus expended in 
the island, where wealthy merchants and officials had their resi- 
dence. The plantations were worked by the slaves, who were 
subjected to very barbarous laws until 1792, when a new code 
of regulations ensured their humane treatment and prohibited 
the importation of any new slaves. Later it was enacted that all 
children of slaves born on or after Christmas Day 181 8 should 
be free, and between 1826 and 1836 all slaves were set at 

Among the governors appointed by the company to rule at 
St Helena was one of the Huguenot refugees, Captain Stephen 
Poirier (1697-1707), who attempted unsuccessfully to introduce 
the cultivation of the vine. A later governor (1 741-1742) was 
Robert Jenkin (q.v.) of " Jenkin's ear " fame. Dampier visited 
the island twice, in 1691 and 1701; Halley's Mount commemor- 
ates the visit paid by the astronomer Edmund Halley in 1676- 
r678 — the first of a number of scientific men who have pursued 
their studies on the island. 

In 1815 the British government selected St Helena as the place 
of detention of Napoleon Bonaparte. He was brought to the 
island in October of that year and lodged at Longwood, where 
he died in May 1821. During this period the island was strongly 
garrisoned by regular troops, and the governor, Sir Hudson 
Lowe, was nominated by the Crown. After Napoleon's death 
the East India Company resumed full control of St Helena 
until the 22nd of April 1834, on which date it was in virtue of 
an act passed in 1833 vested in the Crown. As a port of call 
the island continued to enjoy a fair measure of prosperity until 
about 1870. Since that date the great decrease in the number 
of vessels visiting Jamestown has deprived the islanders of their 
principal means of subsistence. When steamers began to be 
substituted for sailing vessels and when the Suez Canal was 
opened (in 1869) fewer ships passed the island, while of those 
that still pass the greater number are so well found that it is 
unnecessary for them to call (see also § Inhabitants). The with- 
drawal in 1906 of the small garrison, hitherto maintained by 
the imperial government, was another cause of depression. 
During the Anglo-Boer war of 1899-1902 some thousands of 
Boer prisoners were detained at St Helena, which has also served 
as the place of exile of several Zulu chiefs, including Dinizulu. 

Bibliography. — J. C. Melliss, St Helena: a Physical, Historical 
and Topographical Description of the Island, including its Geology, 
Fauna, Flora and Meteorology (London, 1875); E. L. Jackson, St 
Helena (London, 1903) ; T. H. Brooke, History of the Island of St 
Helena . . . to 1823 (2nd ed., London, 1824), in this book are cited 
many early accounts of the island; General A. Beatson (governor 
of the island 1808-1813), Tracts Relative to the Island of St Helena 


(London, 1816) ; Extracts from the St Helena Records from 1673 to 18$$ 
(compiled by H. R. Janisch, sometime governor of the island, James- 
town, 1885); Charles Darwin, Geological Observations on Volcanic 
Islands (1844). For a condensed general account consult (Sir) 
C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies (vol. Hi., 
West Africa, 2nd ed., Oxford, 1900). See also M. Danvers, Report 
on the Records of the India Office, vol. i. pt. i. (London, 1887); The 
Africa Pilot, pt. ii. (5th ed., 1901) ; Report on the Present Position 
and Prospects of the Agricultural Resources of the Island of St Helena, 
by (Sir) D. Morris (1884; reprinted 1906). (R. L. A.; F. R. C.) 

ST HELENS, a market town and municipal, county, and parlia- 
mentary borough of Lancashire, England, 14 m. E.N.E. from 
Liverpool, on the London & North- Western and Great Central 
railways. Pop. (1891) 72,413; (1901) 84,410. A canal com- 
municates with the Mersey. The town is wholly of modern 
development. Besides the town hall and other public buildings 
and institutions there may be mentioned the Gamble Institute, 
erected and presented by Sir David Gamble, Bart., for a technical 
school, educating some 2000 students, and library. Among 
several public pleasure grounds the principal are the Taylor 
Park of 48 acres, and the smaller Victoria and Thatto Heath 
Parks. This is the principal seat in England for the manufacture 
of crown, plate, and sheet glass; there are also art glass works, 
and extensive copper smelting and refining works, as well as 
chemical works, iron and brass foundries, potteries and patent 
medicine works. There are collieries in the neighbourhood. 
To the north of the town are a few ecclesiastical ruins, known 
as Windleshaw Abbey, together with a well called St Thomas' 
well, but the history of the foundation is not known. The 
parliamentary borough (1885) returns one member. The county 
borough was created in 1888. The town was incorporated in 
1868, and the corporation consists of a mayor, 9 aldermen 
and 27 councillors. Area 7285 acres. 

ST HELIER, the chief town of Jersey, the largest of the Channel 
Islands. Pop. (1901) 27,866. It lies on the south coast of the 
island on the eastern side of St Aubin's Bay. The harbour 
is flanked on the W. by a rocky ridge on which stands Elizabeth 
Castle, and commanded on the east by Fort Regent on its lofty 
promontory. The parish church is a cruciform building with 
embattled tower, dating in part from the 14th century. It 
contains a monument to Major Peirson, who on the occasion of 
a French attack on Jersey in 1781 headed the militia to oppose 
them, and forced them to surrender, but was killed as his followers 
were at the point of victory. The French leader, Baron de 
Rullecourt, is buried in the churchyard. The spot where 
Peirson fell, in what is now called Peirson Place, is marked by 
a tablet. A large canvas by John Singleton Copley depicting 
the scene is in the National Gallery, London, and a copy is 
in the court house of St Helier. This building (la Cohue), 
in Royal Square, is the meeting-place of the royal court and 
deliberative States of Jersey. Victoria College was opened 
in 1852 and commemorates a visit of Queen Victoria and the 
prince consort to the island in 1846. A house in Marine 
Terrace is distinguished as the residence of Victor Hugo (1851- 
1855). Elizabeth Castle, which is connected with the main- 
land by a causeway, dates from 1551-1590; and in 1646 and 
1649 Prince Charles resided here. In 1649 he was pro- 
claimed king, as Charles II., in Jersey by the royalist governor 
George Carteret. On actually coming to the throne he gave 
the island the mace which is still used at the meetings of the 
court and States. Close to the castle are remnants of a chapel 
or cell, from which the rock on which it stands is known as the 
Hermitage, dating probably from the 9th or 10th century, 
and traditionally connected with the patron saint Helerius. 

VEN$AL DE, commonly known as Atjguste de (1799-1853), 
French botanist and traveller, was born at Orleans on the 4th 
of October 1799. He began to publish memoirs on botanical 
subjects at an early age. In 1816-1822 and in 1830 he travelled 
in South America, especially in south and central Brazil, and the 
results of his study of the rich flora of the regions through which 
he passed appeared in several books and numerous articles in 
scientific journals. The works by which he is best known are 

the Flora Brasiliae Meridionaiis (3 vols., folio, with 192 coloured 
plates, 1825-1832), published in conjunction with A. de Jussieti.' 
and J. Cambessedes, Histoire des plantes les plus remarquables du 
Brisil et de Paraguay (1 vol. 4to, 30 plates, 1824), Plantes usuelles 
des Bresiliens (1 vol. 4to, 70 plates, 1827-1828), also in con- 
junction with De Jussieu and Cambessedes, and Voyage dans 
le district des diamants etsur le littoral du Bresil (2vols., 8vo, 1833). 
His Lecons de botanique, comprenant principalement la morphologie 
vtgitale (1840), was a comprehensive exposition of botanical 
morphology and of its application to systematic botany. He 
died at Orleans on the 30th of September 1853. 

ST HUBERT, a small town of Belgium in the province of 
Luxemburg and in the heart of the Ardennes. Pop. (1904) 
3204. It is famous for its abbey church containing the shrine 
of St Hubert, and for its annual pilgrimage. According to 
tradition the church and a monastery attached to it were founded 
in the 7th century by Plectrude, wife of Pippin of Herstal. The 
second church was built in the 12th century, but burnt by a 
French army under Conde in the 16th century. The present 
building is its successor, but has been restored in modern times 
and presents no special feature. The tomb of St Hubert— a 
marble sarcophagus ornamented with bas-reliefs and having four 
statuettes of other saints at the angles — stands in one of the side 
chapels. The legend of the conversion of St Hubert — a hunter 
before he was a saint — by his meeting in the forest a stag with 
a crucifix between its antlers, is well known, and explains how he 
became the patron saint of huntsmen. The place where he is 
supposed to have met the stag is still known as " la converserie " 
and is almost 5 m. from St Hubert on the road to La Roche. 
The pilgrimage of St Hubert in May attracts annually between 
thirty and fifty thousand pilgrims. The buildings of the old 
monastery have been utilized for a state training-school for 
waifs and strays, which contains on an average five hundred 
pupils. In the middle ages the abbey of St Hubert was one of 
the most important in Europe, owning forty villages with an 
annual income of over 80,000 crowns. During the French 
Revolution, when Belgium was divided into several departments, 
the possessions of the abbey were sold for £75,000, but the bishop 
of Namur was permitted to buy the church itself for £1350. 

ST HYACINTHE, a city and port of entry of Quebec, Canada, 
and capital of St Hyacinthe county, 32 m. E.N.E. of Montreal, 
on the left bank of the river Yamaska and on the Grand Trunk, 
Canadian Pacific, Intercolonial, and Quebec Southern railways. 
Pop. (1901) 9210. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, 
and contains a classical college, dairy school, two monasteries 
and several other educational and charitable institutions. It 
has manufactures of organs, leather, woollens and agricultural 
implements, and is an important distributing centre for the 
surrounding district. 

SAINTINE, JOSEPH XAVIER (1798-1865), French novelist 
and dramatist, whose real surname was Boniface, was born in 
Paris on the 10th of July 1798. In 1823 he produced a volume 
of poetry in the manner of the Romanticists, entitled Poemes, 
odes, ipitres. In 1836 appeared Picciola, the story of the comte 
de Charney, a political prisoner in Piedmont, whose reason was 
saved by his cult of a tiny flower growing between the paving 
stones of his prison yard. This story is a masterpiece of the 
sentimental kind, and has been translated into many European 
languages. He produced many other novels, none of striking 
individuality with the exception of Seul (1857), which purported 
to be the authentic record of Alexander Selkirk on his desert 
island. Saintine was a prolific dramatist, and collaborated in 
some hundred pieces with Scribe and others, usually under the 
name of Xavier. He died on the 21st of January 1865. 

ST INGBERT, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria 
on the Rohrbach, 14 m. by rail W. of Zweibriicken. Pop. (1905) 
15,521. It has coal-mines and manufactures of glass and 
machinery. There are also large iron and steel works in the 
town, and other industries are the making of powder, leather, 
cigars, soap and cotton. St Ingbert is named after the Irish 
saint, St Ingobert, and belonged for 300 years to the electorate 
of Trier. 



ST IVES, a market town, municipal borough and seaport in the 
St Ives parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 10 m. 
N.N.E. of Penzance, on a branch of the Great Western railway. 
Pop. (1901) 6699. It lies near the W. horn of St Ives Bay on 
the N. coast. The older streets near the harbour are narrow and 
irregular, but on the upper slopes there are modern terraces with 
good houses. The small harbour, protected by a breakwater, 
originally built by John Smeaton in 1767, has suffered from 
the accumulation of sand, and at the lowest tides is dry. 
The fisheries for pilchard, herring and mackerel are important. 
Boat-building and sail-making are carried on. An eminence south 
of the town is marked by a granite monument erected in 1782 
by John Knill, a native of the town, who intended to be buried 
here; to maintain a quinquennial celebration on the spot he 
bequeathed property to the town authorities. The borough is 
under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 1890 acres. 
The town takes name from St Hya, or la, an Irish virgin and 
martyr, who is said to have accompanied St Piran on his 
missionary journey to Cornwall in the 5th century, and to have 
landed near this place. The Patent Rolls disclose an almost 
continuous series of trials for piracy and plunder by St Ives 
sailors from the beginning of the 14th to the end of the 16th 
century. A mere chapelry of Lelant and the less important 
member of the distant manor of Ludgvan Leaze, which in 
Domesday Book appears as Luduam, it had no fostering hand 
to minister to its growth. In order to augment the influence of the 
Tudors in the House of Commons, Philip and Mary in 1558 
invested it with the privilege of returning 2 members. Its affairs 
were at that time administered by a headwarden, who after 
1598 appears under the name of portreeve, 12 chief burgesses 
and 24 ordinary burgesses. The portreeve was elected by the 
24; the 12 by the chief inhabitants. This body had control 
over the fishing, the harbour and harbour dues, the fabric of the 
church, sanitation and the poor. In 1639 a charter of incorpora- 
tion was granted under which the portreeve became mayor, the 
12 became aldermen, and the 24 were styled burgesses. Pro- 
vision was made for four fairs and for markets on Wednesdays 
and Saturdays, also for a grammar school. This charter was 
■surrendered to Charles II. and a new one granted in 1685, the 
latter reducing the number of aldermen to 10 and of burgesses 
also to 10. It ratified the parliamentary franchise and the fairs 
and markets, and provided a court of pie-powder; it also con- 
tained a clause safeguarding the rights of the marquess of 
Winchester, lord of the manor of Ludgvan Leaze and Porthia. 
In 1835 a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors were invested 
with the administration of the borough. In 1832 St Ives lost 
one of its members, and in 1885 the other. Both markets are 
now held, but only one of the fairs. This takes place on the 
Saturday nearest St Andrew's day. 

ST IVES, a market town and municipal borough in the northern 
parliamentary division of Huntingdonshire, England, mainly 
on the left (north) bank of the Ouse, 5 m. E. of Huntingdon by 
the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 2910. The river is 
crossed by an old bridge said to have been built by the abbots of 
Ramsey early in the 15th century. A building over the centre 
pier of the bridge was once 'used as a chapel. The causeway 
(1827) on the south side of the river is built on arches so as to 
assist the flow of the river in time of flood. The church of All 
Saints is Perpendicular, with earlier portions. A curious custom 
is practised annually in this church in connexion with a bequest 
made by a certain Dr Robert Wilde in 1678: it is the distribution 
of Bibles to six boys and six girls of the town. The original 
provision was that the Bibles should be cast for by dice on the 
Communion table. Oliver Cromwell was a resident in St Ives 
in 1634-1635, but the house which he inhabited — Slepe Hall — 
was demolished in the middle of the 19th century. St Ives has 
a considerable agricultural trade. It is governed by a mayor, 
4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area 2326 acres. 

The manor of " Slepe " is said to have been given by jEthelstan 
" Mannessune " to the abbot of Ramsey and confirmed to him 
by King Edgar. It owed its change of name to the supposed 
discovery of the grave of St Ive, a Persian bishop, in 1001, 

and a priory was founded in the same year by Abbot Ednoth as 
a cell to Ramsey. St Ives was chiefly noted for its fair, which 
was first granted to the abbot of Ramsey by Henry I. to be held 
on Monday in Easter week and eight days following. In the 
reign of Henry III. merchants from Flanders came to the fair, 
which had become so important that the king granted it to be 
continued beyond the eight days if the abbot agreed to pay a 
farm of £50 yearly for the extra days. The fair, with a market 
on Monday granted to the abbot in 1286, survives, and was 
purchased in 1874 by the corporation from the duke of 
Manchester. The town was incorporated in 1874. 

ST JEAN-D'ANG£LY, a town of western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Charente-Inferieure, 
33 m. E. of Rochefort by rail. Pop. (1006) 6242. St Jean lies 
on the right bank of the Boutonne, which is navigable for small 
vessels. The parish church of St Jean stands on the site of an 
abbey church of the 13th century, of which some remains are 
left. In 1568 the monastery was destroyed by the Huguenots, 
but much of it was rebuilt in the 17th and 18th centuries, to which 
period belong two towers and the facade of an unfinished church. 

St Jean owes the suffix of its name to the neighbouring forest of 
Ang6ry (Angeriacum) . Pippin I. of Aquitaine in the 9th century 
established there a Benedictine monastery which was afterwards 
reputed to possess the head of John the Baptist. This relic attracted 
hosts of pilgrims; a town grew up, took the name of St Jean d'Angeri, 
afterwards d'Ang&y, was fortified in 1131, and in 1204 received a 
charter from Philip Augustus. The possession of the place was 
disputed between French and English in the Hundred Years' War, 
and between Catholics and Protestants at a later date. In 1569 it 
capitulated to the duke of Anjou (afterwards Henry III.). Louis 
XIII. again took it from the Protestants in 1621 and deprived it of 
its privileges and its very name, which he changed to Bourg-Louis. 

ST JEAN-DE-LUZ, a coast town of south-western France, 
in the department of Basses-Pyrenees, at the mouth of the 
Nivelkj 14 m. S.W. of Bayonne on a branch of the Southern 
railway. Pop. (1906) 3424. St Jean-de-Luz is situated in the 
Basque country on the bay of St Jean-de-Luz, the entrance to 
which is protected by breakwaters and moles. It has a 13th- 
century church, the chief features of which are the galleries 
in the nave, which, according to the Basque custom, are reserved 
for men. The Maison Lohobiague, the Maison de l'lnfante 
(both 17th cent.), and the hotel de ville (1657) are picturesque 
old buildings. St Jean is well known for its bathing and as a 
winter resort. Fishing is a considerable industry. 

From the 14th to the 17th century St Jean-de-Luz enjoyed a 
prosperity due to its mariners and fishermen. Its vessels were the 
first to set out for Newfoundland in 1520. In 1558, owing to the 
depredations of its privateers, the Spaniards attacked and burned 
the town. In 1627, however, it was able to equip 80 vessels, which 
succeeded in saving the island of R6 from the duke of Buckingham. 
In 1660 the treaty of the Pyrenees was signed at St Jean-de-Luz, 
and was followed by the marriage there of the Infanta Maria Theresa 
and Louis XIV. At that time the population numbered 15,000. 
The cession of Newfoundland to England in 1713, the loss of Canada, 
and the silting-up of the harbour were the three causes which contri- 
buted to the decline of the town. 

English naturalist and sportsman, son of General the Hon. 
Frederick St John, second son of Frederick, second Viscount 
Bolingbroke, was born on the 3rd of December 1809. He was 
educated at Midhurst, Sussex, and about 1828 obtained a clerk- 
ship in the treasury, but resigned in 1834, in which year he 
married a lady with some fortune. He ultimately settled in 
the " Laigh " of Moray, " within easy distance of mountain 
sport." In 1853 a paralytic seizure deprived him of the use of his 
limbs, and for the benefit of his health he removed to the south of 
England. He died at Woolston, near Southampton, on the 
22nd of July 1856. His works are Wild Sports and Natural 
History of the Highlands (1846, 2nd ed. 1848, 3rd ed. 1861); 
Tour in Sutherland (1849, 2nd ed., with recollections by Captain 
H. St John, 1884); Notes of Natural History and Sport in 
Morayshire, with Memoir by C. Innes (1863, 2nd ed. 1884). They 
are written in a graphic style, and illustrated with engravings, 
many of them from clever pen-and-ink sketches of his own. 

ST JOHN, JAMES AUGUSTUS (1801-1875), British author 
and traveller, was born in Carmarthenshire, Wales, on the 24tl 



of September 1801. He received private instruction in the 
classics, and also acquired proficiency in French, Italian, Spanish, 
Arabic and Persian. He obtained a connexion with a Plymouth 
newspaper, and when, in 1824, James Silk Buckingham started 
the Oriental Herald, St John became assistant editor. In 1827, 
together with D. L. Richardson, he founded the London Weekly 
Review, subsequently purchased by Colburn and transformed 
into the Court Journal. He lived for some years on the Continent 
and went in 1832 to Egypt and Nubia, travelling mostly on 
foot. The results of his journey were published under the titles 
Egypt and Mohammed Alt, or Travels in the Valley of the Nile 
(2 vols., 1834), Egypt and Nubia (1844), and I sis, an Egyptian 
Pilgrimage (2 vols., 1853). On his return he settled in London, 
and for many years wrote political " leaders " for the Daily 
Telegraph. In 1868 he published a Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, 
based on researches in the archives at Madrid and elsewhere. 
He died in London on the 22nd of September 1875. 

Besides the works mentioned St John was also the author of 
Journal of a Residence in Normandy (1830) ; Lives of Celebrated 
Travellers (1830); Anatomy of Society (1831); History, Manners and 
Customs of the Hindus (1831); Margaret Ravenscroft, or Second Love 
(3 vols., 1835); The Hellenes, or Manners and Customs of Ancient 
Greece (1842); Sir Cosmo Digby, a novel (1844); There and Back 
Again in Search of Beauty (1853); The Nemesis of Power (1854); 
Philosophy at the Foot of the Cross (1854); The Preaching of Christ 
(1855) ; The Ring and the Veil, a novel (1856) ; Life of Louis Napoleon 
(1857); History of the Four Conquests of England (1862); and 
Weighed in the Balance, a novel (1864). He also edited, with notes, 
various English classics. 

Of his four sons, all journalists and authors of some literary dis- 
tinction — Percy Bolingbroke (1821-1889), Bayle, Spenser and 
Horace Roscoe (1 832-1 888) — the second, Bayle St John (1822- 
1869), began contributing to the periodicals when only thirteen. 
When twenty he wrote a series of papers for Fraser under the title 
" De re vehiculari, or a Comic History of Chariots." To the same 
magazine he contributed a series of essays on Montaigne, and 
published in 1857 Montaigne the Essayist, a Biography, in 4 volumes. 
During a residence of two years in Egypt he wrote The Libyan Desert 
(1849). While in Egypt he learnt Arabic and'visited the oasis of 
Siwa. On his return he settled for some time in Paris and published 
Two Years in a Levantine Family (1850) and Views in the Oasis of 
Siwah (1850). After a second visit to the East he published Village 
Life in Egypt (1852); Purple Tints of Paris: Characters and Manners 
in the New Empire (1854); The Louvre, or Biography of a Museum 
(1855); the Subalpine Kingdom, or Experiences ana Studies in 
Savoy (1856); Travels of an Arab Merchant in the Soudan (1854); 
Maretimo, a Story of Adventure (1856); and Memoirs of the Duke of 
Saint-Simon in the Reign of Louis XIV. (4 vols., 1857). 

ST JOHN, OLIVER (c. 1598-1673), English statesman and 
judge, was the son of Oliver St John. There were two branches 
of the ancient family to which he belonged, namely, the St Johns 
of Bletso in Bedfordshire, and the St Johns of Lydiard Tregoze 
in Wiltshire, both descendants of the St Johns of Staunton St 
John in Oxfordshire. Oliver St John was a member of the 
senior branch, being great-grandson of Oliver St John, who was 
created Baron St John of Bletso 1 in 1559, and a distant cousin 
of the 4th baron who was created earl of Bolingbroke in 1624, and 
who took an active part on the parliamentary side of the Civil 
W T ar, being killed at the battle of Edgehill. Oliver was educated 
at Queens' College, Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1626. 
He appears to have got into trouble with the court in connexion 
with a seditious publication, and to have associated himself with 
the future popular leaders John Pym and Lord Saye. In 1638 
he defended Hampden on his refusal to pay Ship Money, on 
which occasion he made a notable speech. In the same year he 
married, as his second wife, Elizabeth Cromwell, a cousin of 
Oliver Cromwell, to whom his first wife also had been distantly 
related. The marriage led to an intimate friendship with 
Cromwell. St John was member for Totnes in both the Short 
and the Long Parliament, where he acted in close alliance with 
Hampden and Pym, especially in opposition to the impost of Ship 
Money (q.v.). In 1641, with a view of securing his support, the 
king appointed St John solicitor-general. None the less he 

1 This title is still held by the family lineally descended from the 
1st baron, said by J. H. Round to be the only peerage family 
descended in the male line from an ancestor living in the time of 
Domesday Book. 

took an active part in promoting the impeachment of Strafford 
and in preparing the bills brought forward by the popular party 
in the Commons, and was dismissed from office in 1643. On the 
outbreak of the Civil War, he became recognized as one of the 
parliamentary leaders. In the quarrel between the parliament 
and the army in 1647 he sided with the latter, and throughout 
this period he enjoyed Cromwell's entire confidence. 

In 1648 St John was appointed chief justice of the common 
pleas; and from this time he devoted himself mainly to his 
judicial duties. He refused to act as one of the commissioners 
for the trial of Charles. He had no hand in Pride's Purge, nor 
in the constitution of the Commonwealth. In 1651 he went to 
the Hague as one of the envoys to negotiate a union between 
England and Holland, a mission in which he entirely failed; 
but in the same year he successfully conducted a similar negotia- 
tion with Scotland. After the Restoration he published an 
account of his past conduct (The Case of Oliver St John, 1660), 
and this apologia enabled him to escape any more severe 
vengeance than exclusion from public office. He retired to 
his country house in Northamptonshire till 1662, when he 
went to live abroad. He died on the 31st of December 1673. 

By his first wife St John had two sons and two daughters. 
His daughter Johanna married Sir Walter St John of Lydiard 
Tregoze and was the grandmother of Viscount Bolingbroke. 
By his second wife he had two children, and after her death he 
married, in 1645, Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel Oxenbridge. 

See the above-mentioned Case of Oliver St John (London, 1660), 
and St John's Speech to the Lords, Jan. 7th, 1640, concerning Ship- 
money (London, 1640). See also Mark Noble, Memoirs of the Pro- 
tectoral House of Cromwell, vol. ii. (2 vols., London, 1787) ; Anthony a 

Wood, Fasti OxonienSis, edited by P. Bliss (4 vols., London, 1813); 
Edward Foss, The Judges of England, (9 vols., London, 1848); 
S. R. Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War (3 vols., London, 1886- 

1891), and History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (3 vols., 
London, 1894-1901); Lord Clarendon, History of the Rebellion and 
Civil Wars in England (7 vols., Oxford, 1839) ; Thurloe State Papers 
(7 vols., London, 1742) ; Edmund Ludlow, Memoirs, edited by C. H. 
Firth (2 vols., Oxford, 1894); Thomas Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell's 
Letters and Speeches; C. H. Firth's art. in Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. 1. 
(London, 1897). (R. J. M.) 

ST JOHN, the capital of St John county, New Brunswick. 
Canada, in 45° 14' N., and 66° 3' W., 481 m. from Montreal by 
the Canadian Pacific railway. Pop. (1901) 40,711. It is situated 
at the mouth of the St John river on a rocky peninsula. With it 
are incorporated the neighbouring towns of Carleton and (since 
1889) Portland. The river, which is spanned by two bridges, 
enters the harbour through a rocky gorge, which is passable 
by ships for forty-five minutes during each ebb and flow of the 
tide. The harbour level at high tide (see Fundy, Bay op) is 
6 to 12 ft. higher than that of the river, but at low tide about as 
much below it, hence the phenomenon of a fall outwards and 
inwards at every tide. St John is an important station of the 
Intercolonial, Canadian Pacific, and New Brunswick Southern 
railways, and shares with Halifax the honour of being the chief 
winter port of the Dominion, the harbour being deep, sheltered 
and free from ice. It is the distributing centre for a large 
district, rich in agricultural produce and lumber, and has larger 
exports than Halifax, though less imports. It is also the centre 
of fisheries which employ nearly 1000 men, and has important 
industries, such as saw, grist, cotton and woollen mills, carriage, 
box and furniture factories, boiler and engine shops. The beauty 
of the scenery makes it a pleasant residential city. 

St John was visited in 1604 by the Sieur de Monts (1560-c. 1630) 
and his lieutenant Champlain, but it was not until 1635 that Charles 
de la Tour (d. 1666) established a trading post, called Fort St Jean 
(see Parkman, The Old Regime in Canada), which existed under 
French rule until 1758, when it passed into the hands of Britain. 
In 1783 a body of United Empire Loyalists landed at St John and 
established a city, called Parr Town until 1785, when it was in- 
corporated with Conway (Carleton), under royal charter, as the 
city of St John. It soon became and has remained the largest town 
in the province, but for military reasons was not chosen as the 
capital (see Fredericton). Its growth has been checked by several 
destructive fires, especially that of Tune 1877, when half of it was 
swept away, but it has since been rebuilt in great part of more solid 
materials. (W. L. G.) 



ST JOHN, an island in the Danish West Indies. It lies 4 m. E. 
of St Thomas, is 10 m. long and 25 m. wide; area 21 sq. m. 
It is a mass of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Camel 
Mountain (1270 ft.). Although one of the best watered and most 
fertile of the Virgin Group, it has little commerce. It is a free 
port, and possesses in Coral Bay the best harbour of refuge in 
the Antilles. The village of Cruxbay lies on the northern coast. 
Pop. (1001) 925. ( 

ST JOHN, a river of New Brunswick, Canada, rising in two 
branches, in the state of Maine, U.S.A., and in the province 
of Quebec. The American branch, known as the Walloostook, 
flows N.E. to the New Brunswick frontier, where it turns S.E. 
and for 80 m. forms the international boundary. A little above 
Grand Falls the St John enters Canada and flows through New 
Brunswick into the Bay of Fundy at St John. Its total length 
is about 450 m. It is navigable for large steamers as far as 
Fredericton (86 m.), and in spring and early summer for 
smaller vessels to Grand Falls (220 m.), where a series of 
falls and rapids form a descent of 70 or 80 ft. Above the falls 
it is navigable for 65 m. It drains an area of 26,000 sq. m., 
of which half is in New Brunswick, and receives numerous 
tributaries, of which the chief are the Aroostook, Allagash, 
Madawaska (draining Lake Temiscouata in Quebec), Tobique 
and Nashwaak. 

THE HOSPITAL OF (Ordo fratrum hospitalariorum Hierosoly- 
mitanorum, Ordo militias Sancti Johannis Baptislae hospitalis 
Hierosolymitani) , known also later as the Knights of Rhodes 
and the Sovereign Order of the Knights of Malta. The 
history of this order divides itself naturally into four periods: 
(1) From its foundation in Jerusalem during the First Crusade 
to its expulsion from the Holy Land after the fall of the Latin 
kingdom in 1291; (2) from 1309-1310, when the order was 
established in Rhodes, to its expulsion from the island in 1522; 
(3) from 1529 to 1798, during which its headquarters were in 
Malta; (4) its development, as reconstituted after its virtual 
destruction in 1798, to the present day. 

Early Developments. — Medieval legend set back the beginnings 
to the days of the Maccabees, with King Antiochus as the 
founder and Zacharias, father of the Baptist, as one of the first 
masters; later historians of the order maintained that it was 
established as a military order contemporaneously with the 
Latin conquest of Jerusalem, and that it had no connexion with 
any earlier foundation (so P. A. Paoli, De origine). This view 
would now seem to be disproved, and it is clear that the order 
was connected with an earlier Hospitale Hierosolymitanum. 1 
Such a hospital had existed in the Holy City, with rare interrup- 
tions, ever since it had become a centre of Christian pilgrimage. 
About 1023 certain merchants of Amalfi had purchased the site 
of the Latin hospice established by Charlemagne, destroyed in 
1010 with the other Christian establishments by order of the 
fanatical caliph Hakim Biamrillah, 2 and had there founded a 
hospital for pilgrims, served by Benedictines and later dedicated 
to St John the Baptist. 3 When, in 1087, the crusaders surrounded 
the Holy City, the head of this hospital was a certain Gerard or 

1 Cf. the bull of Pope Celestine II. to Raymond du Puy, in the 
matter of the Teutonic order, which describes the Hospital as 
" Hospitalem domum sancte civitatis Jerusalem, que a longis retro 
temporibus Christi pauperum usibus dedicata, tam christianorum 
quam etiam Sarracenorum tempore . . . . " (Le Roulx, Cartulaire, 
i. No. 154). 

2 This solution of the much debated question of the connexion of 
the Hospital with the Benedictine foundation of Sancta Maria 
Latina is worked out in much detail by M. Delaville Le Roulx in his 
Les Hospitaliers en Terre Sainte, chap. i. 

3 William of Tyre says that they erected in that place an altar 
to St John Eleemon, patriarch of Alexandria, renowned for his 
charities. This mistake led to the widespread belief that this 
saint, and not St John the Baptist, was the original patron of the 
order. A passage in the bull addressed by Pope Paschal to Gerard 
(Cartulaire, No. 30) would seem to leave the dedication in doubt: 
" Xenodochium, quod . . . juxta beati Johannis Baptistae ecclesiam 
instituisti." The patronage of St John may thus have merely been 
the result of this juxtaposition, as the Templars took their name 
from the site of the mother-house. 

Gerald, 4 who earned their gratitude by assisting them in some 
way during the siege. 6 After the capture of the city he used his 
popularity to enlarge and reconstitute the hospital. If, as M. 
Le Roulx surmises, he had previously been affiliated to the 
Benedictines, he now left them and adopted for his order the 
Augustinian rule. Donations and privileges were showered upon 
the new establishment. Godfrey de Bouillon led the way by 
granting to it in Jerusalem itself the casal Hessilia (Es Silsileh) 
and two bakehouses. 6 Kings, nobles and prelates followed suit, 
not in the Holy Land only, but in Provence, France, Spain, 
Portugal, England and Italy: in Portugal a whole province was 
in 1 1 14 made over to Gerard and his brethren (Cartul. i. No. 34). 
In 11 13 Pope Paschal II. took the order and its possessions under 
his immediate protection (bull of Feb. 15th to Gerard, Cartul. i. 
No. 30), his act being confirmed in 1119 by Calixtus II. and 
subsequently by other popes. Gerard was indeed, as Pope 
Paschal called [him, the "institutor" of the order, if not its 
founder. It retained, however, during his lifetime its purely 
eleemosynary character. The armed defence of pilgrims may 
have been part of its functions, but its organization as an aggres- 
sive military force was the outcome of special circumstances — 
the renewed activity of the Saracens — and was the work of 
Raymond du Puy, who succeeded as grand master on the death 
of Gerard (3rd of September 11 20) J 

Not that Raymond can be proved to have given to his order 
anything of its later aristocratic constitution. There is no mention 
in his Rule 8 of the division into knights, chaplains and sergeants; 
indeed, there is no mention of any military duties whatever. It 
merely lays down certain rules of conduct and discipline for the 
brethren. They are to be bound by the threefold vow of chastity, 
poverty and obedience. They are to claim nothing for themselves 
save bread, water and raiment; and this latter is to be of poor 
quality, " since our Lord's poor, whose servants we say we are, go 
naked and sordid, and it is a disgrace for the servant to be proud 
when his master is humble." Finally, the brethren are to wear 
crosses on the breast of their capes and mantles, " ut Deusperipsum 
vexillum et fidem et operationem et obedientiam nos custodiat." 9 
Yet that Raymond laid down military regulations for the brethren 
is certain. Their underlying principle is revealed by a bull of Pope 
Alexander III. addressed (1178-1180) to the grand master Roger des 
Moulins, in which he bids him, " according to the custom of Ray- 
mond," abstain from bearing arms save when the standard of the 
Cross is displayed either for the defence of the kingdom or in an 
attack on a " pagan " city. 10 

The statesmanlike qualities of Raymond du Puy rendered 
his long mastership epoch-making for the order. When it was 
decided to fortify Ibelin (Beit-Jibrin) as an outpost against 
attacks from the side of Ascalon, it was to the Hospitallers that 
the building and defence of the new castle were assigned; and 
from 1 137 onwards they took a regular part in the wars of the 
Cross. It was owing to Raymond's diplomatic skill, too, that 
the order was enabled to profit by the bequest made to it by 
Alphonso I. of Aragon, who had died childless, of a third of his 
kingdom. To have claimed the literal fulfilment of this bequest 
would have been to risk losing it all, and Raymond acted wisely 
in transferring the bequest, with certain important reservations, 
to Raymond Berenger IV., count of Barcelona and regent of 

* In spite of his fame, nothing is known of his origin. The sur- 
name " Tunc " or " Tonque " often given to him is, as Le Roulx 
points out, merely the result of a copyist's error for " Gerardus 
tunc ..." 

'According to the legend, he joined the defenders on the walls 
and, instead of hurling stones, hurled bread at the Christians, who 
were short of supplies. Haled before the Mussulman governor, his 
accusers were confounded when the incriminating loaves they 
produced were discovered to be turned into stones. 

6 " Fours." So the charter of Baldwin I. (Cartul. No. 20; cf. 
No. 225). In his Hospitallers Le Roulx has "tours," i.e. two 
towers, probably a misprint. 

7 The existence of a certain Roger as grand master between 
Gerard and Raymond, maintained by some historians, is finally 
disproved by Raymond's own testimony: " Reginmundus, per 
gratiam Dei post obitum domini Giraldi factus servus pauperum 
Christi " (Cartul. i. No. 46). 

8 The date of this can only be approximately assigned, in so 
far as it was confirmed by Pope Eugenius III., who died in 1 153. 

9 For text see Cartulaire, i. No. 70. 

10 Cartul. i. No. 527. 


Aragon (16th of September 1140). 1 It was probably also during 
his sojourn in the West for the above purpose that Raymond 
secured from Pope Celestine II. the bull dated December 7th, 
1 143, subordinating to his jurisdiction the Teutonic hospice, 
founded in n 28 by a German pilgrim and his wife in honour of 
the Blessed Virgin, which was the nucleus of the Teutonic Order 
(q.v.). This order was to remain subordinate to the Hospitallers 
actually for some fifty years, and nominally for some thirty 
years longer. 2 Raymond took part in the Second Crusade and 
was present at the council of the leaders held at Acre, in 1148, 
which resulted in the ill-fated expedition against Damascus. 
The failure before Damascus was repaired five years later by the 
capture of Ascalon (19th of August 1153), in which Raymond 
du Puy and his knights had a conspicuous share. 

Meanwhile, in addition to its ever-growing wealth, the order 
had received from successive popes privileges which rendered it, 
like the companion order of the Temple, increasingly independent 
of and obnoxious to the secular clergy. In 1135 Innocent II. 
had confirmed to Raymond the privileges accorded by Paschal II., 
Calixtus II. and Honorious II., and in addition forbade the 
diocesan bishops to interdict the churches of the Hospitallers, 
whom he also authorized, in case of a general interdict, to cele- 
brate mass for themselves alone. 3 In 1137 he gave them the 
privilege of Christian burial during such interdicts and the right to 
open interdicted churches once a year in order to say mass and 
collect money. 4 These bulls were confirmed by Eugenius III. 
in 1153 5 and Anastasius IV. in 1154, the latter adding the per- 
mission for the order to have its own priest, independent of the 
diocesan bishops. 6 In vain the patriarch of Jerusalem, attended 
by other bishops, journeyed to Rome in 1155 to complain to 
Adrian IV. of the Hospitallers' abuse of their privileges and to 
beg him to withdraw his renewal of his predecessor's bull. 7 

Far different was the effect produced by Raymond du Puy's 
triumphant progress through southern Europe from the spring 
of 1 1 57 onward. From the popes, the emperor Frederick I., 
kings and nobles, he received fresh gifts, or the confirmation of 
old ones. After the 25th of October 1158, when his presence is 
attested at Verona, this master builder of the order disappears 
from history; he died some time between this date and 1x60, 
when the name of another grand master appears. 

During the thirty years of his rule the Hospital, which Gerard 
had instituted to meet a local need, had become universal. In 
the East its growth was beyond calculation: kings, prelates and 
laity had overwhelmed it with wealth. In the West, all Europe 
combined to enrich it; from Ireland to Bohemia and Hungary, 
from Italy and Provence to Scandinavia, men vied with each 
other to attract it and establish it in their midst. It was clear 
that for this vast institution an elaborate organization was 
needed, and this need was probably the occasion of Raymond's 
presence in Europe. The priory of St Gilles already existed as the 
nucleus of the later system; the development of this system took 
place after Raymond's death. 

Constitution and Organization. — The rule of the Hospital, as 
formulated by Raymond du Puy, was based on that of the Augus- 
tinian Canons (q.v.). Its further developments, of which only the 
salient characteristics can be mentioned here, were closely analogous 
to those of the Templars (q.v.), whose statutes regulating the life 
of the brethren, the terms of admission to the order, the maintenance 
of discipline, and the scale of punishments, culminating in ex- 
pulsion (pert de la maison), are, mutatis mutandis, closely paralleled 
by those of the Hospitallers. These, too, were early (probably in 
Raymond's time) divided into three classes: knights (fratres milites), 
chaplains (fratres capellani), and serjeants (fratres servientes armigeri), 
with affiliated brethren (confratres) and " donats " (donati, i.e. 
regular subscribers, as it were, to the order in return for its privileges 
and the ultimate right to enter the ranks of its knights). Similar, 
too, was the aristocratic rule which confined admission to the first 

1 Cartul. i. No. 136. The arrangement was confirmed by the 
pope in 1 1 58 (Le Roulx, Hospiialiers, p. 59). 

2 The foundation of the Teutonic Order as a separate organization 
was solemnly proclaimed in the palace of the Templars at Tyre 
on the 5th of March 1 198. Its rule was confirmed by Pope Innocent 
III. on Feb. 15th, 1198 (Cartul. i. No. 1072). 

3 Cartul. i. No. 113. * lb. i. No. 122. 
6 lb. i. No. 217. 6 lb. i. No. 226. 

'This renewal was dated 19th of December 1154 (lb. i. No. 229). 


class to sons born in lawful wedlock of knights 8 or members of 
knightly families, a rule which applied also to the donats. 9 For the 
serjeant men-at-arms it sufficed that they should not be serfs. 
Below these a host of servientes did the menial work of the houses 
of the order, or worked as artisans or as labourers on the farms. 

All the higher offices in the order were filled by the knights, except 
the ecclesiastical — which fell to the chaplains — and those of master 
of the squires and turcopolier (commander of the auxiliary light 
cavalry), which were reserved for the serjeants-at-arms. Each 
knight was allowed three horses, each serjeant two. The fratres 
capellani ranked with the knights as eligible for certain temporal 
posts; at their head was the " conventual prior " (clericorum 
magister et ecclesie custos, prior clericorum Hospitalis). 

In two important respects the Knights of St John differed from 
the Templars. The latter were a purely military organization; the 
Hospitallers, on the other hand, were at the outset preponderatingly 
a nursing brotherhood, and, though this character was subordinated 
during their later period of military importance, it never disappeared. 
It continued to be a rule of the order that in its establishments it 
was for the sick to give orders, for the brethren to obey. The 
chapters were largely occupied with the building, furnishing, and 
improvement of hospitals, to which were attached learned physicians 
and surgeons, who had the privilege of messing with the knights. 
The revenues of particular properties were charged with providing 
luxuries (e.g. white bread) for the patients, and the various provinces 
of the order with the duty of forwarding blankets, clothes, wine and 
food for their use. The Hospitallers, moreover, encouraged the 
affiliation of women to their older, which the monastic and purely 
military rule of the Templars sternly forbade. So early as the First 
Crusade a Roman lady named Alix or Agnes had founded at Jerusalem 
a hospice for women in connexion with the order of St John. Until 
1 187, when they fled to Europe, the sisters had devoted themselves 
to prayer and sick-nursing. In Europe, however, they developed 
into a purely contemplative order. 10 

The habit of the order, both in peace and war, was originally a 
black cappa clausa (i.e. the long monastic bell-like cloak with a slit ■ 
on each side for the arms) with a white, eight-pointed " Maltese " 
cross on the breast. As this was highly inconvenient for fighting, 
Innocent IV. in 1248 authorized the brethren to wear in locis sus- 
pectis a large super-tunic with a cross on the breast (Cartul. ii. 
No. 2479), and in 1259 Alexander IV. fixed the habit as, in peace 
time, a black mantle, and in war a red surcoat with a white cross 
(Cartul. ii. No. 2928). 

The unit of the organization of the order was the commandery 
(preceptory), a small group of knights and serjeants living in com- 
munity under the rule of a commander, or preceptor, 11 charged with 
the supervision of several contiguous properties. The commanderies 
were grouped into priories, each under the rule of a prior (styled 
unofficially " grand prior," magnus prior), and these again into 
provinces corresponding to certain countries, under the authority 
of grand commanders. These largest groups crystallized in the 
14th century as national divisions under the name of " langues " 
(languages). 12 At the head of the whole organization was the grand 
master. The grand master was elected, from the ranks of the 
knights of justice, by the same process as the grand master of the 
Templars (q.v.). Alone of the bailiffs (bailivi), as the officials of the 
order were generically termed, he held office for life. His authority 

8 The knights were ultimately distinguished as " Knights of 
Justice " (chevaliers de justice) and " Knights of Grace " (chevaliers 
de grdce). The former were those who satisfied the conditions as to 
birth, and were therefore knights " justly " ; the latter were those 
who were admitted " of grace " for superlative merits. 

9 An exception was made in favour of the natural sons of counts 
and greater personages (Statute 7 of 1270; Cartul. ii. 3396). 

10 Their premier house in Europe was at Sigena in Aragon, which 
they still occupy. It was granted to them by Sancia of Navarre, 
queen of Aragon, in 1 184, the order being definitively established 
there in 1188. Their .rule, which is that of Augustinian Canonesses, 
and dates from October 1188, is printed by Le Roulx, Cartulaire, i. 
No. 859. There is no word about nursing in it. In England the 
most important house was Buckland. The chief Danish house 
survives in the Lutheran convent of St John the Baptist at Schleswig, 
a Stift for noble ladies, whose superior has the title of prioress. On 
solemn occasions a realistic wax head of St John the Baptist on a 
charger is still produced. 

"Commander (comandeor, commandeur), with its Latin translation 
preceptor, came into use as the title of these officials somewhat late. 
In earlier documents they are styled ospitalarius, bajulus (bailiff), 
magister (master). 

12 Omitting the Anglo-Bavarian langue, created in 1782, the 
langues (in the 15th century) were eight in number. They were 
(1) Provence (grand priories of St Gilles and Toulouse), (2) Auvergne 
(grand priory of Auvergne), (3) France (grand priories of France, 
Aquitaine, Champagne), (4) Italy (grand priories of Lombardy, 
Rome, Venice, Pisa, Capua, Barletta, Messina), (5) Aragon (castellany 
of Amposta, grand priories of Catalonia and Navarre), (6) England 
(grand priories of England — [including Scotland — -and Ireland), 
(7) Germany (grand priories of Germany or Heitersheim, Bohemia, 
Hungary, Dacia — i.e. Scandinavia— and the Bailiwick (Ballei) of 



was very great, but not absolute. The supreme legislative and 
controlling power was vested in the general chapter of the knights, 
at the periodical meetings of which the great officers of the order 
had to give an account of their stewardship, and which alone had 
the right to pass statutes binding on the order The executive 
power of the grand master, like that of the great dignitaries immedi- 
ately subordinate to him, was in the nature of a delegation from the 
chapter. He was assisted in its exercise by four councils: (1) the 
" convent " or ordinary chapter, a committee of the general chapter, 1 
for administrative business; (2) a secret council, for criminal cases 
and affairs of state ; (3) a full council, to hear appeals from the two 
former; 2 and (4) the "venerable chamber of the treasury" for 
financial matters. To the general chapter at headquarters corre- 
sponded the chapters of the priories and the commanderies, which 
controlled the action of the priors and commanders. 

Immediately subordinate to the grand master were the seven 
great dignitaries of the order, known as the conventual bailiffs: 
the grand preceptor, 3 marshal, draper (Fr. drapier) or grand con- 
servator, hospitaller, treasurer, admiral, turcopolier. 4 The grand 
preceptor, elected by the chapter at the same time as the grand 
master and subject to his approval, was the lieutenant of the latter 
in his absence, empowered to seal for him and, in the event of his 
capture by the enemy, to act as vice-master. The functions of the 
marshal, draper, treasurer and turcopolier were practically identical 
with those of the officials of the same titles in the order of Knights 
Templars. That of hospitaller, on the other hand, was naturally 
a charge of exceptional importance in the order of St John; he had 
a seal of his own, and was responsible for everything concerning the 
hospitals of the order, the dispensing of hospitality, and of alms. 
The admiral, as the name implies, was at sea what the marshal was 
on land. ' The office first appears in 1299 when the knights, after 
their expulsion from the Holy Land, had begun to organize their 
new sea-power in Cyprus. As to the equipage and suites of the grand 
master and the great dignitaries, these were practically on the same 
scale and of the same nature as those described in the article Tem- 
• plars for the sister order. The grand master had the right himself 
to nominate his companions and the members of his household 
(seneschal, squires, secretaries, chaplains, &c), which, as Le Roulx 
points out, was such as to enable him to figure as the equal of the 
kings and princes with whom he consorted. 

The grand-mastership of Gilbert d'Assailly was signalized by 
the participation of the Hospitallers in the abortive expeditions 
of Amalric of Jerusalem into Egypt in 1162, 1168 and 1169. 
On the 10th of August 11 64 also they shared in the disastrous 
defeat inflicted by Nur-ed-din at Harran en the count of Tripoli. 
The important position occupied by them in the councils of the 
kingdom is shown by the fact that the grand preceptor Guy de 
Mauny was one of the ambassadors sent in 1 169 to ask aid of the 
princes of the West. Another important development was the 
bestowal on the order by Bohemund III., prince of Antioch, in 
1168, and King Amalric, as regent of Tripoli, in 1170, of con- 
siderable territories on the north-eastern frontier, to be held with 
almost sovereign power as a march against the Saracens (Cartu- 
laire, i. Nos. 331, 411). The failure of the expedition to Egypt, 
however, brought considerable odium on Gilbert d'Assailly, who 

Brandenburg), (8) Castile (grand priories of Castile and Leon, and 
Portugal). Of the grand priories the most ancient and by far the 
most important was that of St Gilles, founded early in the 12th 
century, the authority of which extended originally over the whole 
of what is now France and a great part of Spain. In the 16th 
century its seat was transferred to Aries. Out of this developed the 
langues of Auvergne, France, Aragon and Castile, with their sub- 
sidiary priories. The date of the creation, of the various grand 
commanderies differs greatly: that of Italy was established in the 
13th century, the langue of Germany in 1422, that of Castile was 
split off from Aragon in 1462. The castellany of Amposta (founded 
1 1 57) ranked as a priory. The bailiwick of Brandenburg, which had 
long been practically independent of the grand prior of Germany, 
obtained the right to elect its own bailiff (Herrenmeister) in 1382, 
subject to the approval of the grand prior. In the Holy Land there 
were no priors; the commanderies were directly under the grand 
master, and the commanders (who retained the style of bailli, 
bailivus) ranked with the grand priors elsewhere. 

1 This seems to have consisted in practice of the great dignitaries 
of the order. See Le Roulx, Hospitaliers, p. 314. 

2 A peculiarity of the order of St John was the esgart des freres 
(esgart, Lat. sguardium — court) which could be demanded by any 
knight who thought himself wronged by a decision of his superiors, 
even of the grand master. 

1 To be carefully distinguished from the regional grand preceptors 
or grand commanders, and also from the grand commander 
d'oulremer, who represented the grand master in the West generally. 

* To these the grand bailiff (German, langue) and grand chancellor 
(Castile) were added later. 

resigned the grand-mastership, probably in the autumn of 1170. 6 
Under the short rule of the grand master Jobert (d. 11 77) the 
question of a renewed attack on Egypt was mooted; but the 
confusion reigning in the Latin kingdom and, not least, the 
scandalous quarrels between the Templars and Hospitallers, 
rendered all aggressive action impossible. In n 79 the growing 
power of the two military orders received its first set back when, 
at the instance of the bishops, the Lateran Council forbade them 
to receive gifts of churches and tithes at the hands of laymen 
without the consent of the bishops, ordered them to restore all 
" recent" 6 gifts of this nature, and passed a number of decrees 
in restraint of the abuse of their privileges. 

A more potent discipline was to befall them, however, at the 
hands of Saladin, sultan of Egypt, who in 1186 began his sys- 
tematic conquest of the kingdom. It was the Hospitallers who, 
with the other religious orders, alone offered an organized 
resistance to his victorious advance; On the 1st of May 1187 
occurred the defeat of Tiberias, in which the grand master 
Gilbert des Moulins fell riddled with arrows, and this was followed 
on the 4th of July by the still more disastrous battle of Hittin. 
The flower of the Christian chivalry was slain or captured; 
the Hospitallers and Templars who fell into his hands Saladin 
massacred in cold blood. On the 2nd of October Jerusalem fell. 
Ten brethren of the Hospital were allowed to remain for a year 
to look after the sick; the rest took refuge at Tyre. In these 
straits Armengaud d'Asp was elected grand master (1188) 
and the headquarters of the order were established at Margat 
(Markab), near the coast some distance northwards of Tripoli. 
In the interior the knights still held some scattered fortresses; 
but their great stronghold of Krak 7 was reduced by famine in 
September 1188 and Beauvoir in the following January. 

The news of these disasters once more roused the crusading 
spirit in Europe; the offensive against Saladin was resumed, 
the Christians concentrating their forces against Acre in the 
autumn of 11 89. In the campaigns that followed, of which 
Richard I. of England was the most conspicuous hero, and 
which ended in the recovery of Acre and the sea-coast generally 
for the Latin kingdom, the Hospitallers, under their grand 
master Gamier de Naplouse 8 (Neapoli), played a prominent 
part. The grand-mastership of Geoffroy de Donjon, who suc- 
ceeded Gamier in 1192 and ruled the order till 1202, 9 was 
signalized, not by feats of arms, since the Holy Land enjoyed a 
precarious peace, but by a steady restoration and development 
of the property and privileges of the order, by renewed quarrels 
with the Templars, and in 1198 by the establishment — in face 
of the protests of the Hospitallers — of the Teutonic knights as 
a separate order. Under the grand-mastership of the pious 
Alphonso of Portugal, and of Geoffrey le Rat, who was elected 
on Alphonso's resignation in 1206, the knights took a vigorous 
part in the quarrel as to the succession in Antioch; under that 
of Garin de Montaigu (elected 1 207) they shared in the expedition 
to Egypt (12 18-12 21), of which he had been a vigorous advocate 
(see Crusades: The Fifth Crusade). In 1222^ at the instance 
of the emperor Frederick II., the grand master accompanied 
the king of Jerusalem and others to Europe to discuss the 
preparation of a new crusade, visiting Rome, proceeding thence 
to Paris and London, and returning to the Holy Land in 1225. 
The expedition failed of its object so far as the organization of 

5 See Le Roulx, Hospitaliers, p. 76 sqq. The resignation led to 
bitter divisions in the order. It was urged that the resignation was 
invalid without the consent of the general chapter and the pope; 
and a temporary schism was the result. Gilbert was drowned in 
1 183 crossing from Dieppe to England, whither he had gone at the 
invitation of Henry II. 

6 The words " tempore moderno " were interpreted by Pope 
Alexander III. in a bull of the 1st of June 1179 as within ten years 
of the opening of the council (Cartul. 1. No. 566). 

7 The stupendous ruins of Krak-des-Chevaliers (at Kerak, S.E. of 
the Dead Sea) attest the wealth and power of the knights (for a 
restoration see Castle, fig. 5). The castle had been given to the 
Hospitallers by Guillaume du Crac in 1 142. In n 93 it was again in 
their hands, and was subsequently greatly enlarged and strengthened. 
It was finally captured by the Egyptians under Bibars in 127 1. 

8 Gamier had been prior of England and later of France. 

9 So Le Roulx. p. 1 19. 



a general crusade was concerned; but the Hospital received 
everywhere enormous accessions of property. 1 Garin de 
Montaigu died in 1228, after consolidating by his statesmanlike 
attitude the position and power of his order, on the eve of 
Frederick II. 's crusade. In this crusade, conducted in spite 
of a papal excommunication, the Hospitallers took no part, 
being rewarded with the approval of Pope Gregory IX., who, 
in August 1229, issued a bull to the patriarch of Jerusalem 
ordering him to maintain the jurisdiction of .the Hospital over 
the Teutonic knights, who had dared to assist the German 
emperor. 2 In 1233, under the grand master Guerin, the 
Hospitallers took a leading part in the successful attack on the 
principality of Hamah. The motive of this, however — which 
was no more than the refusal of the emir to pay them the tribute 
due — seems to point to an increasing secularization of then- 
spirit. In 1236 Pope Gregory IX. thought it necessary to 
threaten both them and the Templars with excommunication, 
to prevent their forming an alliance with the Assassins, 3 and 
in 1238 issued a bull in which he inveighed against the 
scandalous lives and relaxed discipline of the Hospitallers. 4 

Events were soon to expose the order to fresh tests. Under 
the grand-mastership of Pierre de Vieille Bride 6 occurred the 
brief " crusade " of Richard of Cornwall (nth of October 1240 
to 3rd of May r24i). The truce concluded by Richard with the 
sultan of Egypt was accepted by the Hospitallers, rejected by 
the Templars, and after his departure something like a war 
broke out between the two bodies. In the midst of the strife 
of parties, in which Richard of Cornwall had recognized the 
fatal weakness of the Christian cause to He, came the news of 
the invasion of the Chorasmians. On the 23rd of August the 
Tatar horde took and sacked Jerusalem. On the 17th of October, 
in alliance with the Egyptians under Bibars, it overwhelmed 
the Christian host at Gaza. Of the Hospitallers only sixteen 
escaped; 325 of the knights were slain; and among the prisoners 
was the grand master, Guillaume de Chateauneuf. 6 Amid 
the general ruin that followed this defeat, the Hospitallers held 
out in the fortress of Ascalon, until forced to capitulate on the 
15th of October r247. Under the vice-master, the grand pre- 
ceptor Jean de Ronay, they took part in 1249 in the Egyptian 
expedition of St Louis of France, only to share in the crushing 
defeat of Mansurah (nth of February 1250). Of the knights 
present all were slain, except five who were taken prisoners, 
the vice-master and one other. 7 At the instance of St 
Louis, after the conclusion of peace, 25 Hospitallers, together 
with the grand master Guillaume de Chateauneuf, were 
released. 8 

On the withdrawal of St Louis from the Holy Land (April 
1254), a war of aggression and reprisals broke out between 
Christians and Mussulmans; and no sooner was this ended by a 
precarious truce than the Christians fell to quarrelling among 
themselves. In the war between the Genoese and Venetians 
and their respective partisans, the Hospitallers and Templars 
fought on opposite sides. In spite of so great a scandal 
and of the hopeless case of the Christian cause, the posses- 
sions of the order were largely increased during Guillaume de 
Chateauneuf's mastership, both in the Holy Land and in 

Under the grand-mastership of Hugues de Revel, elected 
probably in 1255, the menace of a new Tatar invasion led to 
serious efforts to secure harmony in the kingdom. In 1258 
the Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic knights decided to 

1 Detailed by Le Roulx, Hospitallers, pp. 149-156. 

2 Cartul. ii. No. 1944. The Teutonic knights refused to obey. 
In January 1240 Gregory called on them to explain their insub- 
ordination (No. 2247) and in March 1241 again ordered them to 
submit (No. 2270). 

3 Cartul. ii. No. 2149. 4 Cartul. ii. No. 2186. 

6 Not Villebride. The name is a corruption of Vieille Brioude 
(Le Roulx, Hosp. p. 183). 

6 It has been generally supposed, on the authority of the chronica 
majora of Matthew of Paris (iv. 307-31 1), that -the grand-master was 
killed at Gaza. 

7 See the contemporary letter, Cartulaire, ii. No. 252 1. 

8 Cartul. ii. Nos. 2540-2541. 

submit their disputes in Syria, Cyprus and Armenia to arbitration, 
a decision which bore fruit in 1260 in the settlement of their 
differences in Tripoli and Margat. The satisfactory arrangement 
was possibly affected by the result of a combined attack made 
in 1259 on the Hospitallers by the Templars and the brethren 
of St Lazarus and St Thomas, which had resulted in the practical 
extermination of the aggressors, possibly also by the crushing 
defeat of the Templars and the Syrian barons by the Turcomans 
at Tiberias in 1260. However achieved, the concord was badly 
needed; for Bibars, having in 1260 driven back the Tatars and 
established himself in the sultanate of Egypt, began the series 
of campaigns which ended in the destruction of the Latin 
kingdom. In 1268 Bibars conquered Antioch, and the Christian 
power was confined to Acre, Chateau Pelerin, Tyre, Sidon, and 
the castles of Margat, Krak and Belda (Baldeh), in which the 
Hospitallers still held out. The respite afforded by the second 
crusade of St Louis was ended by his death at Tunis in 1270. 
On the 30th of March 1271 the great fortress of Krak, the key 
to the county of Tripoli, surrendered after a short siege. The 
crusade of Prince Edward of England did little to avert the 
ultimate fate of the kingdom, and with it that of the Hospitallers 
in the Holy Land. This was merely delayed by the preoccupa- 
tions of Bibars elsewhere, and by his death in 1277. In 1280 
the Mongols overran northern Syria; and the Hospitallers 
distinguished themselves by two victories against enormous 
odds, one over the Turcomans and one over the emir of Krak 
(February 1281). The situation, however, was desperate, and 
the grand master Nicolas Lorgne, who had succeeded Hugues 
de Revel in 1277, wrote despairing letters of appeal to Edward I. 
of England. On the 25th of May 1285, Margat surrendered 
to the sultan Kalaun (Mansur Saifaldin). Not even the strong 
character and high courage of Jean de Villiers, who succeeded 
Nicolas Lorgne as grand master in 1285, could do more than 
stave off the ultimate disaster. The Hospitallers assisted in the 
vain defence of Tripoli, which fell on the 26th of April 1289. 
On the 18th of May 1291 the Mussulmans stormed Acre, the last 
hope of the Christians in the Holy Land. Jean de Villiers, 
wounded, was carried on board a ship, and sailed to Limisso 
in Cyprus, which became the headquarters of the order. For 
the remaining two years of his life Jean de Villiers was occupied 
in attempting the reorganization of the shattered order. The 
demoralization in the East was, however, too profound to admit 
a ready cure. The knights, represented by the grand dignitaries, 
addressed a petition to Pope Boniface VIII. in 1295 asking for 
the appointment of a permanent council of seven difinitores 
to control the grand master, who had become more and more 
autocratic. The pope did not consent; but in a severe letter 
to the new grand master, Eudes de Pin, he sternly reproved 
him for the irregularities of which he had been guilty. 9 In 1296 
Eudes was succeeded by Guillaume de Villaret, grand prior of 
St Gilles, who for three years after his election remained in 
Europe, regulating the affairs of the order. In 1300, in response 
to the urgent remonstrances of the knights, he appeared in 
Cyprus. In 1299 an unnatural alliance of the Christians and 
Mongols gave a momentary prospect of regaining the Holy Land; 
in 1300 the Hospitallers took part in the raid of King Henry II. 
(de Lusignan) of Cyprus in Egypt, and gained some temporary 
successes on the coast of Syria. Of more advantage for the* 
prestige of the order, however, were the immense additions pi 
property and privileges which Guillaume de Villaret had secured 
in Europe from the pope and many kings and princes, 10 and the 
reform of the rule and drastic reorganization of the order 
promulgated in a series of statutes between 1300 and 1304, 
the year of Guillaume's death. 11 Of these changes the most 
significant was the definition of the powers and status of the 
admiral, a new great dignitary created in 1299. 

The grand-mastership of Foulques de Villaret, Guillaume's 

9 Cartulaire, iii. Nos. 4267, 4293; cf. the letter of the chapter- 
general to Guillaume de Villaret, iii. No. 4310. 

10 Le Roulx, Hospitaliers, p. 259 sqq. 

11 These statutes are printed in the Cartulaire, iii. Nos. 4515, 
iv. Nos. 4549, 4574, 4612. 



nephew and successor, 1 was destined to be eventful for the order. 
On the 5th of June 1305 Bertrand de Got became pope as Clement 
V. The new pope consulted the grand master of the Templars 
and Hospitallers as to the organization of a new crusade, and 
at the same time raised the question of the fusion of the military 
orders, a plan which had already been suggested by St Louis, dis- 
cussed at the council of Lyons in 1 2 74, and approved by the pope's 
patron Philip IV. of France. The proposal broke down on the 
opposition of Jacques de Molay, grand master of the Temple; 
but the desired result was obtained by other and more question- 
able means. In October 1307 Philip IV. caused all the Templars 
in France, including the grand master, to be arrested on charges 
of heresy and gross immorality; Pope Clement V., a creature of 
the French king, reluctantly endorsed this action, and at his 
instance the other sovereigns of Europe followed the example of 
Philip. The famous long-drawn-out trial of the Templars followed , 
ending at the council of Vienne in 13 14, when Pope Clement 
decreed the dissolution of the order of the Temple and at the 
same time assigned the bulk of its property to the Hospital. 2 
(See Templars, Knights.) 

Meanwhile an event had occurred which marks an epoch in 
the history of the order of the Hospital. In 1306 Foulques de 
Villaret, anxious to find a centre where the order would be 
untrammelled by obligations to another power as in Cyprus, 
came to an agreement with a Genoese pirate named Vignolo de' 
Vignoli for a concerted attack on Rhodes and other islands 
belonging to the Greek emperor. The exact date of their com- 
pleted conquest of the island is uncertain; 3 nor is it clear that 
the grand master took a personal part in it. By command of the 
pope he had left Cyprus for Europe at the end of 1306 or the 
beginning of 1307, and he did not return to the East till late in 
1309. He returned, however, not to Cyprus but to Rhodes, and 
it is with 1310, therefore, when its headquarters were established 
in the latter island, that the second period of the history of the 
order of the Hospital opens. 4 

The Knights in Rhodes. — The history of the order for the next 
fifty years is very obscure. Certain changes, however, took place 
which profoundly modified its character. The most important 
of these was its definitive division into " langues." The begin- 
nings of this had been made long before; but the system was only 
legalized by the general chapter at Montpellier in 1 330. Hitherto 
the order had been a cosmopolitan society, in which the French 
element had tended to predominate; henceforth it became a 
federation of national societies united only for purposes of com- 
merce and war. To the headship of each " langue " was attached 
one of the great dignitaries of the order, which thus came to 
represent, not the order as a whole but the interests of a section. 6 
The motive of this change was probably, as Prutz suggests, 6 

1 M. Le Roulx dates his election between the 23rd of November 
1304 and the 3rd of November 1305 {Hosp. p. 268). 

2 The Templars' property in the Spanish peninsula and Majorca 
was specially excepted, being subsequently assigned to the sovereigns, 
who transferred some of it to the native military orders. Nor did 
the Hospitallers receive by any means all of the rest. Philip IV. 
charged against the Hospital an enormous bill for expenses incurred 
in the trial of the Templars, including, as one item, those for torturing 
the knights. In France at least the Hospitallers complained that 
they were actually out of pocket. See Finke, Papsttum und Unter- 
■gang des Tempelherrenordens, i. ad fin. None the less, the great 
accession of territorial property necessitated the subdivision of the 
gjeat regional jurisdictions, notably that of the priory of St Gilles, 
into new grand priories. 

3 The question is discussed in detail by M. Le Roulx, Hospitallers, 
pp. 278 sqq. He himself dates the surrender of the castle of Rhodes 
in 1308. Cf. Hans Prutz, " Anfange der Hospitaliter auf Rhodos " in 
Sitzungsber. der K. Bay. Akad. d. Wissenschaften (1908), i. Abhandlung. 

4 Foulques de Villaret's head seems to have been turned by his 
success. His early vigour and statesmanlike qualities gave place 
to luxury, debauchery and a tyrannical temper. He was ultimately 
deposed, and died at the castle of Teyran in Languedoc in 1327. 

5 The great dignitaries were distributed as follows: Grand 
commander of Provence, the grand preceptor; Auvergne, the 
grand marshal; France, the grand hospitaller; Italy, the grand 
admiral; Aragon, the grand conservator or draper; England, the 
turcopolier; Germany, the grand bailiff; Castile, the grand 

• " Die Anfange der Hospitaliter auf Rhodos." 

fear of the designs of Philip IV. of France and his successors 
to which point had been given by the fate of the Templars, and 
the consequent desire to destroy the preponderance of the French 
element. 7 

The character and aims of the order were also profoundly 
affected by their newly acquired sovereignty — for the shadowy 
overlordship of the Eastern emperor was soon forgotten — and 
above all by its seat. The Teutonic order had established its 
sovereignty in Prussia, in wide and ill-defined spheres beyond the 
north-eastern marches of Germany. The Hospitallers ruled an 
island too narrow to monopolize their energies, but occupying 
a position of vast commercial and strategic importance. Close 
to the Anatolian mainland, commanding the outlet of the 
Archipelago, and lying in the direct trade route between Europe 
and the East, Rhodes had become the chief distributing point 
in the lively commerce which, in spite of papal thunders, Christian 
traders maintained with the Mahommedan states; and in the 
new capital of the order representatives to every language and 
religion of the Levant jostled, haggled and quarrelled. 8 The 
Hospitallers were thus divided between their duty as sovereign, 
which was to watch overthe interests of their subjects, and their 
duty as Christian warriors, which was to combat the Infidel. 
In view of the fact that the crusading spirit was everywhere 
declining, it is not surprising that their policy was henceforth 
directed less by religious than by political and commercial 
considerations. Not that they altogether neglected their duty 
as protectors of the Cross. Their galleys policed the narrow seas ; 
their consuls in Egypt and Jerusalem watched over the interests 
of pilgrims; their hospitals were still maintained for the service of 
the sick and the destitute. But, side by side with this, seculariza- 
tion proceeded apace. In 1341 Pope Clement VI. wrote to the 
grand master denouncing the luxury of the order and the misuse 
of its funds; in 1355 Innocent VI. sent the celebrated Juan 
Fernandez de Heredia, castellan of Amposta and grand com- 
mander of Aragon, as his legate to Rhodes, armed with a bull 
which threatened the order with dissolution if it did not reform 
itself and effect a settlement in Turkey. In 1348, indeed, the 
Hospitallers, in alliance with Venice and Cyprus, had captured 
Smyrna; but the chief outcome of this had been commercial 
treaties with their allies. Such treaties were, in fact, a matter of 
life and death; for the island was not self-supporting, and even 
towards the Infidel the attitude of the knights was necessarily 
influenced by the fact that their supplies of provisions were 
mainly drawn from the Mussulman mainland. By the 15th 
century their crusading spirit had grown so weak that they even 
attempted to negotiate a commercial treaty with the Ottoman 
sultan; the project broke down on the refusal of the knights to 
accept the sultan's suzerainty. 

The earlier history of the Hospitallers bristles with obscure 
questions on which modern scholarship (notably the labours of 
Delaville Le Roulx) has thrown new light. From 1355 onward, 
however, the case is different; the essential facts have been 
established by writers who were able to draw on a mass of 
well-ordered materials. 

Their history during the two centuries of the occupation of 
Rhodes, so far as its general interest for Europe is concerned, 
is that of a long series of naval attacks and counter-attacks; its 
chief outcome, for which the European states owed a debt of 
gratitude but ill acknowledged, the postponement for some two 
centuries of the appearance of the Ottomans as a first-rate 
naval power in the Mediterranean. The seaward advance of 
Osman the Turk was arrested by their victories; in 1358 they 
successfully defended Smyrna; in 1365 under their grand 
master Raymond Beranger (d. 1374), and in alliance with the 
king of Cyprus, they captured and burned Alexandria. The 
Ottoman peril, however, grew ever more imminent, and in 1395, 
under their grand master Philibert de Naillac, the Hospitallers 

7 Philip IV. strenuously opposed the change for this reason. 
Prutz, Die geistlichen Ritterorden, pp 358 sqq. Compare the division of 
the general councils of Basel and Constance into nations." 

8 See the regulations made, soon after the capture of the island, 
in the Capitula Rodi, a fragment of a code, published by Ewald in 

I News Archiv iv. pp. 265-269 



shared in the disastrous defeat of Nicopolis. The invasion 
followed of Timur the Tatar, invited to his aid by the Eastern 
emperor. Sultan Bayezid, the victor of Nicopolis, was over- 
thrown; but Timur turned against the Christians and in 1402 
captured Smyrna, putting the Hospitallers who defended it to 
the sword. It was after this disaster that the knights built, on 
a narrow promontory jutting from the mainland opposite the 
island of Kos, the fortress of St Peter the Liberator. The castle, 
which still stands, its name corrupted into Budrun (from Bedros, 
Peter), w T as long a place of refuge for Christians flying from 
slavery. 1 Some years later the position of the order as a Mediter- 
ranean sea-power was strengthened by commercial treaties with 
Venice, Pisa, Genoa, and even with Egypt (1423). The zenith of 
its power was reached a few years later, when, under the grand 
master Jean Bonpar de Lastic, it twice defeated an Egyptian 
attack by sea (1440 and 1444). A new and more imminent peril, 
however, arose with the capture of Constantinople by the Turks 
in 1453, Ior Mahommed II. had announced his intention of 
making Rhodes his next objective. The attack was delayed 
for twenty-seven years by the sultan's wars in south-eastern 
Europe; and meanwhile, in 1476, Pierre d'Aubusson (q.v.), the 
second great hero of the order, had been elected grand master. 
Under his inspiration, when in June 1480 the Turks, led by three 
renegades, attacked the island, the knights made so gallant a 
resistance that, in July, after repeated and decisive repulses, the 
Turks retreated. In 1503 Pierre d'Aubusson was succeeded by 
Aymar d'Amboise, who directed a long series of naval battles. 
In 1521 the famous Philippe de Villiers de ITsle d'Adam was 
elected grand master, just as the dreaded sultan Suleiman the 
Magnificent directed his attack on Rhodes. In 1522 he besieged 
the island, reinforcements failed, the European powers sent no 
assistance, and in 1523 the knights capitulated, and withdrew 
with all the honours of war to Candia (Crete). The emperor 
Charles V., when the news was brought to him, exclaimed, 
" Nothing in the world has been so well lost as Rhodes! " But 
he refused to assist the grand master in his plans for its recovery, 
and instead, five years later (1530), handed over to the Hospi- 
tallers the island of Malta and the fortress of Tripoli in Africa. 

The Knights in Malta. — The settlement of the Hospitallers 
in Malta was contemporaneous with the Reformation, which 
profoundly affected the order. The master and knights of the 
bailiwick of Brandenburg accepted the reformed religion, without, 
however, breaking off all connexion with the order (see below). 
In England, on the other hand, the refusal of the grand prior 
and knights to acknowledge the royal supremacy led to the 
confiscation of their estates by Henry VIII., and, though not 
formally suppressed, the English " langue " practically ceased 
to exist. 2 The knights of Malta, as they came to be known, 
none the less continued their vigorous warfare. Under Pierre 
du Pont, who succeeded Villiers de ITsle d'Adam in 1534, they 
took a conspicuous part in Charles V.'s attack on Goletta and 
Tunis (1535). In 1550 they defeated the redoubtable corsair 
Dragut, but in 1531 their position in Tripoli, always precarious, 
became untenable and they capitulated to the Turks under 
Dragut, concentrating their forces in Malta. In 1557 Jean 
Farisot de la Vallette (1494-1548) was elected grand master, 
and under his vigorous rule strenuous efforts were made to put 
the defences of Malta into a fit state to resist the expected 

1 There is a reduction of a photograph of the castle in Bedford 
and Holbeche's Order of the Hospital, p. 20. The building materials 
were largely taken from the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. 

2 The great priory church at Clerkenwell in London was almost 
wholly destroyed by the Protector Somerset, who used the materials 
for his palace in the Strand. Only the great gateway, spanning St 
John Street, now survives above ground of the priory buildings. 
It is the headquarters of the revived English " langue." Sir John 
Rawson, prior of Kilmainham, the headquarters of the order in 
Ireland, accepted the royal supremacy and was created Lord Clontarf . 
In 1679 the duke of Ormonde erected the present hospital on the 
site of the ancient priory. The preceptory of Torphichen, head- 
quarters of the order in Scotland, was surrendered in 1547 by the 
preceptor Sir James Sandilands of Calder, who was created Lord 
Torphichen. As " Lord of St John " he had had precedence of all 
the barons of Scotland, and this right — originally exercised as a 
spiritual peer — was retained by him and his successors. 

Turkish attack. On the 18th of May 1565 the Ottoman fleet, 
under Dragut, appeared before the city, and one of the most 
famous sieges in history began. 3 It was ultimately raised on 
the 8th of September, on the appearance of a large relieving 
force despatched by the Spanish viceroy of Sicily, after Dragut 
and 25,000 of his followers had fallen. The memory of La 
Vallette, the hero of the siege, who died in 1568, is preserved 
in the city of Valletta, which was built on the site of the struggle. 
In 1 57 1 the knights shared in the victory of Lepanto; but 
this crowning success was followed during the 17th century by 
a long period of depression, due to internal dissensions and cul- 
minating during the Thirty Years' War, the position of the order 
being seriously affected by the terms of the peace of Westphalia 
(1648). The order was also troubled by quarrels with the popes, 
who claimed to nominate its officials (a claim renounced by 
Innocent XII. in 1697), and by rivalry with the Mediterranean 
powers, especially Venice. In Malta itself there were four rival 
claimants to independent jurisdiction: the grand master, the 
bishop of Malta, the grand inquisitor, whose office was instituted 
in 1572, and the Society of Jesus, introduced by Bishop Gargallo 
in 1592. The order, indeed, saw much fighting: e.g. the 
frequent expeditions undertaken during the grand-mastership 
of Alof de Vignacourt (1601-1622); the defence of Candia — 
which fell after a twenty years' siege in 1669 — under Nicholas 
Cottoner, grand master from 1665 to 1680; and, during the 
grand mastership of Gregorio Caraffa (1 680-1 690), a campaign 
(1683) with John Sobieski, king of Poland, against the Turks 
in Hungary, and the attack in alliance with Venice on the Morea 
in 1687, which involved the Hospitallers in the defeat at Negro- 
pont in 1689. The decline of the order was hastened by the 
practice of electing aged grand masters to ensure frequent 
vacancies; such were Luiz Mendez de Vasconcellos (1622-1623) 
and Antonio da Paula (1623-1636) and Giovanni Paolo Lascaris 
(de Castellar), in 1636, who died twenty-one years later at the 
age of ninety-seven. The character of the order at this date 
became more exclusively aristocratic, and its wealth, partly 
acquired by commerce, partly derived from the contributions 
of the commanderies scattered throughout Europe, was enormous. 
The wonderful fortifications, planned by French architects 
and improved by every grand master in turn, the gorgeous 
churches, chapels and auberges, the great library founded in 
1650, were the outward and visible sign of the growth of a 
corresponding luxury in the private life of the order. Neverthe- 
less, under Raymond Perellos de Roccaful (1697-1720) and 
Antonio Manoel de Vilhena (1722-1736), the knights restored 
their prestige in the Mediterranean by victories over the Turks. 
In 1 741 Emmanuele Pinto de Fonseca, a man of strong character, 
became grand master. " He expelled the Jesuits, resisted papal 
encroachments on his authority and, refusing to summon the 
general chapter, ruled as a despot. 

Emanuel, prince de Rohan, who was elected grand master in 
succession to Francesco Jimenes de Texada in 1775, made 
serious efforts to revive the old spirit of the order. Under 
him, for the first time since 1603, a general chapter was convoked; 
the orders of St Anthony and St Lazarus were incorporated, 
and the statutes were revised and codified (1782). In 1782 also 
Rohan, with the approval of George III. established the new 
Anglo-Bavarian " langue." The last great expedition of the 
Maltese galleys was worthy of the noblest traditions of the 
order; they were sent to carry supplies for the sufferers from the 
great earthquake in Sicily. They had long ceased to be effec- 
tive fighting ships, and survived mainly as gorgeous state barges 
in which the knights sailed on ceremonial pleasure trips. 

The French Revolution was fatal to the order. Rohan made 
no secret of his sympathy with the losing cause in France, and 
Malta became a refuge-place for the emigres. In 1792 the vast 
possessions of the order in France were confiscated, and six 
years later the Directory resolved on the forcible seizure of Malta 

3 In Protestant England public prayers were offered for the 
success of the knights. Yet a few years later Queen Elizabeth was 
seeking the alliance of the sultan against Spain, on the ground of 
I their common religion as against " the idolators ['! 



itself. Rohan had died in 1797, and his feeble successor, Baron 
Ferdinand von Hompesch, 1 though fully warned, made no 
preparations to resist. In the early summer of 1708, after a 
siege of only a few days, he surrendered the island, with its 
impregnable fortifications, to Bonaparte, and retired ignomini- 
ously to Trieste, carrying with him the precious relics of the 
order — the hand of St John the Baptist presented by the sultan 
Bayezid, the miraculous image of Our Lady of Philermo, and 
a fragment of the true cross. 

With this the history of the order of St John practically ends. 
Efforts were, however, made to preserve it. Many of the knights 
had taken refuge at the court of Paul I. of Russia, with whom 
in 1797 Hompesch had made an alliance. In October 1798 
these elected the emperor Paul grand master, and in the following 
year Hompesch was induced to resign in his favour. The half- 
mad tsar took his new functions very seriously, but his murder 
in 1 801 ruined any hope of recovering Malta with Russian 
assistance. A chapter of the order now granted the right of 
nomination to the pope, who appointed Giovanni di Tommasi 
grand master. From his death in 1805 until 1879, when Leo 
XIII. restored the title of grand master in favour of Fra Giovanni 
Ceschi a Santa Croce, the heads of the order received only the 
title of lieutenant master. In 1814 the French knights summoned 
a chapter general and elected a permanent commission for the 
government of the order, which was recognized by the Italian 
and Spanish knights, by the pope and by King Louis XVIII. 
In the Italian states much of the property of the order was 
restored at the instance of Austria, and in 1841 the emperor 
Ferdinand founded the grand priory of Lombardo-Venetia. 

Present Constitution of the Order. — The " Sovereign Order of 
Malta " is now divided into the Italian and German langues, both 
under the Sacred Council (Sagro consiglio) at Rome. The Italian 
langue embraces the grand priories of Rome, Lombardy and Venice, 
and Sicily; the German langue consists of (1) the grand priory of 
Bohemia, (2) the association of the honorary knights (Ehrenritter) 
in Silesia, (3) the association of Ehrenritter in Westphalia and the 
Rhine country, (4) the association of English knights (not to be 
confused with the English order), (5) the knights received in gremio 
religionis, i.e. those not attached to any of the preceding divisions. 
At the head of the order is the grand master. Each priory has a 
certain number of bailiffs (grand commanders, commendatori), 
commanders, professed knights (i.e. those who have taken the vows), 
knights of justice (novices), honorary knights, knights of grace, 
donats and chaplains. 

Candidates for knighthood have to prove sixteen quarterings of 
nobility and, if under age, must be sons of a landowner of the pro- 
vince and of a mother born within its limits. If an Austrian subject, 
the postulant must obtain the emperor's leave to join the order; 
the election is by the chapter, and subject to confirmation by the 
pope. Knights of justice take a yearly oath to fulfil the duties laid 
on them by the order. After ten years they may take the full 
oath as professed knights. At any time before doing so, however, 
they are free to retire from the order and may receive the croix de 
devotion as honorary knights, their sole obligation being an annual 
subscription to the order. The croix de demotion is also bestowed 
on ladies of sufficiently impeccable descent. The grand master 
also has the right, motu proprio, to bestow the cross on distinguished 
people not of noble birth, who are known as knights of grace. The 
grand cross 2 of the order is sometimes given, honoris causa, to 
sovereigns and others, who then rank as honorary bailiffs. This is 
a gold, white enamelled " Maltese " cross, surmounted by a crown, 
which is worn suspended round the neck by a black ribbon. Bailiffs, 
professed knights and chaplains wear in addition a white linen cross 
sewn on to the left breast. The grand priory of Bohemia has made 
the nursing of the sick its speciality, and especially the organization 
of military hospitals. The hospice between Bethlehem and Jeru- 
salem is under the protection of the Austrian emperor. 

Protestant Orders. — In addition to the Sovereign Order of the 
Knights of Malta, there exist two Orders of St John of Jerusalem 
which derive their origin from the same source: the Prussian 
Johanniterorden and the English Order of St John of Jerusalem. 
Of these the Prussian order has the most interesting history. At 
the Reformation the master and knights of the bailiwick of Branden- 
burg adopted the new religion. They continued, however, like other 
Ritterstifter, to enjoy their corporate rights; they even continued 
to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the grand preceptor of the German 
langue, in so far as the confirmation of official appointments was 
concerned, and to send their contributions to the common fund of 

1 He was the only German in the list of grand masters. 
4 So called because the dignitaries wore a larger cross than the 
generality of the knights. 

the order. On the 30th of October 1810, under stress of the miseries 
of the Napoleonic occupation of Prussia, the order was secularized 
and its estates confiscated; in 1812 King Frederick William III. 
founded the chivalrous order of St John, to which the expropriated 
knights were admitted as honorary knights. In 1853 Frederick 
William IV. reversed this action, abolished the new chivalrous 
order and reconstituted the bailiwick of Brandenburg, on the 
ostensible ground that its maintenance had been guaranteed by the 
treaty of Westphalia (1648). The master (Herrenmeister) is elected 
by the chapter. All members of the order must be of noble birth 
and belong to the Evangelical Church. The cross worn is of white 
enamelled gold with four black eagles between the arms; a white 
linen cross is also sewn on the left breast of the red tunic which 
forms part of the uniform. The order has founded, and supports, 
many hospitals, including a hospice at Jerusalem (see Herrlich, Die 
Ballei Brandenburg, 4th ed., Berlin, 1904). 

As already mentioned, the English langue, though deprived of its 
lands, was never formally suppressed. In 1 826-1 827 the commission 
instituted by the French knights in 1814, which was aiming at 
taking advantage of the Greek War of Independence to reconquer 
Rhodes or to secure some other island in the Levant, suggested the 
restoration of the English langue, obviously with the idea of securing 
the help of Great Britain for their project. Certain eminent English- 
men, e.g. Sir Sydney Smith, had already been affiliated to the 
order by the grand master Baron von Hompesch; the commission 
now placed itself in communication with the Rev. Sir William Peat, 
chaplain to King George IV., and other English gentlemen of 
position. The negotiations resulted in articles of convention re- 
viving the English langue. In 1834 Sir William Peat, elected prior 
of the English langue, qualified himself by taking the oath de fideli 
administratione in the court of King's Bench, under the charter 
(never repealed) of Philip and Mary re-establishing the order. 3 
For fifty years this was all the official recognition obtained by this 
curious and characteristic sham-Gothic restoration of the Romantic 
period. The " English langue," however, though somewhat absurd, 
did good service in organizing hospital work, notably in the creation 
of the St John's Ambulance Association, and this work was recog- 
nized in high quarters, the princess of Wales (afterwards Queen 
Alexandra) becoming a lady of justice in 1876 and the duke of 
Albany joining the order in 1883. In 1888 Queen Victoria granted 
a charter formally incorporating the order, the headquarters of 
which had been established in the ancient gate-way of the priory at 
Clerkenwell. In 1889 the prince of Wales (King Edward VII.) was 
installed as grand prior. 

The objects and constitution of the order are practically the 
same as those of its Prussian equivalent. The sovereign is its supreme 
head and patron, the heir to the throne for the time being its grand 
prior. It is essentially aristocratic, though — for obvious reasons — 
proof of sixteen quarterings of nobility is not exacted as a condition 
of membership. The cross is the gold, white-enamelled Maltese 
cross, differenced by two lions and two unicorns placed between 
the arms. The order also gives medals to persons of all ranks 
" for service in the cause of humanity." Among other good works, 
it supports an ophthalmic hospital at Jerusalem. Unlike the 
Prussian order, the members need not be Protestants, though they 
must profess Christianity. 4 

Authorities. — From the 12th century onwards the knights 
exercised peculiar care in the preservation of their records, and the 
vast archives of the order are still preserved, all but intact, at Malta. 
These include not only those of the central establishment but also 
a large number of those of the separate commanderies. They in- 
clude papal bulls, the records of the general chapter, the statutes of 
the grand masters, title deeds, charters, and from 1629 onwards the 
special transactions of the Conseil d'&tat. These materials were 
exploited by several writers in the 17th and 1 8th centuries. The first 
was Giacomo Bosio, the 3rd edition of whose Istoria delta . . . 
illustrissima militia di S. Giov. Cierosolimitano was published in 
3 vols, at Rome in 1676. This was followed by S. Pauli's Codice 
diplomatico del sacro militare ordine Geros. (2 vols., Lucca, 1733- 
'737) and P. A. Paoli's Dell' origine ed istituto del sacro militar ordine , 
&c. (Rome, 1781). These are still useful sources as containing 
references to, and extracts from, documents since lost. In 1883 
J. Delaville Le Roulx published Les Archives del' Ordrede Saint- Jean, 
an analysis of the records preserved at Malta. This was followed 
in 1904 by his monumental Cartulaire general des Hospitallers de 
Saint- Jean de Jerusalem (1100-1310), 4 vols, folio. This gives (1) all 
documents anterior to 1 120, (2) all those emanating from the great 
dignitaries of the order, (3) all those emanating from popes, em- 
perors, kings and great feudatories, (4) those which fix the date of 
the foundation of particular commanderies, (5) those regulating the 
relations of the Hospitallers with the lay and ecclesiastical authorities 
and with the other military orders, (6) the rules, statutes and 
customs of the order. Hitherto unpublished documents (from the 
archives of Malta and elsewhere) are published in full ; those already 
published, and the place where they may be found, being indicated 
in proper sequence. Based on the Cartulaire is Le Roulx's Les 

3 See Bedford and Holbeche, Appendix D. 

4 The medieval vows are, of course, not taken. 



Hospilaliers en Terre Sainte et en Chypre (Paris, 1904), an invaluable 
work in which many hitherto obscure problems have been solved. 
It contains a full list of published authorities. Of English works 
may be mentioned John Taaffe's History of the Order of Malta 
(1852); J. M. Kemble's Historical introduction to The Knights 
Hospitallers in England (Camden Soc, London, 1857); W. Porter, 
Hist, of the Knights of Malta (2 vols. 1858, new ed. 1883); Bedford 
and Holbeche, The Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem 
(1902), for the modern order. (W. A. P.) 

ST JOHNS, the capital of Newfoundland, situated on the east 
coast of the island, in the peninsula of Avalon, in 47 33' 54" N., 
and 5 2 40' 18" W. It is the most easterly city of America, only 
1700 m. from Queenstown in Ireland, and 2030 from Liverpool. 
It stands on rising ground on the north side of a land-locked 
harbour, which opens suddenly in the lofty iron-bound coast. 
The entrance, known as The Narrows, guarded by Signal Hill 
(520 ft.) and South Side Hill (620 ft.), is about 1400 ft. wide, 
narrowing to 600 ft. between Pancake and Chain Rocks. At 
the termination of the Narrows the harbour trends suddenly to 
the west, thus completely shutting out the ocean swell. Vessels 
of the largest tonnage can enter at all periods of the tide. There 
is good wharf accommodation and a well-equipped dry dock. 
St Johns practically monopolizes the commerce of the island (see 
Newfoundland), |>eing the centre of the cod, seal and whale 
fisheries. The chief industries are connected with the fitting out 
of the fishing vessels, or with the disposal and manufacture 
of their catch. Steamship lines run to Liverpool, New York, 
Halifax (N.S.) and Saint Pierre. Nearly all the commerce of the 
island is sea-borne, and well-equipped steamers connect St Johns 
with the numerous bays and outports. It is the eastern terminus 
of the government railway across the island to Port-aux-Basques, 
whence there is steamer connexion with the mainland at Sydney. 

The finest buildings in the city are the Anglican and Roman 
Catholic cathedrals. Education is controlled by the various 
religious bodies; many of the young men complete their studies 
in Canada or Great Britain. St Johns is not an incorporated 
town. A municipal council was abolished after having largely 
increased the debt of the city, and it is now governed by com- 
missioners appointed by the governor in council. 

St Johns was first settled by Devonshire fishermen early in 
the 1 6th century. It was twice sacked by the French, and 
captured by them in the Seven Years' War (1762), but recaptured 
in the same year, since when it has remained in British possession. 
Both in the War of American Independence and in that of 1812 
it was the headquarters of the British fleet, and at one time the 
western end of the harbour was filled up with American prizes. 
The old city, built entirely of wood, was twice destroyed by fire 
(1816-1817 and 1846). Half of it was again swept away in 1892, 
but new and more substantial buildings have been erected. 

The population, chiefly of the Roman Catholic faith and of 
Irish descent, increases slowly. In 1901 the electoral district 
of St Johns contained 39,994 inhabitants, of whom 30,486 were 
within the limits of the city. 

ST JOHNS, a town and port of entry of Quebec, Canada, and 
capital of St Johns county, 27 m. S.E. of Montreal by rail, on 
the river Richelieu and at the head of the Chambly canal. Pop. 
(1901) 4030. A large export trade in lumber, grain and farm 
produce is carried on, and its mills and factories produce flour, 
silk, pottery, hats, &c. Three railways, the Grand Trunk, 
Canadian Pacific and Central Vermont, enter St Johns. On the 
opposite bank of the river is the flourishing town of St Jean 
d'Iberville (usually known simply as Iberville), connected with 
St Johns by several bridges. 

SAINT JOHNSBURY, a township and the county-seat of 
Caledonia county, Vermont, U.S.A., on the Passumpsic river, 
about 34 m. E.N.E. of Montpelier. Pop. (1890) 6567; (1900) 
7010; (1910) 8098; of the village of the same name (1900) 
5666 (1309 foreign-born); (1910) 6693. Area of the township, 
about 47 sq. m. Saint Johnsbury is served by the Boston & 
Maine and the Saint Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railways. 
The farms of the township are devoted largely to dairying. In 
the village are a Y.M.C.A. building (1885); the Saint Johnsbury 
Academy (1842); the Saint Johnsbury Athenaeum (1871), with 
a library (about 18,000 volumes in 1909) and an art gallery; 

the Fairbanks Museum of Natural Science (1891), founded by 
Colonel Franklin Fairbanks; St Johnsbury Hospital (1895); 
Brightlook Hospital (1899, private); the large scales manu- 
factory of the E. & T. Fairbanks Company (see Fairbanks, 
Erastus), and also manufactories of agricultural implements, 
steam hammers, granite work, furniture and carriages. There 
are two systems of water- works, one being owned by the village. 
The township of Saint Johnsbury was granted to Dr Jonathan 
Arnold (1741-1793) and associates in 1786; in the same year a 
settlement was established and the place was named in honour of 
Jean Hector Saint John de Crevecceur (1731-1813), who wrote 
Letters of an American Farmer (1782), a glowing description of 
America, which brought thither many immigrants, and who intro- 
duced potato planting into France. The township government was 
organized in 1790, and the village was incorporated in 1853. 

ST JOHN'S WORT, in botany, the general name for species of 
Hypericum, especially H. perforatum, small shrubby plants with 
slender stems, sessile opposite leaves which are often dotted with 
pellucid glands, and showy yellow flowers. H. Androsacnium 
is Tutsan (Fr. tout saine), so called from its healing properties. 
H . calycinum (Rose of Sharon) , a creeping plant with large almost 
solitary flowers 3 to 4 in. across, is a south-east European plant 
which has become naturalized in Britain in various places in 
hedges and thickets. 

SAINT JOSEPH, a city and the county-seat of Berrien county, 
Michigan, U.S.A., on Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Saint 
Joseph river, near the S.W. corner of the state. Pop. (1890) 
3733! (1900) 5155, of whom 1183 were foreign-born; (1910 
U.S. census) 5936. It is served by the Michigan Central and the 
Pere Marquette railways, by electric interurban railway to South 
Bend, Indiana, and by a steamboat line to Chicago. Benton 
Harbor, about 1 m. S.W., with which St Joseph is connected by 
electric line, is a terminus of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St Louis railway. The U.S. government has deepened the 
harbour channel to 18 ft.; and the St Joseph river has been 
made navigable for vessels drawing 3 ft. from St Joseph to 
Berrien Springs (25 m. by river). A canal, 1 m. long, extends 
from the upper part of the harbour to Benton Harbor. St 
Joseph has a public library. The city is a summer and health 
resort; it has mineral (saline sulphur) springs and a large 
mineral-water bath house. The general offices and the hospital 
(1902) of the Michigan Children's Home Society are here. The 
city has an important trade in fruit, and has various manu- 
factures, including paper, fruit packages, baskets, motor boats, 
gasolene launches, automobile supplies, hosiery and knit goods, 
air guns and sashes and blinds. The municipality owns and 
operates its water-works and electric-fighting plant. 

On or near the site of the present city La Salle built in 1679 Fort 
Miami. In the same county, on or near the site of the present city 
of Niles (pop. 1910, 5156), French Jesuits established an Indian 
mission in 1690, and the French government in 1697 erected Fort 
St Joseph, which was captured from the English by the Indians 
in 1763, and in 1781 was seized by a Spanish party from St Louis. 
Fort Miami has often been confused with this Fort St Joseph, 60 m. 
farther up the river. St Joseph was settled in 1829, incorporated 
as a village in 1836 and first chartered as a city in 1891. 

SAINT JOSEPH, a city and the county-seat of Buchanan 
county, Missouri, U.S.A., and a port of entry, situated in the 
north-western corner of the state on the E. bank of the Missouri 
river. It is the third in size among the cities of the state. Pop. 
(1880) 32,431; (1890) 52,324; (1900) 102,979, of whom 
8424 were foreign-born and 6260 were negroes; (1910 census) 
77,403. St Joseph is a transportation centre of great import- 
ance. It is served by six railways, the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago Great 
Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Missouri 
Pacific, and the St Joseph & Grand Island; in addition there 
are two terminal railways. A steel bridge across the Missouri 
(built in 1872; rebuilt in 1906) connects the city with Elwood, 
Kansas (pop. 1910, 636), and is used by two railways. The 
city is laid out on hills above the bluffs of the river. The site 
was completely remade, however (especially in 1866-1873), 
and the entire business portion has been much graded down. 
The principal public buildings are the Federal building, the 
court house, an auditorium seating 7000, a Union Station and a 



public library. There are six city parks, of which the largest 
are Krug Park (30 acres) and Bartlett Park (20 acres). The 
State Hospital (No. 2) for the Insane(opened 1874) is immediately 
E. of St Joseph; in the city are the Ensworth, St Joseph and 
Woodson hospitals, a Memorial Home for needy old people and 
the Home for Little Wanderers. South St Joseph, a manu- 
facturing suburb, has a library and so has the northern part 
of the city. The great stock-yards of South St Joseph are sights 
of great interest. In 1909 the state legislature provided for a 
commission form of government which took effect in April 
1910; a council of five, elected by the city at large, has only 
legislative powers; the mayor appoints members of a utilities 
commission, a park commission and a board of public works, 
and all officers except the city auditor and treasurer; and the 
charter provides for the initiative, the referendum and the 
recall. The city maintains a workhouse (1882), also two market 
houses, and owns and manages an electric-lighting plant. Natural 
gas is also furnished to the city from oil-fields in Kansas. A 
private company owns the water-works, first built in 1879 and 
since greatly improved. The water is drawn from the Missouri, 
3 m. above the city, and is pumped thence into reservoirs and 
settling basins. Beside the local trade of a rich surrounding 
farming country, the railway facilities of St Joseph have enabled 
it to build up a great jobbing trade (especially in dry goods), 
and this is still the greatest economic interest of the city. 
Commerce and transport were the only distinctive basis of the 
city's growth and wealth until after 1890, when there was a 
great increase in manufacturing, especially, in South St Joseph, 
of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the last three 
years of the decade. In 1900 the manufactured product of the 
city and its immediate suburbs was valued at $31,690,736, of 
which $19,009,332 were credited to slaughtering and packing. 
In the decade of 1890-1900 the increase in the value of manu- 
factures (165-9%) was almost five times as great in St Joseph 
as in any other of the largest four cities of the state, and this 
was due almost entirely to the growth of the slaughtering and 
meat-packing business, which is for the most part located outside 
the municipal limits. In 1905 the census reports did not include 
manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of 
the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; 
besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 
1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) 
flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and har- 
ness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors 
($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements. 

In 1826 Joseph Robidoux, a French half-breed trader, established 
a trading post on the site of St Joseph. Following the purchase 
from the Indians of the country, now known as the Platte Purchase, 
in 1836, a settlement grew up about this trading post, and in 1 843 
Robidoux laid out a town here and named it St Joseph in honour 
of his patron saint. St Joseph became the county-seat in .1846, 
and in 1851 was first chartered as a city. It early became a trading 
centre of importance, well known as an outfitting point for miners 
and other emigrants to the Rocky Mountain region and the Pacific 
coast. During the Civil War it was held continuously by the Unionists, 
but local sentiment was bitterly divided. After the war a rapid 
development began. In 1885 St Joseph became a city of the second 
class. Under the state constitution of 1 875 it has had the right, 
since attaining a population of 100,000, to form a charter for itself. 
In September 1909, at a special election, it adopted the commission 
charter described above. 

ST JUNIEN, a town of west-central France in the department 
of Haute- Vienne, on the right bank of the Vienne, 26 m. W. by 
N. of Limoges on the railway from Limoges to Angouleme. 
Pop. (1906) town, 8484; commune, 11,400. The 12th century 
collegiate church, a fine example of the Romanesque style of 
Limousin, contains a richly sculptured tomb of St Junien, the 
hermit of the 6th century from whom the town takes its name. 
Another interesting building is the Gothic chapel of Notre-Dame, 
with three naves, rebuilt by Louis XL, standing close to a 
medieval bridge over the Vienne. The town, which ranks second 
in the department in population and industry, is noted for 
leather-dressing and the manufacture of gloves and straw paper. 

DE (1767— 1794), French revolutionary leader, was born at 

Decize in the Nivernais on the 25th of August 1767. At the 
outbreak of the Revolution, intoxicated with republican ideas, 
he threw himself with enthusiasm into politics, was elected an 
officer in the National Guard of the Aisne, and by fraud — he 
being yet under age — admitted as a member of the electoral 
assembly of his district. Early in 1789 he had published twenty 
cantos of licentious verse, in the fashion of the time, under the 
title of Organt au Vatican. Henceforward, however, he assumed 
a stoical demeanour, which, united to a policy tyrannical 
and pitilessly thorough, became the characteristic of his life. 
He entered into correspondence with Robespierre, who, flattered 
by his worship, admitted him to his friendship. Thus supported, 
Saint- Just became deputy of the department of Aisne to the 
National Convention, where he made his first speech on the 
condemnation of Louis XVI. — gloomy, fanatical, remorseless 
in tone — on the 13th of November 1792. In the Convention, 
in the Jacobin Club, and among the populace his relations with 
Robespierre became known, and he was dubbed the " St John 
of the Messiah of the People." His appointment as a member 
of the Committee of Public Safety placed him at the centre of 
the political fever-heat. In the name of this committee he was 
charged with the drawing up of reports to the Convention upon 
the absorbing themes of the overthrow of the party of the Gironde 
(report of the 8th of July 1793), of the Herbertists, and finally, 
of that denunciation of Danton which consigned him and his 
followers to the guillotine. What were then called reports were 
rather appeals to the passions; in Saint-Just's hands they 
furnished the occasion for a display of fanatical daring, of gloomy 
eloquence, and of undoubted genius; and — with the shadow of 
Robespierre behind him — they served their turn. Camille 
Desmoulins, in jest and mockery, said of Saint-Just — the 
youth with the beautiful countenance and the long fair locks — 
" He carries his head like a Holy Sacrament." " And I," 
savagely replied Saint- Just, " will make him carry his like a 
Saint Denis." The threat was not vain: Desmoulins accom- 
panied Danton to the scaffold. The same ferocious inflexibility 
animated Saint-Just with reference to the external policy of 
France. He proposed that the National Convention should 
itself, through its committees, direct all military movements 
and all branches of the government (report of the 10th of October 
I 793)- This was agreed to, and Saint-Just was despatched to 
Strassburg, in company with another deputy, to superintend 
the military operations. It was suspected that the enemy 
without was being aided by treason within. Saint- Just's remedy 
was direct and terrible: he followed bis experience in Paris, 
" organized the Terror," and soon the heads of all suspects sent 
to Paris were falling under the guillotine. But there were no 
executions at Strassburg, and Saint-Just repressed the excesses 
of J. G. Schneider (q.v.), who as public prosecutor to the revolu- 
tionary tribunal of the Lower Rhine had ruthlessly applied the 
Terror in Alsace. Schneider was sent to Paris and guillotined. 
The conspiracy was defeated, and the armies of the Rhine and 
Moselle having been inspirited by success — Saint-Just himself 
taking a fearless part in the actual fighting — and having effected 
a junction, the frontier was delivered and Germany invaded* 
On his return Saint-Just was made president of the Convention. 
Later, with the army of the North, he placed before the generals 
the dilemma of victory over the enemies of France or trial by 
the dreaded revolutionary tribunal; and before the eyes of the 
army itself he organized a force specially charged with the 
slaughter of those who should seek refuge by flight. Success 
again crowned his efforts, and Belgium was gained for France 
(May, 1794). Meanwhile affairs in Paris looked gloomier than 
ever, and Robespierre recalled Saint-Just to the capital. Saint- 
Just proposed a dictatorship as the only remedy for the con- 
vulsions of society. At last, at the famous sitting of the 9th 
Thermidor, he ventured to present as the report of the com- 
mittees of General Security and Public Safety a document 
expressing his own views, a sight of which, however, had been 
refused to the other members of committee on the previous 
evening. Then the storm broke. He was vehemently inter- 
rupted, and the sitting ended with an order for Robespierre's 



arrest (see Robespierre). On the following day, the 28th of 
July 1794, twenty-two men, nearly all young, were guillotined. 
Saint-Just maintained his proud self-possession to the last. 

See CEuvres de Saint-Just, precedees d'une notice historique sur sa 
vie (Paris, 1833-1834); E. Fleury, Ittudes revolutionnaires (2 vols., 
1851), with which cf. articles by Sainte Beuve (Causeries du lundi, 
vol. v.), Cuvillier-Fleury (Portraits politiques et revolutionnaires) ; 
E. Hamel, Histoire de Saint-Just (1859), which brought a fine to the 
publishers for outrage on public decency ; F. A. Aulard, Les Orateurs 
de la Legislative et de la Convention (2nd ed., Paris, 1905). The 
CEuvres completes de Saint-Just have been edited with notes by 
C. Vellay (Paris, 1908). 

ST JUST (St Just in Penwith), a market town in the St Ives 
parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, i\ m. by road W. 
of Penzance. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5646. This is the 
most westerly town in England, lying in a wild district 1 m. 
inland from Cape Cornwall, which is 4 m. N. of Land's End. 
The urban district has an area of 7633 acres, and includes the 
small industrial colonies near some of the most important mines 
in Cornwall. The Levant mine is the chief, the workings extend- 
ing beneath the sea. Traces of ancient workings and several 
exhausted mines are seen. The church of St Just is Per- 
pendicular, with portions of the fabric of earlier date. There are 
ruins of an oratory dedicated to St Helen on Cape Cornwall. 

ST KILDA, a city of Bourke county, Victoria, Australia, 
35 m. by rail S. of, and suburban to, Melbourne. Pop. (1901) 
20,544. It is a fashionable watering-place on Hobson's Bay, and 
possesses the longest pier in Australia. The esplanade and the 
public park are finely laid out; and portions of the sea are 
fenced in to protect bathers. The town hall, the public library, 
the assembly hall, and the great Anglican church of All Saints 
are the chief buildings. 

ST KILDA (Gaelic Hirta, " the western land "), the largest 
of a small group of about sixteen islets of the Outer Hebrides, 
Inverness-shire, Scotland. It is included in the civil parish of 
Harris, and is situated 40 m. W. of North Uist. It measures 
3 m. from E. to W. and 2 m. from N. to S., has an area of about 
3500 acres, and is 7 m. in circumference. Except at the landing- 
place on the south-east, the cliffs rise sheer out of deep water, 
and on the north-east side the highest eminence in the island, 
Conagher, forms a precipice 1220 ft. high. St Kilda is probably 
the core of a Tertiary volcano, but, besides volcanic rocks, contains 
hills of sandstone in which the stratification is distinct. The 
boldness of its scenery is softened by the richness of its verdure. 
The inhabitants, an industrious Gaelic-speaking community 
(no in 1851 and 77 in 1901), cultivate about 40 acres of land 
(potatoes, oats, barley), keep about 1000 sheep and a few head 
of cattle. They catch puffins, fulmar petrels, guillemots, razor- 
birds, Manx shearwaters and solan geese both for their oil and 
for food. Fishing is generally neglected. Coarse tweeds and 
blanketing are manufactured for home use from the sheep's 
wool which is plucked from the animal, not shorn. The houses 
are collected in a little village at the head of the East Bay. The 
island is practically inaccessible for eight months of the year, 
but the inhabitants communicate with the outer world by means 
of " sea messages," which are despatched in boxes when a strong 
west wind is blowing, and generally make the western islands 
or mainland of Scotland in a week. 

The island has been in the possession of the Macleods for hundreds 
of years. In 1779 the chief of that day sold it, but in 187 1 Macleod 
ol Macleod bought it back, it is stated, for £3000. In 1724 the popu- 
lation was reduced by smallpox to thirty souls. They appear to 
catch what is called the " boat-cold " caused by the arrival of strange 
boats, and at one time the children suffered severely from a form of 
lockjaw known as the " eight days' sickness." 

See works by Donald Munro, high dean of the Isles (1585), M. 
Martin (1698), Rev. K. Macaulay (1764), R. Connell (1887); Miss 
Goodrich-Freer, The Outer Isles; Richard and Cherry Kearton, 
With Nature and a Camera (1896). 

ST KITTS, or St Christopher, an island in the British West 
Indies, forming, with Nevis and Anguilla, one of the presidencies 
in the colony of the Leeward Islands. It is a long oval with a 
narrow neck of land projecting from the south-eastern end; 
total length 23 m., area 63 sq. m. Mountains traverse the central 
part from N.W. to S.E., the greatest height being Mount Misery 
(3771 ft.). The island is well watered, fertile and healthy, and 

its climate is cool and dry (temperature between 78 and 85° F.; 
average annual rainfall 38 in.). The circle of land formed by 
the skirts of the mountains, and the valley of Basseterre con- 
stitute nearly the whole of the cultivated portion. The higher 
slopes of the hills afford excellent pasturage, while the summits 
are crowned with dense woods. Sugar, molasses, rum, salt, 
coffee and tobacco are the chief products; horses and cattle are 
bred. Primary education is compulsory. The principal towns 
are Old Road, Sandy Point and the capital Basseterre, which 
lies on the S.W. coast (pop. about 10,000). One good main road, 
macadamized throughout, encircles the island. The local 
legislature consists of 6 official and 6 unofficial members nomin- 
ated by the Crown. St Kitts was discovered by Columbus in 
1493 and first settled by Sir Thomas Warner in 1623. Five years 
later it was divided between the British and the French, but at 
the Peace of Utrecht in 17 13 it was entirely ceded to the British 
Crown. Population, mostly negroes, 29,782. 

poet, was born at Nancy on the 26th of December 1716. He 
entered the army and, when Stanislaus Leszczynski was estab- 
lished in 1737 as duke of Lorraine, he became an official at his 
court at Luneville. He left the army after the Hanoverian 
campaign of 1756-57, and devoted himself to literature, producing 
a volume of descriptive verse, Les Saisons (1769), now never 
read, many articles for the Encyclopidie, and some miscellaneous 
works. He was admitted to the Academy in 1770. His fame, 
however, comes chiefly from his amours. He was already high 
in the favour of the marquise de Boufflers, Stanislaus's mistress, 
whom he addressed in his verses as Doris and Thtmire, when 
Voltaire in 1748 came to Luneville with the marquise de Chatelet. 
Her infatuation for him and its fatal termination are known to 
all readers of the life oi Voltaire. His subsequent liaison with 
Madame d'Houdetot, Rousseau's Sophie, though hardly less 
disastrous to his rival, continued for the whoie lives of himself 
and his mistress. Saint-Lambert's later years were given to 
philosophy. He published in 1798 the Principe des mozurs chez 
toutes les nations ou catechisme universel, and published his 
CEuvres philosophiques (1803), two years before his death on the 
9th of February 1803. Madame d'Houdetot survived until the 
28th of January 1813. 

See G. Maugras, La Cow de Luneville (1904) and La Marquise de 
Boufflers (1907) ; also the literature dealing with Rousseau and 

ST LAWRENCE. The river St Lawrence, in North America, 
with the five fresh-water inland seas (see Great Lakes), Superior, 
Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario, forms one of the great river 
systems of the world, having a length, from the source of the river 
St Louis (which rises near the source of the river Mississippi and 
falls into the head of Lake Superior) to Cape Gaspe, where it 
empties into the Gulf of St Lawrence, of 2100 m. The river is 
here considered as rising at the foot of Lake Ontario, in 44 10' N., 
76 30' W., where the name St Lawrence is first applied*to it. 

The river, to the point where it crosses 45 N. in its north- 
westerly course, forms the boundary line between the state of 
New York and the province of Ontario; thence to the sea it is 
wholly within Canadian territory, running through the province 
of Quebec. At Point des Monts, 260 m. below Quebec, it is 
26 m. wide, and where it finally merges into 'the Gulf of St 
Lawrence, 150 m. farther on, it is 90 m. wide, this stretch being 
broken by the large island of Anticosti, lying fairly in the mouth. 
The character of the river banks varies with the geological 
formations through which it runs. Passing over the Archaean 
rocks of the Laurentian from Kingston to Brockville the shores 
are very irregular, and the river is broken up by protrusions of 
glaciated summits of the granites and gneisses into a large 
number of picturesque islands, " The Thousand Islands," 
greatly frequented as a summer resort. From Brockville to 
Montreal the river runs through flat-bedded Cambro-silurian 
limestones, with rapids at several points, which are all run by 
light-draught passenger boats. For the up trip the rapids are 
avoided by canalization. From Montreal to Three Rivers the 
course is through an alluvial plain over-lying the limestones, 



the river at one point expanding into Lake St Peter, 20 m. long 
by 10 m. wide, with a practically uniform depth of 10 ft. Below 
Three Rivers the banks grow gradually higher until, after passing 
Quebec through a cleft in slate rocks of Cambrian age, the river 
widens, washing the feet of the Laurentian Mountains on its 
north shore ; while a more moderately hilly country, terminating 
in the Shickshock Mountains of the Gaspe Peninsula, skirts its 
south shore. 

From Kingston, at the head of the river, to Montreal, a 
distance of 170 m., navigation is limited to vessels of 14 ft. 
draught by the capacity of the canals. From Montreal to 
Quebec, 160 m., a ship channel has been dredged to a depth of 
30 ft.; below Quebec the river is tidally navigable by vessels 
of any draught. The canals on the St Lawrence above Montreal 
have been enlarged to the capacity of the Welland canal, the 
improved system having been opened to commerce in the autumn 
of 1899. Instead of enlarging the Beauharnois canal, on the south 
side of the river, a new canal, the " Soulanges," was built from 
Coteau Landing to Cascades Point, on the north side, the Beau- 
harnois canal still being used for small barges. The locks of the 
enlarged canals are all 45 ft. wide, with an available depth of 
14 ft. and a minimum length of 270 ft. The following table 
shows the canalized stretches in this portion of the river:— 




in Miles. 

of Locks. 

Fall in 


River .... 

Rapide Plat 

River .... 

Farran Point 

River .... 

Cornwall Canal . 

Lake St Francis 

Soulanges . 

Lake St Louis . 


Head of Galops Rapids 
Head of Ogden Island 
Head of Croil Island 
Dickinson Landing 
Coteau Landing 

Farran Point 
Cascades Point 













In the stretch between Montreal and Quebec the ship channel, 
begun by the Montreal Harbour Commissioners, has been assumed 
by the Dominion government as a national work, and improve- 
ments, involving extensive dredging, have been undertaken 
with the aim of securing everywhere a minimum depth of 
30 ft. with a minimum width of 450 ft. The whole river 
from Kingston to the sea is well supplied with aids to navi- 
gation. In the dredged portions lights are arranged in pairs 
of leading lights on foundations sufficiently high and solid 
to resist the pressure of ice movement, and there is an elabo- 
rate system of fog alarms, gas-lighted and other buoys, as well 
as telegraphic, wireless and telephonic communication, storm 
signal, weather and ice reporting stations and a life-saving 

Montreal, at the head of ocean navigation, the largest city 
in Canada, is an important distributing centre for all points in 
western Canada, and enjoys an extensive shipping trade with 
the United Kingdom, the sea-going shipping exceeding 1,500,000 
tons, and the inland shipping approximating 2,000,000 tons, 
annually. Quebec is the summer port used by the largest 
steamers in the Canadian trade. There are numerous flourishing 
towns on both banks of the river, from Kingston, a grain trans- 
ferring port, to the sea. Large quantities of lumber, principally 
spruce (fir) and paper pulp, are manufactured at small mills 
along the river, and shipped over sea directly from the place 
of production. The mail steamers land and embark mails 
at Rimouski, to or from which they are conveyed by rail along 
the south shore. 

The importance to Canada of the river St Lawrence as a 
national trade route cannot be over-estimated. As a natural 
highway between all points west of the Maritime Provinces and 
Europe it is unique in permitting ocean traffic to penetrate 
1000 m. into the heart of a country. It is, moreover, the shortest 
freight route from the Great Lakes to Europe. From Buffalo 

to Liverpool via New York involves rail or 7-ft. canal transport 
of 496 m. and an ocean voyage of 3034 nautical miles. Via 
Montreal there is a 14-ft. transport of 348 m. and river and 
ocean voyage of 2772 nautical miles. From Quebec to Liverpool 
by Cape Race is 2801 nautical miles, while the route by Belle 
Isle, more nearly a great circle course, usually taken between 
July and October, is only 2633 nautical miles. On the other 
hand the St Lawrence is not open throughout the year; the 
average time between the arrival of the first vessel at Montreal 
from sea and the departure of the last ocean vessel is seven 
months. From Kingston to Quebec the river freezes over every 
winter, except at points where the current is rapid. Below 
Quebec, although there is heavy border ice, the river never 
freezes over. For a few winters, while the bridge accommodation 
at Montreal was restricted to the old single-track Victoria 
bridge, railway freight trains were run across the ice bridge on 
temporary winter tracks. Efforts have been made to lengthen 
the season of navigation by using specially constructed steamers 
to break the ice; and it is claimed that the season of navigation 
could be materially lengthened, and winter floods prevented 
by keeping the river open to Montreal. Winter ferries are 
maintained at Quebec, between Prince Edward Island and 
Nova Scotia, and between Newfoundland and Sydney, Cape 

Breton. In the winter of 1898-1899 
an attempt was made to run a winter 
steamer from Paspebiac to England, 
but it was not successful, principally 
because an unsuitable vessel was used. 
To pass through the field of ice that 
is always present in the gulf, in 
greater or lesser quantity, specially 
strengthened vessels are required. 

The river above tide water is not 
subject to excessive flooding, the maxi- 
mum rise in the spring and early 
summer months, chiefly from northern 
tributaries from the Ottawa eastward, 
being 10 ft. The Great Lakes serve as 
impounding reservoirs for the gradual 
distribution of all overflows in the west. At Montreal, soon after the 
river freezes over each winter, there is a local rise of about 10 ft. in 
the level of the water in the harbour, caused by restriction of the 
channel by anchor ice ; and in the spring of the year, when the volume 
of the water is augmented, this obstruction leads to a further rise, in 
1886 reaching a height of 27 ft. above ordinary low water. To 
prevent flooding of the lower parts of the city a dike was in 1887 
built along the river front, which prevented a serious flooding in 

Tides enter the Gulf of St Lawrence from the Atlantic chiefly 
through Cabot Strait (between Cape Breton and Newfoundland), 
which is 75 m. wide and 250 fathoms deep. The tide entering through 
Belle Isle Strait, 10 m. wide and 30 fathoms deep, is comparatively 
little felt. The tidal undulation, in passing through the gulf, expands 
so widely as to be almost inappreciable in places, as, for example, 
at the Magdalen Islands, in the middle of the gulf, where the range 
amounts to about 3 ft. at springs, becoming effaced at neaps. There 
is also little more tide than this at some points on the north shore 
of Prince Edward Island. The greatest range is attained in North- 
umberland Strait and in Chaleur Bay, where it amounts to 10 ft. 
At the entrance to the estuary at Anticosti it has again the oceanic 
range of about 6 ft., and proceeds up the estuary with an ever- 
increasing range, which attains its maximum of 19 ft. at the lower 
end of Orleans Island, 650 m. from the ocean at Cabot Strait. This 
must be considered the true head of the estuary. At Quebec, 30 m. 
farther up, the range is nearly as great; but at 40 m. above Quebec 
it is largely cut off by the Richelieu Rapids, and finally ceases to 
be felt at Three Rivers, at the lower end of Lake St Peter, 760 m. 
from the ocean. 

The St Lawrence provides ample water-power, which is being 
increasingly used. Its rapids have long been used for milling and 
factory purposes; a wing dam on the north side of Lachine Rapids 
furnishes electricity to Montreal; the falls of Montmorency light 
Quebec and run electric street cars; and from Lake Superior to 
the gulf there are numerous points on the tributaries to the St 
Lawrence where power could be used. 

Nearly all the rivers flowing into the St Lawrence below 
Quebec are stocked with salmon (Salmo salar), and are preserved 
and leased to anglers by the provincial government. In the salt 



water of the gulf and lower river, mackerel, cod, herring, smelt, 
sea-trout, striped bass and other fish are caught for market. 

The St Lawrence is spanned by the following railway bridges : 
(1) A truss bridge built near Cornwall in 1900 by the New York 
& Ottawa railroad, now operated by the New York Central 
railroad. (2) A truss bridge with a swing, built in 1890 by the 
Canada Atlantic railway at Coteau Landing. (3) A cantilever 
bridge built in 1887 by the Canadian Pacific railway at Caugh- 
nawaga. (4) The Victoria Jubilee bridge, built as a tubular 
bridge by the Grand Trunk railway in i860, and transformed 
into a truss bridge in 1897-1898. The new bridge rests on the 
piers of the old one, enlarged to receive it, is 6592 ft. long by 
67 ft. wide, has 25 spans, double railway and trolley tracks, 
driveways and sidewalks, and was erected without interruption 
of traffic. (5) A very large cantilever bridge, having a central 
span of 1800 ft., crosses the river at a point 7 m. above Quebec. 
The southern half of the superstructure, while in course of 
erection in August 1907, fell, killing 78 men, and necessitating a 
serious delay in the completion of the work. 

The river St Lawrence was discovered by Jacques Cartier, 
commissioned by the king of France to explore and trade on the 
American coast. Cartier entered the strait of Belle Isle in 1534; 
but Breton fishermen had previously resorted there in summer 
and penetrated as far as Brest, eleven leagues west of Blanc 
Sablon, the dividing line between Quebec and Labrador. Cartier 
circled the whole gulf, but missed the entrance to the river. On 
his second voyage in 1536 he named a bay on the north shore 
of the gulf, which he entered on the 10th of August, the feast 
of St Lawrence, Baye Sainct Laurens, and the name gradually 
extended over the whole river, though Cartier himself always 
wrote of the River of Canada. Early in September, he reached 
" Canada," now Quebec, and on the 2nd of October reached 
Hochelaga, now Montreal. No permanent settlement was then 
made. The first, Tadousac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, was 
established by Champlain in 1603, and Quebec was settled by 
him in 1608. Between that time and 1616 Champlain explored 
the whole river system as far west as Lake Huron, reaching it 
by way of the Ottawa river, and taking possession of the country 
in the name of the king of France. It became British by the 
treaty of Paris, in 1763. 

See S. E. Dawson, The St Lawrence, Us Basin and Border Lands 
(New York, 1905) (historical) ; St Lawrence Pilot (7th ed., Hydro- 
graphic Office, Admiralty, London, 1906) ; Sailing Directions for 
the St Lawrence River to Montreal (United States Hydrographic 
Office publication, No. 108 D, Washington, 1907): Annual Reports 
of the Canadian Departments of Marine and Fisheries, Public Works, 
and Railways and Canals, Ottawa); Transactions (Royal Society, 
Canada, 1898-1899), vol. iv. sec. iii.; T. C. Keefer on " Ice Floods 
and Winter Navigation of the St Lawrence," Transactions (Canadian 
Society of Civil Engineers, Presidential Address of W. P. Anderson, 
on improvements to navigation on St Lawrence, 1904). 

(W. P. A.) 

ST LEGER, SIR ANTHONY (c. 1496-1559), lord deputy of 
Ireland, eldest son of Ralph St Leger, a gentleman of Kent, was 
educated abroad and at Cambridge. He quickly gained the 
favour of Henry VIII. , and was appointed in 1537 president of a 
commission for inquiring into the condition of Ireland. This 
work he carried out with ability and obtained much useful 
knowledge of the country. In 1540 he was appointed lord 
deputy of Ireland. His first task was to repress disorder, and 
he at once proceeded with severity against the Kavanaghs, per- 
mitting them, however, to retain their lands, on their accepting 
feudal tenure on the English model. By a similar policy he 
exacted obedience from the O'Mores, the O'Tooles and the 
O'Conors in Leix and Offaly; and having conciliated the O'Briens 
in the west and the earl of Desmond in the south, the lord deputy 
carried an act in the Irish parliament in Dublin conferring the 
title of king of Ireland on Henry VIII. and his heirs. Conn 
O'Neill, who in the north had remained sullenly hostile, was 
brought to submission by vigorous measures. For the most 
part, however, St Leger's policy was one of moderation and 
conciliation — rather more so, indeed, than Henry VIII. approved. 
He recommended The O'Brien, when he gave token of a sub- 
missive disposition, for the title of earl of Thomond; O'Neill 

was created earl of Tyrone; and administrative council was 
instituted in the province of Munster; and in 1544 a levy of 
Irish soldiers was raised for service in Henry VIII. 's wars. 
St Leger's personal influence was proved by an outbreak of 
disturbance when he visited England in 1544, and the prompt 
restoration of order on his return some months later. St Leger 
retained his office under Edward VI., and again effectually 
quelled attempts at rebellion by the O'Conors and O'Byrnes. 
From 1548 to 1550 he was in England. He returned charged 
with the duty of introducing the reformed liturgy into Ireland. 
His conciliatory methods brought upon him the accusation that 
he lacked zeal in the cause, and led to his recall in the summer 
of 1 55 1. After the accession of Mary he was again appointed 
lord deputy in October 1553, but in consequence of a charge 
against him of keeping false accounts he was recalled for the 
third time in 1556. While the accusation was still under investi- 
gation, he died on the 16th of March 1559. 

By his wife Agnes, daughter of Hugh Warham, a niece cf 
Archbishop Warham, he had three sons, William, Warham and 
Anthony. William died in his father's lifetime leaving a son, 
Sir Warham St Leger (d. 1600), who was father of Sir William 
St Leger (d. 1642), president of Munster. Sir William took part in 
" the flight of the earls " (see O'Neill) in 1607, and spent several 
years abroad. Having received a pardon from James I. and 
extensive grants of land in Ireland, he was appointed president 
of Munster by Charles I. in 1627. He warmly supported the 
arbitrary government of Strafford, actively assisting in raising 
and drilling the Irish levies destined for the service of the king 
against the Parliament. In the great rebellion of 1641 he bore 
the chief responsibility for dealing with the insurgents in Munster; 
but the forces and supplies placed at his disposal were utterly 
inadequate. He executed martial law in his province with the 
greatest severity, hanging large numbers of rebels, often without 
much proof of guilt. He was still struggling with the insurrection 
when he died at Cork on the 2nd of July 1642. Sir William's 
daughter Margaret married Murrough O'Brien, 1st earl of Inchi- 
quin; his son John was father of Arthur St Leger, created 
Viscount Doneraile in 1703. , 

A biography of Sir Anthony St Leger will be found in Alhenae 
Cantabrigienses, by C. H. Cooper and T. Cooper (Cambridge, 1858) ; 
see also Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Hen. VIII.-Eliz. ; 
Calendar of Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII. ; Calendar 
of State Papers {Domestic Series), Edward VI.— James I.; Calendar 
of Carew MSS. ; J. O'Donovan's edition of Annals of Ireland by the 
Four Masters (7 vols., Dublin, 1851); Richard Bagwell, Ireland 
under the Tudors (3 Vols., London, 1 885-1890) ; J. A. Froude, History 
of England (12 vols., London, 1856-1870). For Sir William St Leger, 
see Strafford's Letters and Despatches (2 vols., London, 1739) ; Thomas 
Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde (6 vols., Oxford, 
1851); History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland, 
edited by Sir J. T. Gilbert (Dublin, 1882-1891). (R. J. M.) 


Baron (1781-1875), lord chancellor of Great Britain, was the son 
of a hairdresser of Duke Street, Westminster, and was born on 
the 1 2th of February 1781. After practising for some years as a 
conveyancer, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1807, 
having already published his well-known treatise on the Law 
'of Vendors and Purchasers (14th ed., 1862). In 1822 he was made 
king's counsel and chosen a bencher of Lincoln's Inn. He was 
returned at different times for various boroughs to the House of 
Commons, where he made himself prominent by his opposition to 
the Reform Bill of 1832. He was appointed solicitor-general in 
1829, was named lord chancellor of Ireland in 1834, and again 
filled the same office from 1841 to 1846. Under Lord Derby's 
first administration in 1852 he became lord chancellor and was 
raised to the peerage as Lord St Leonards. In this position he 
devoted himself with energy and vigour to the reform of the law; 
Lord Derby on his return to power in 1858 again offered him the 
same office, which from considerations of health he declined. 
He continued, however, to take an active interest especially in the 
legal matters that came before the House of Lords, and bestowed 
his particular attention on the reform of the law of property. 
He died at Boyle Farm, Thames Ditton, on the 29th of January 



After his death his will was missing, but his daughter, Miss 
Charlotte Sugden,. was able to recollect the contents of a most 
intricate document, and in the action of Sugden v. Lord St 
Leonards (L.R. i P.D. 154) the court accepted her evidence 
and granted probate of a paper propounded as containing the 
provisions of the lost will. This decision established the pro- 
position that the contents of a lost will may be proved by 
secondary evidence, even of a single witness. 

Lord St Leonards was the author of various important legal 
publications, many of which have passed through several editions. 
Besides the treatise on purchasers already mentioned, they include 
Powers, Cases decided by the House of Lords, Gilbert on Uses, New 
Real Property Laws and Handybook of Property Law, Misrepresenta- 
tions in Campbell's Lives of Lyndhurst and Brougham, corrected by 
St Leonards. See The Times (30th of January 1875) ; E. Manson, 
Builders of our Law (1904); J. R. Atlay, Lives of the Victorian 
Chancellors, vol. ii. 

ST LIZIER-DE-COUSERANS, a village of south-western 
France in the department of Ariege on the right bank of the 
Salat, 1 m. N.N.W. of St Girons. Pop. (1906) 615; commune 
1295. St Lizier, in ancient times one of the twelve cities of 
Novempopulania under the name of Lugdunum Consoranorum, 
was later capital of the Couserans and seat of a bishopric (sup- 
pressed at the Revolution) to the holders of which the town 
belonged. It has a cathedral of the 1 2th and 14th centuries with 
a fine Romanesque cloister and preserves remarkable remains of 
Roman ramparts. The old episcopal palace (17th century) 
and the adjoining church (14th and 17th centuries), once the 
cathedral with its fine chapter-hall (12th century), form part 
of a lunatic asylum. The Salat is crossed by a bridge of the 
1 2th or 13th century. The town owes its name to its bishop 
Lycerius, who is said to have saved it from the Vandals in the 
7th century. The chief event in its history was its devastation 
in 1 130 by Bernard III., count of Comminges, a disaster from 
which it never completely recovered. 

ST LO, a town of north-western France, capital of the depart- 
ment of Manche, 475 m. W. by S. of Caen by rail. Pop. (1906) 
town 9379; commune, 12,181. St L6 is situated on a rocky 
hill on the right bank of the Vire. Its chief building is the 
Gothic church of Notre-Dame, dating mainly from the 16th 
century. The facade, flanked by two lofty towers and richly 
decorated, is impressive, despite its lack of harmony. There is 
a Gothic pulpit outside the choir. In the hotel-de-ville is the 
" Torigni marble," the pedestal of an ancient statue, the in- 
scriptions on which relate chiefly to the annual assemblies of the 
Gallic deputies held at Lyons under the Romans. The modern 
church of Sainte-Croix preserves a Romanesque portal which 
belonged to the church of an ancient Benedictine abbey. St L6 
is the seat of a prefect and has tribunals of first instance and of 
commerce, a training college for masters, a school of drawing, 
a branch of the Bank of France, a chamber of arts and manu- 
factures, and a government stud. The town has trade in grain, 
fat stock, troop-horses and farm produce, and carries on tanning, 
wool-spinning and bleaching and the manufacture -of woollen 
and other fabrics. 

St L6, called Briove.ra in the Gallo-Roman period, owes its present 
name to St L5 (Laudus), bishop of Coutances (d. 568). In the middle 
ages St L6 became an important fortress as well as a centre for the 
weaving industry. It sustained numerous sieges, the last in 1574, 
when the town, which had embraced Calvinism, was stormed by 
the Catholics and many of its inhabitants massacred. In 1800 the 
town was made capital of its department in place of Coutances. 

ST LOUIS, the chief city and a port of entry of Missouri, an'd 
the fourth in population among the cities of the United States, 
situated on the W. bank of the Mississippi river, about 20 m. 
below its confluence with the Missouri, 200 m. above the influx 
of the Ohio, and 1270 m. above the Gulf of Mexico, occupying 
a land area of 61-37 S Q- m - m a commanding central position 
in the great drainage basin of the Mississippi system, the richest 
portion of the continent. Pop. (1880) 350,518, (1890) 451,770, 
(1900) 575,238, (191°) 687,029. 

The central site is marked by an abrupt terraced rise from the 
river to an easily sloping tableland, 4 or 5 m. long and somewhat 
less than 1 m. broad, behind which are rolling hills. The length 
of the river-front is about 19 m. The average elevation of the 

city is more than 425 ft.; and the recorded extremes of low and 
high water on the river are 379 and 428 ft. (both established in 
1844). The higher portions of the city lie about 200 ft. above 
the river level, and in general the site is so elevated that there 
can be no serious interruption of business except by extraordinary 
floods. The natural drainage is excellent, and the sewerage 
system, long very imperfect, has been made adequate. The street 
plan is approximately rectilinear. The stone-paved wharf or 
river-front, known as the Levee or Front Street, is 3-7 m. long. 
Market Street, running E. and W., is regarded as the central 
thoroughfare; and the numbering of the streets is systematized 
with reference to this line and the river. Broadway (or Fifth 
Street, from the river) and Olive Street are the chief shopping 
centres; Washington Avenue, First (or Main) and Second Streets 
are devoted to wholesale trade; and Fourth Street is the financial 
centre. The most important public buildings are the Federal 
building, built of Maine granite; the county court house (1839- 
1862, $1,199,872), — a semi-classic, plain, massive stone structure, 
the Four Courts (1871, $755,000), built of cream-coloured Joliet 
stone, and a rather effective city hall (1890-1904, $2,000,000), 
in Victorian Gothic style in brick and stone. The chief slave- 
market before the Civil War was in front of the Court House. The 
City Art Museum, a handsome semi-classic structure of original 
design, and the Tudor-Gothic building of the Washington 
University, are perhaps the most satisfying structures in the city 
architecturally. Among other noteworthy buildings are the Public 
Library, the Mercantile Library, the Mercantile, the Mississippi 
Valley, the Missouri-Lincoln, and the St Louis Union Trust Com- 
pany buildings; the German-Renaissance home of the Mercantile 
Club; the florid building of the St Louis Club; the Merchants' 
Exchange; the Missouri School for the Blind; the Coliseum, 
built in 1897 for conventions, horse shows, &c, torn down in 
1907 and rebuilt in Jefferson Avenue, and the Union Station, 
used by all the railways entering the city. This last was opened 
in 1894, and cost, including the site, $6,500,000; has a train-shed 
with thirty-two tracks, covers some eleven acres, and is one of 
the largest and finest railway stations in the world. The city 
owns a number of markets. In 1907 a special architectural 
commission, appointed to supervise the construction of new 
municipal buildings, purchased a site adjacent to the City 
Hall, for new city courts and jail, which were begun soon 

The valley of Mill Creek (once a lake bed, " Chouteau Pond," 
and afterwards the central sewer) traverses the city from W. 
to E. and gives entry to railways coming from the W. into the 
Union Station. The terminal system for connecting Missouri 
with Illinois includes, in addition to the central passenger station, 
vast centralized freight warehouses and depots; an elevated 
railway along the levee; passenger and freight ferries across 
the Mississippi with railway connexions; two bridges across 
the river; and a tunnel leading to one of them under the streets 
of the city along the river front. The Merchants' Bridge (1887- 
1890, $3,000,000), used solely by the railways, is 1366-5 ft. 
long in channel span, with approaches almost twice as long. 
The Eads Bridge (1868-1874; construction cost $6,536,730, 
total cost about $10,000,000) is 3 m. farther down the river; 
it Carries both wagon ways and railway tracks, is 1627 ft. clear 
between shore abutments, and has three spans. Built entirely 
of steel above the piers, it is a happy combination of strength 
and grace, and was considered a marvel when erected. 

St Louis has exceptionally fine residential streets that are 
accounted among the handsomest in the world. The most notable 
are Portland Place, Westmoreland Place, Vandeventer Place, 
Kingsbury Place, &c, in the neighbourhood of Forest Park: 
broad parked avenues, closed with ornamental gateways, and 
flanked by large houses in fine grounds. The park system of 
the city is among the finest in the country, containing in 1910 
2641-5 acres (cost to 1909, $6,417,745). Forest Park (1372 
acres), maintained mainly in a natural, open-country state, 
is the largest single member of the system. In one end of it 
was held the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. Tower 
Grove Park (277 acres) and the Missouri Botanical Gardens 



(45 acres), probably the finest of their kind in the country, 
were gifts to the city from a public-spirited citizen, Henry 
Shaw (1800- 1 889), who also endowed the botanical school of 
Washington University. Carondelet (180 acres), O'Fallon (158 
acres) ,and Fairground(i 29 acres, including a 65-acre athletic field) 
are the finest of the other parks. King's Highway is a boulevard 
(partly completed in 1910) from the Mississippi on the S. to the 
Mississippi on the N., crossing the western part of the city. 
In accord with a general movement in American cities late in 
the 19th century, St Louis made a beginning in the provision of 
small " neighbourhood parks," intended primarily to better the 
lives of the city's poor, and vacation playgrounds for children; 
and for this purpose five blocks of tenements were condemned 
by the city. In the different parks and public places are statues 
of Columbus, Shakespeare (Tower Grove Park) and Humboldt 
(Tower Grove Park), by Ferdinand von Mueller of Munich; 
a replica of the Schiller monument at Marbach in Germany, 
and of Houdon's Washington (Lafayette Park) ; statues of 
Thomas Hart Benton (Lafayette Park; by Harriet Hosmer), 
of Francis Preston Blair (W. W. Gardner) and Edward Bates 
(J. W. McDonald), both in Forest Park, and of General Grant 
(R. P. Bringhurst) in the City Hall Park; all of these being in 
bronze. In the cemeteries of the city — of which the largest are 
Belief on taine (350 acres) and Calvary (415 acres) — there are 
notable monuments to Henry Shaw, and to Nathaniel Lyon, 
Sterling Price, Stephen W. Kearny and W. T. Sherman, all 
closely associated with St Louis or Missouri. There are various 
lake, river and highland pleasure-resorts near the city; and 
about 12 m. S. is Jefferson Barracks, a national military post 
of the first class. The old arsenal within the city, about which 
centred the opening events of the Civil War in Missouri, has 
been mainly abandoned, and part of the grounds given to the 
municipality for a park. 

The annual fair, or exposition, was held in the autumn of each 
year — except in war time — from 1855 to 1902, ceasing with the 
preparations for the World's Fair of 1904. One day of Fair 
Week (" Big Thursday ") was a city holiday; and one evening 
of the week was given over after 1878 to a nocturnal illuminated 
pageant known as the Procession of the Veiled Prophet, with 
accompaniments in the style of the carnival (Mardi Gras) at 
New Orleans; this pageant is still continued. 

Among the educational institutions of the city, Washington 
University, a largely endowed, non-sectarian, co-educational school 
opened in 1857, is the most prominent. Under its control are three 
secondary schools, Smith Academy and the Manual Training School 
for Boys, and Mary Institute for Girls. The university embraces a 
department of arts and sciences, which includes a college and a 
school of engineering and architecture, and special schools of law, 
medicine (1899), dentistry, fine arts, social economy and botany. 
Affiliated with the university is the St Louis School of Social Economy, 
called until 1909 the St Louis School of Philanthropy, and in 1906- 
1909 affiliated with the university of Missouri. The Russell Sage 
Foundation co-operates with this school. In 1909 Washington 
University had 1045 students. In 1905 the department of arts 
and sciences and the law school were removed to the outskirts of 
the city, where a group of buildings of Tudor-Gothic style in red 
Missouri granite were erected upon grounds, which with about 
$6,000,000 for buildings and endowment, were given to the univer- 
sity. St Louis University had its beginnings (1818) as a Latin 
academy, became a college in 1820, and was incorporated as a 
university in 1832. One of the leading Jesuit colleges of the United 
States, it is the parent-school of six other prominent Jesuit colleges 
in the Middle West. In 1910 it comprised a school of philosophy 
and science (1832), a divinity school (1834), a medical school (1836), ^ 
law school (1843), a dental school (1908), a college, three academies 
and a commercial department; and its enrolment was 1181. It is 
the third largest, and the Christian Brothers' College (1851), also 
Roman Catholic, is the fourth largest educational institution in the 
state. The Christian Brothers' College had in 1910 30 instructors 
and 500 students, most of whom were in the preparatory department. 
Besides the Divinity School of St Louis University, there are three 
theological seminaries, Concordia (Evangelical Lutheran, 1839), 
Eden Evangelical College (German Evangelical Synod of North 
America, 1850) and Kennck Theological Seminary (Roman Catholic, 
1894). There are two evening law schools, Benton College (1896) 
and Metropolitan College (1901). 

The public school system came into national prominence under 
the administration (1 867-1 880) of William T. Harris, and for many 
years has been recognized as one of the best in the United States. 

The first permanent kindergarten in the country in connexion with 
the public schools was established in St Louis in 1 873 by W. T. Harris 
(g.».), then superintendent of schools, and Miss Susan Ellen Blow. 
The first public kindergarten training school was established at the 
same time. There is a teachers' college in the city school system, 
and there are special schools for backward children. Several school 
buildings have been successfully used as civic centres. The city 
has an excellent educational museum, material from which is avail- 
able for object lessons in nature study, history, geography, art, 
&c., in all public schools. In the year 1907-1908 the total receipts 
for public education were $4,219,000, and the expenditure was 
$3,789,604. The City Board of Education was chartered in 1897. 

The German element has lent strength to musical and gymnastic 
societies. The Museum and School of Fine Arts was established in 
1879 as the Art Department of Washington University. In 1908 it 
first received the proceeds of a city tax of one-fifth mill per dollar, 
and in 1909 it was reorganized as the City Art Museum. In its 
building (the " Art Palace," built in 1 903-1904 at a cost of $943,000 
for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition ; now owned by the city) 
in Forest Park are excellent collections (largely loaned) of sculpture 
and paintings (illustrating particularly the development of American 
art) and of art objects. The School of Fine Arts, now separate from 
the museum and a part of Washington University, has classes in 
painting, drawing, design, illustration, modelling, pottery, book- 
binding, &c. Among the libraries the greatest collections are those 
of the Mercantile Library (in 1910, 136,000 volumes and pamphlets), 
a subscription library founded in 1846, and the public library (1865) — 
a fine city library since 1894, with 312,000 volumes in 1910 and six 
branch libraries, the gift of Andrew Carnegie, who also gave the city 
$500,000 towards the new public library, which was begun in 1909 
and cost $1,500,000. Other notable collections are those of the St 
Louis Academy of Science and of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 
There are at least three newspapers of national repute : the Republic, 
established in 1808 as the Missouri Gazette, and in 1822-1886 called 
the Missouri Republican; the Globe-Democrat (1852); and the 
Westliche Post (1857). 

In trade, industry and wealth St Louis is one of the most 
substantial cities of the Union. Its growth has been steady; 
but without such " booms " as have marked the history of many 
western cities, and especially Chicago, of which St Louis was for 
several decades the avowed rival. The primacy of the northern 
city was clear, however, by 1880. St Louis has borne a reputa- 
tion for conservatism and solidity. Its manufactures aggregate 
three-fifths the value of the total output of the state. In 1880 
their value was $114,333,375, and in 1890 $228,700,000; the 
value of the factory product was $193,732,788 in 1900, and in 
1905 $267,307,038 (increase 1900-1905, 38%). 

Tobacco goods, malt liquors, boots and shoes and slaughtering 
and meat-packing products were the leading items in 1905. The 
packing industry is even more largely developed outside the city 
limits and across the river in East St Louis. St Louis is the greatest 
manufacturer of tobacco products among American cities, and 
probably in the world; the total in 1905 was 8-96% of the total out- 
put of manufactured tobacco in the United States; and the output 
of chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff in 1900 constituted 
23-5.% and in 1905 23-7% of the product of the country. St 
Louis is also the foremost producer of white lead, street and railway 
cars, and wooden ware ; and in addition to these and the items above 
particularized, has immense manufactories of clothing, coffee and 
spices (roasted), paints, stoves and furnaces, flour, hardware, drugs 
and chemicals and clay products. One of its breweries is said to be 
the largest in the world. 

Aside from traffic in its own products, the central position of the 
city in the Mississippi Valley gives it an immense trade in the pro- 
ducts of that tributary region, among which grains, cotton, tobacco, 
lumber, live stock and their derived products are the staples. In 
addition, it is a jobbing centre of immense interests in the distribu- 
tion of other goods. The greatest lines of wholesale trade are 
dry goods, millinery and notions; groceries and allied lines; boots 
and shoes; tobacco; shelf and heavy hardware; furniture; railway 
supplies; street and railway cars; foundry and allied products; 
drugs, chemicals and proprietary medicines; beer; wooden-ware; 
agricultural implements; hides; paints; paint oils and white lead; 
electrical supplies; stoves, ranges and furnaces; and furs — the 
value of these different items ranging from 70 to 10 million dollars 
each. 1 According to the St Louis Board of Trade, St Louis is the 
largest primary fur market of the world, drawing supplies even from 
northern Canada. As a wool market Boston alone surpasses it, 
and as a vehicle market it stands in the second or third place. In 
the other industries just named, it claims to stand first among the 
cities of the Union. It is one of the greatest interior cotton markets 
of the country — drawing its supplies mainly from Arkansas, Texas 
and Oklahoma — but a large part of its receipts are for shipment 
on through bills of lading, and are not net receipts handled by its 

1 These are arranged in the order shown by the Annual Statement 
for 1906 reported to the Merchants' Exchange. 



own factors. The gross cotton movement continues to increase, but 
the field of supply has been progressively lessened by the development 
of Galveston and other ports on the gulf. As a grain and stock 
market St Louis has felt the competition of Kansas City and St 

River and railway transportation built up in turn the command- 
ing commercial position of the city. The enormous growth of 
river traffic in the decade before i860 gave it at the opening of 
the Civil War an incontestable primacy in the West. In 1010 
about twenty independent railway systems, great and small 
(including two terminal roads within the city), gave outlet and 
inlet to commerce at St Louis; and of these fifteen are among the 
greatest systems of the country: the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & 
Alton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the St 
Louis & San Francisco, the Illinois Central, the Missouri, Kansas 
& Texas, the Missouri Pacific, the Pennsylvania, the St Louis 
South-Western, the Southern, the Wabash, the Louisville & 
Nashville, the Mobile & Ohio, and the Toledo, St Louis & Western. 
The construction of the Missouri Pacific Railway system was 
begun at St Louis in 1850, and various other roads were started 
in the next two years. For several decades railway develop- 
ment served only to increase the commercial primacy of the 
city in the southern Mississippi Valley, but in more recent years 
the concentration of roads at Kansas City enabled that place 
to draw from the west and south-west an immense trade once 
held by St Louis. River freighting is of very slight importance. 
St Louis is a port of entry for foreign commerce; its imports 
in 1907 were valued at $7,442,967; in 1909 at $6,362,770. 

The population of St Louis in 1840 was 16,469; in 1850 it 
was 77,860 (seventh in size of the cities of the country); in i860, 
160,773; in 1870, 310,864 (third in size); in 1880, 350,518; 
in 1890, 451,770; in 1900, 575,238; and in 1910, 687,029. 
Since 1890 it has been fourth in population among the cities of the 
United States. Of the population in 1900 (575,238) 111,356 were 
foreign-born and 35,516 were negroes. Of the foreign-born in 
1900, 58,781 were Germans, 19,421 were Irish, 5800 were 
English, 4785 Russian. In 1900, 154,746 inhabitants of St 
Louis were children of German parents. 

Under the state constitution of 1875 St Louis, as a city of 
100,000 inhabitants, was authorized to frame its own charter, 
and also to separate from St Louis county. These rights were 
exercised in 1876. The General Assembly of the state holds the 
same powers over St Louis as over other cities. The electorate 
may pass upon proposed amendments to the charter at any 
election, after due precedent publication thereof. The mayor 
holds office for four years. In 1823 the mayor was first elected 
by popular vote and the municipal legislature became unicameral. 
The bicameral system was again adopted in 1839. The municipal 
assembly consists of a Council of 13 chosen at large for four 
years — half each two years — and a House of Delegates, 28 in 
number, chosen by wards for two years. A number of chief 
executive officers are elected for four years; the mayor and 
Council appoint others, and the appointment is made at the 
middle of the mayor's term in order to lessen the immediate 
influence of municipal patronage upon elections. Single com- 
missioners control the parks, streets, water service, harbour and 
wharves, and sewers, and these constitute, with the mayor, a 
board of public improvement. Under an enabling act of 1907 
the municipal assembly in 1909 created a public service com- 
mission, of three members, appointed by the mayor. The 
measure of control exercised by the state is important, the 
governor appointing the excise (liquor-licence) commissioner, 
the board of election commissioners, the inspector of petroleum 
and of tobacco, and (since 1861) the police board. St Louis is 
normally Republican in politics, and Missouri Democratic. 
Taxes for state and municipal purposes are collected by the city. 
The school board, as in very few other cities of the country, has 
independent taxing power. The city owns the steamboat landings 
and draws a small revenue from their rental. The heaviest 
expenses are for streets and parks, debt payments, police and 
education. The bonded debt in 1910 was $27,815,312, and the 
assessed valuation of property in that year was $550,207,640. 

The city maintains hospitals, a poor-house, a reformatory 
work-house, an industrial school for children, and an asylum 
for the insane. 

The water-supply of the city is derived from the Mississippi, and 
is therefore potentially inexhaustible. Settling basins and a coagu- 
lant chemical plant (1904) are used to purify the water before 
distribution. After the completion of the Chicago drainage canal 
the state of Missouri endeavoured to compel its closure, on the 
ground that it polluted the Mississippi; but it was established to the 
satisfaction of the Supreme Court of the United States that the back- 
flush from Lake Michigan had the contrary effect upon the Illinois 
river, and therefore upon the Mississippi. Except for sediment the 
water-supply is not impure or objectionable. No public utilities, 
except the water-works, markets and public grain elevators, are 
owned by the city. The street railways are controlled — since a state 
law of 1899 permitted their consolidation — by one corporation, 
though a one-fare, universal transfer 5-cent rate is in general opera- 
tion. A single corporation has controlled the gas service from 1846 
to 1873 and since 1890, though under no exclusive franchise; and 
the city has not the right of purchase. 

St Louis was settled as a trading post in 1764 by Pierre Laclede 
Liguest (17 24- 1 778), representative of a company to which the 
French crown had granted a monopoly of the trade of the 
Missouri river country. When, by the treaty of Paris of 1763, 
the portion of Louisiana E. of the Mississippi was ceded by 
France to Great Britain, many of the French inhabitants of the 
district of the Illinois removed into the portion of Louisiana W. 
of the river, which had passed in 1762 under Spanish sovereignty; 
and of this lessened territory of upper Louisiana St Louis became 
the seat of government. In 1767 it was a log-cabin village of 
perhaps 500 inhabitants. Spanish rule became an actuality in 
1770 and continued until 1804, when it was momentarily sup- 
planted by French authority— existent theoretically since 1800 — 
and then, after the Louisiana Purchase, by the sovereignty of the 
United States. In 1780 the town was attacked by Indian allies 
of Great Britain. Canadian-French hunters and trappers and 
boatmen, a few Spaniards and other Europeans, some Indians, 
more half-breeds, and a considerable body of Americans and 
negro slaves made up the motley population that became 
inhabitants of the United States. The fur trade was growing 
rapidly. Under American rule there was added the trade of a 
military supply-point for the Great West, and in 1817-1819 
steamship traffic was begun with Louisville, New Orleans, and 
the lower Missouri river. Meanwhile, in 1808, St Louis was 
incorporated as a town, and in 1823 it became a city. The city 
charter became effective in March 1823. The early 'thirties 
marked the beginning of its great prosperity, and the decade 
1850-1860 was one of colossal growth, due largely to the river 
trade. All freights were being moved by steamship as early as 
1825. The first railway was begun in 1850. At the opening of 
the Civil War the commercial position of the city was most 
commanding. Its prosperity, however, was dependent upon the 
prosperity of the South, and received a fearful set-back in the war. 
When the issue of secession or adherence to the Union had been 
made up in 1861, the outcome in St Louis, where the fate of the 
state must necessarily be decided, was of national importance. 
St Louis was headquarters for an army department and con- 
tained a great national arsenal. The secessionists tried to 
manoeuvre the state out of the Union by strategy, and to seize 
the arsenal. The last was prevented by Congressman Francis 
Preston Blair, Jr., and Captain Nathaniel Lyon, first a sub- 
ordinate and later commander at the arsenal. The garrison 
was strengthened; in April the president entrusted Blair and 
other loyal civilians with power to enlist loyal citizens, and put 
the city under martial law if necessary; in May ten regiments 
were ready — made up largely of German-American Republican 
clubs (" Wide Awakes "), which had been at first purely political, 
then — when force became necessary to secure election rights to 
anti-slavery men — semi-military, and which now were quickly 
made available for war; and on the 10th of May Captain Lyon 
surrounded and made prisoners a force of secessionists quartered 
in Camp Jackson on the outskirts of the city. A street riot 
followed, and 28 persons were killed by the volleys of the 
military. St Louis was held by the Union forces throughout 
the war. 



During a quarter century following 1857 the city was the centre 
of an idealistic philosophical movement that has had hardly any 
counterpart in American culture except New England trans- 
cendentalism. Its founders were William T. Harris (q.v.) and 
Henry C. Brockmeyer (b. 1828), who was lieutenant-governor 
of the state in 1876-1880. A. Bronson Alcott was one of the 
early lecturers to the group which gathered around these two, 
a group which studied Hegel and Kant, Plato and Aristotle. 
Brockmeyer published excellent versions of Hegel's Unabridged 
Logic % Phenomenology and Psychology. Harris became the 
greatest of American exponents of Hegel. Other members of the 
group were Thomas Davidson (1840-1900), Adolph E. Kroeger, 
the translator of Fichte, Anna Callender Brackett (b. 1836), 
who published in 1886 an English version of Rosenkranz's History 
of Education, Denton Jaques Snider (b. 1841), whose best work 
has been on Froebel, and William McKendree Bryant (b. 1843), 
who wrote Hegel's Philosophy of Art (1879) and Hegel's Educa- 
tional Ideas (1896). This Philosophical Society published (1867- 
1893) at St Louis The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, the first 
periodical of the sort in English. 

Since the war the city's history has been signalized chiefly by 
economic development. A period in this was auspiciously closed 
in 1904 by the holding of a world's fair to celebrate the centennial 
of the purchase from France, in 1803, of the Louisiana territory — 
since then divided into 13 states, and containing in 1900 some 
1 2 , 500,000 inhabitants. Preparations for this Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition began in 1898. It was the largest world's fair held 
to date, the site covering 1240 acres, of which 250 were under 
roof. The total cost, apart from individual exhibitions, was 
about $42,500,000, of which the national government contributed 
$5,000,000 and the city of St Louis and its citizens $10,000,000. 
Altogether 12,804,616 paid admissions were collected (total 
admissions 19,694,855) during the seven months that it was 
open, and there was a favourable balance at the close of about 

Up to 1848 St Louis was controlled in politics almost absolutely 
by the Whigs; since then it has been more or less evenly con- 
tested by the Democrats against the Whigs and Republicans. 
The Republicans now usually have the advantage. As men- 
tioned before, the state is habitually Democratic; " boss " rule 
in St Louis was particularly vicious in the late 'nineties, and 
corruption was the natural result of ring rule — the Democratic 
bosses have at times had great power — and of the low pay — 
only $25 monthly — of the city's delegates and councilmen. But 
the reaction came, and with it a strong movement for independent 
voting. Fire, floods, epidemics, and wind have repeatedly 
attacked the city. A great fire in 1849 burned along the levee 
and adjacent streets, destroying steamers, buildings, and goods 
worth, by the estimate of the city assessor, more than $6,000,000. 
Cholera broke out in 1832-1833, 1849-1851, and 1866, causing 
in three months of 1849 almost 4000 deaths, or the death of a 
twentieth of all inhabitants. Smallpox raged in 1872-1875. 
These epidemics probably reflect the one-time lamentable lack 
of proper sewerage. Great floods occurred in 1785, 1811, 1826, 
1844, 1872, 1885 and 1903; those of 1785 and 1844 being the 
most remarkable. There were tornadoes in 1833, 1852 and 
1 871; and in 1896 a cyclone of 20 minutes' duration, accom- 
panied by fire but followed fortunately by a tremendous rain, 
destroyed or wrecked 8500 buildings and caused a loss of property 
valued at more than $10,000,000. 

East St Louis, a city of St Clair county, Illinois, U.S.A., 
on the E. bank of the Mississippi, lies opposite St Louis, Missouri. 
Pop. (1880), 9185; (1890), 15,169; (1900), 29,655, of whom 
3920 were foreign born (mostly German and Irish); (1910 
census) 58,547. It is one of the great railway centres of the 
country. Into it enter from the east sixteen lines of railway, 
which cross to St Louis by the celebrated steel arch bridge 
and by the Merchants' Bridge. It is also served by three inter- 
urban electric railways. The site of East St Louis is in the 
" American Bottom," little above the high-water mark of the 
river. This " bottom " stretches a long distance up and down 
the river, with a breadth of 10 or 1 2 m. It is intersected by many 

sloughs and crescent-shaped lakes which indicate former courses 
of the river. The manufacturing interests of East St Louis are 
important, among the manufactories being packing establish- 
ments, iron and steel works, rolling-mills and foundries, flour- 
mills, glass works, paint works and wheel works. By far the 
most important industry is slaughtering and meat packing: 
both in 1900 and in 1905 East St Louis ranked sixth among the 
cities of the United States in this industry; its product in 1900 
was valued at $27,676,818 (out of a total for all industries 
of $32,460,957), and in 1905 the product of the slaughtering 
and meat-packing establishments in and near the limits of 
East St Louis was valued at $39,972,245, in the same year 
the total for all industries within the corporate limits being 
only $37,586,198. The city has a large horse and mule market. 
East St Louis was laid out about 1818, incorporated as a town 
in 1859, and chartered as a city in 1865. 

Consult the Encyclopaedia of the History of St Louis (4 vols., 
St Louis, 1899); J- T. Scharf, History of St Louis City and County 
. . . including Biographical Sketches (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1883); 
E. H. Shepherd, Early History of St Louis and Missouri . . . 1763- 
1843 (St Louis, 1870); F. Billon, Annals of St Louis . . . 1804 to 
1821 (2 vols., St Louis, 1886-1888); G. Anderson, Story of a Border 
City during the Civil War (Boston, 1908) ; The Annual Statement of 
the Trade and Commerce of St Louis . . . reported to the Merchants' 
Exchange, by its secretary. 

ST LOUIS, the capital of the French colony of Senegal, West 
Africa, with a population (1904) of 24,070, or including the 
suburbs, 28,469. St Louis, known to the natives as N'dar, is 
163 m. by rail N.N.E. of Dakar and is situated on, an island 
11 J m. above the mouth of the Senegal river, near the right 
bank, there separated from the sea by a narrow strip of sand 
called the Langue de Barbarie. This strip of sand is occupied 
by the villages of N'dar Toute and Guet N'dar. Three bridges 
connect the town with the villages; and the Pont Faidherbe, 
2132 ft. long, affords communication with Bouetville, a suburb 
on the left bank, and the terminus of the railway to Dakar. 
The houses of the European quarter have for the most part 
flat roofs, balconies and terraces. Besides the governor's 
residence the most prominent buildings are the cathedral, the 
great mosque, the court-house, the barracks and military offices, 
and the docks. The round beehive huts of Guet N'dar are 
mainly inhabited by native fishermen. N'dar Toute consists 
of villas with gardens, and is a summer watering-place. There 
is a pleasant public garden, and N'dar Toute is approached by 
a magnificent alley of palm-trees. The low-lying position of 
St Louis and the extreme heat render it unhealthy, whilst the 
sandy nature of the soil causes intense inconvenience. The 
mouth of the Senegal being obstructed by a shifting bar of sand, 
the steamships of the great European lines do not come up to 
St Louis; passengers embark and land at Dakar, on the eastern 
side of Cape Verde. Ships for St Louis have often to wait outside 
or inside the bar for days or weeks, and partial unloading is 
frequently necessary. From July to the end of September — 
that is during flood-time — the water over the bar is, however, 
deep enough to enable vessels to reach St Louis without difficulty. 

St Louis is believed to have been the site of a European settlement 
since the 15th century, but the present town was founded in 1626 
by Dieppe merchants known as the Compagnie normande. It is the 
oldest colonial establishment in Africa belonging to France (see 
Senegal). Its modern development dates from 1854. The town, 
however, did not receive municipal government till 1872. All 
citizens, irrespective of colour, can vote. From 1895 to 1903 St 
Louis was not only the capital of Senegal, but the residence of the 
governor-general of French West Africa. In November of the last- 
named year the governor-general removed to Dakar, Small forts 
defend St Louis from the land side — the surrounding country, the 
Cayor, being inhabited by a warlike race, which previously to the 
building (1882-1885) of the St Louis-Dakar railway was a continual 
source of trouble. 

The town carries on a very active trade with all the countries 
watered by the Senegal and the middle Niger. St Louis is connected 
with Brest by a direct cable, and with Cadiz via the Canary Islands. 

ST LUCIA, the largest of the British Windward Islands, 
West Indies, in 14 N., 61° W., 24 m. S. of Martinique and 21 m. 
N.E. of St Vincent. Its area is 233 sq. m., length 42 m., maximum 
hreadth 12 .to.., and its coast-line is 150 m. long. It is considered 
one of the loveliest of all the West Indian islands. It is a mass 



of mountains, rising sheer from the water, their summits bathed 
in perpetual mist. Impenetrable forests alternate with fertile 
plains, and deep ravines and frowning precipices with beautiful 
bays and coves. Everywhere there is luxuriant vegetation. 

Les Pitons (2720 and 2680 ft.) are the chief natural feature — two 
immense pyramids of rock rising abruptly from the sea, their slopes, 
inclined at an angle of 60°, being clad on three sides with densest 
verdure. No connexion has been traced between them and the 
mountain system of the island. In the S.W. also is the volcano 
of Soufnere (about 4000 ft.), whose crater is 3 acres in size and 
covered with sulphur and cinders. The climate is humid, the rain- 
fall varying from 70 to 120 in. per annum, with an average tempera- 
ture of 80 ° F. The soil is deep and rich; the main products are 
sugar, cocoa, logwood, coffee, nutmegs, mace, kola-nuts and vanilla, 
all of which are exported. Tobacco also is grown, but not for export. 
The usine or central factory system is established, there being four 
government sugar-mills. Snakes, formerly prevalent, have been 
almost exterminated by the introduction of the mongoose. Only 
about a third of the island is cultivated, the rest being crown land 
under virgin forest, abounding in timber suitable for the finest 
cabinet work. The main import trade up to 1 904 was from Great 
Britain; since then, owing to the increased coal imports from the 
United States, the imports are chiefly from other countries. The 
majority of the exports go to the United States and to Canada. 
In the ten years 1898-1907 the imports averaged £322,000 a year; 
the exports £195,000 a year. Bunker coal forms a large item both 
in imports and exports. Coal, sugar, cocoa and logwood form the 
chief exports. 

Education is denominational, assisted by government grants. The 
large majority of the schools are under the control of the Roman 
Catholics, to whom all the government primary schools were handed 
over in 1898. There is a government agricultural school. St Lucia 
is controlled by an administrator (responsible to the governor of the 
Windward I slands) , assisted by an executive council. The legislature 
consists of the administrator and a council of nominated members. 
Revenue and expenditure in the period 1 901-1907 balanced at about 
£60,000 a year. The law of the island preserves, in a modified form, 
the laws of the French monarchy. 

Castries, the capital, on the N.W. coast, has a magnificent land- 
locked harbour. There is a concrete wharf 650 ft. long with a 
depth alongside of 27 ft., and a wharf of wood 552 ft. in length. 
It is the principal coaling station of the British fleet in the West 
Indies, was strongly fortified, and has been the military headquarters. 
(The troops were removed and the military works stopped in 1 905.) 
It is a port of registry, and the facilities it offers as a port of call are 
widely recognized, the tonnage of ships cleared and entered rising 
from 1,555,000 in 1898 to 2,627,000 in 1907. Pop. (1901) 7910. 
Soufriere, in the south, the only other town of any importance, had 
a population of 2394. The Canbs have disappeared from the island, 
and the bulk of the inhabitants are negroes. Their language is a 
French patois, but English is gradually replacing it. There is a small 
colony of East Indian coolies, and the white inhabitants are mostly 
Creoles of French descent. The total population of the island (1901) 

is 49-833- 

History. — St Lucia is supposed to have been discovered by 

Columbus in 1502, and to have been named by the Spaniards 

after the saint on whose day it was discovered. It was inhabited 

by Caribs, who killed the majority of the first white people 

(Englishmen) who attempted to settle on the island (1605). 

For two centuries St Lucia was claimed both by France and by 

England. In 1627 the famous Carlisle grant included St Lucia 

among British possessions, while in 1635 the king of France 

granted it to two of his subjects. In 1638 some 130 English 

from St Kitts formed a settlement, but in 1641 were killed or 

driven away by the Caribs. The French in 1650 sent settlers 

from Martinique who concluded a treaty of peace with the 

Caribs in 1660. Thomas Warner, natural son of the governor 

of St Kitts, attacked and overpowered the French settlers in 

1663, but the peace of Breda (1667) restored it to France and it 

became nominally a dependency of Martinique. The British 

still claimed the island as a dependency of Barbadoes, and in 

1722 George I. made a grant of it to the duke of Montague. 

The year following French troops from Martinique compelled 

the British settlers to evacuate the island. In 1748 both France 

and Great Britain recognized the island as " neutral." In 

1762 its inhabitants surrendered to Admiral Rodney and General 

Monckton. By the treaty of Paris (1763), however, the British 

acknowledged the claims of France, and steps were taken to 

develop the resources of the island. French planters came from 

St Vincent and Grenada,cotton and sugar plantations were formed, 

and in 1772 the island was said to have a population of 15,000, 

largely slaves. In 1778 it was captured by the British; its 

harbours were a rendezvous for the British squadrons and Gros 
Ilet Bay was Rodney's starting-point before his victory over 
the Comte de Grasse (April 1782). The peace of Versailles (1783) 
restored St Lucia to France, but in 1 794 it was surrendered to 
Admiral Jervis (Lord St Vincent). Victor Hugues, a partisan 
of Robespierre, aided by insurgent slaves, made a strenuous 
resistance and recovered the island in June 1795. Sir Ralph 
Abercromby and Sir John Moore, at the head of 12,000 troops, 
were sent in 1796 to reduce the island, but it was not until 1797 
that the revolutionists laid down their arms. By the treaty 
of Amiens St Lucia was anew declared French. Bonaparte 
intended to make it the capital of the Antilles, but it once more 
capitulated to the British (June 1803) and was finally ceded to 
Great Britain in 1814. In 1834, when the slaves were emanci- 
pated, there were in St Lucia over 13,000 negro slaves, 2600 free 
men of colour and 2300 whites. The development of the island — 
half ruined by the revolutionary war — has been retarded by 
epidemics of cholera and smallpox, by the decline of the sugar- 
cane industry and other causes, such as the low level of education. 
The depression in the sugar trade led to the adoption of cocoa 
cultivation. Efforts were also made to plant settlers on the 
crown lands — with a fair amount of success. The colony success- 
fully surmounted the financial stringency caused by the with- 
drawal of the imperial troops in 1905. 

Pigeon Island, formerly an important military port, lies off 
the N.W. end of St Lucia, by Gros Ilet Bay. 

See Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography in the British Colonies, 
vol. ii., " The West Indies " (2nd ed. revised by C. Atchley, Oxford, 
1905), and the works there cited; also the annual reports on St 
Lucia issued by the Colonial Office. 

ST MACAIRE, a town of south-western France, in the depart- 
ment of Gironde, on the Garonne, 29 m. S.E. of Bordeaux by 
rail. Pop. (1906), 2085. St Macaire is important for its medieval 
remains, which include a triple line of ramparts with old gate- 
ways. There are also several houses of the 13 th and 14th 
centuries. The imposing church of St Sauveur (nth to 15th 
centuries) has a doorway with beautiful 13th-century carving 
and interesting mural paintings. St Macaire (anc. Ligend) owes 
its name to the saint whose relics were preserved in the monastery 
of which the church of St Sauveur is the principal remnant. 

ST MAIXENT, a town of western France, in the department 
of Deux-Sevres, on the Sevre Niortaise, 15 m. N.E. ofNiortby 
rail. Pop. (1906), 4102. The town has a fine abbey church 
built from the 12th to the 15th century, but in great part 
destroyed by the Protestants in the 16th century and rebuilt 
from 1670 to 1682 in the flamboyant Gothic style. The chief 
parts anterior to this date are the nave, which is Romanesque, 
and a lofty 15th-century tower over the west front. The crypt 
contains the tomb of Saint Maxentius, second abbot of the 
monastery, which was founded about 460. The town has a com- 
munal college, a chamber of arts and manufactures, and an 
infantry school for non-commissioned officers preparing for the 
rank of sub-lieutenant. It was the birthplace of Colonel Denfert- 
Rochereau, defender of Belfort in 1870-1871, and has a statue 
to him. The industries include dyeing and the manufacture of 
hosiery, mustard and plaster. The prosperity of the town was 
at its height after the promulgation of the edict of Nantes, 
when it numbered 12,000 inhabitants. 

ST MALO, a seaport of western France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in thedepartment of llle-et-Vilaine, 51 m.N.N.W. of Rennes 
by rail. Pop. (1906) town, 8727; commune, 10,647. St Malo 
is situated on the English Channel on the right bank of the 
estuary of the Ranee at its mouth. It is a garrison town sur- 
rounded by ramparts which include portions dating from the 
14th, 15th and 1 6th centuries, but as a whole were rebuilt at 
the end of the 17th century according to Vauban's plans, and 
restored in the 19th century. The most important of the gates 
are that of St Vincent and the Grande Porte, defended by two 
massive 15th-century towers: The granite island on which 
St Malo stands communicates with the mainland on the north- 
east by a causeway known as the " Sillon " (furrow), 650 ft. 
long, and at one time only 46 ft. broad, though now three times 
that breadth. In the sea round about lie other granite rocks, 


2 9 

which have been turned to account in the defences of the coast ; 
on the islet of the Grand Bey is the tomb (1848) of Francois 
Auguste, vicomte de Chateaubriand, a native of the town. The 
rocks and beach are continually changing their appearance, 
owing to the violence of the tides; spring-tides sometimes 
rise 50 ft. above low-water level, and the sea sometimes washes 
over the ramparts. The harbour of St Malo lies south of the 
town in the creek separating it from the neighbouring town 
of St Servan. Including the contiguous and connected basins 
belonging more especially to St Servan, it comprises an outer 
basin, a tidal harbour, two wet-docks and an inner reservoir, 
affording a total length of quayage of over 2 m. The wet-docks 
have a minimum depth of 13 to 15 ft. on sill, but the tidal harbour 
is dry at low water. The vessels entered at St Malo-St Servan 
in 1906 numbered 1004 of 279,217 tons; cleared 1023 of 298,720 
tons. The great bulk of trade is with England, the exports 
comprising large quantities of fruit, dairy-produce, early potatoes 
and other vegetables and slate. The chief imports are coal and 
timber. The London and South- Western railway maintains a 
regular service of steamers between Southampton and St Malo. 
The port carries on shipbuilding and equips a fleet for the 
Newfoundland cod-fisheries. The industries also include iron- 
and copper-founding and the manufacture of portable forges 
and other iron goods, cement, rope and artificial manures. The 
town is the seat of a sub-prefect and has tribunals of first instance 
and of commerce. Communication between the quays of St 
Malo and St Servan is maintained by a travelling bridge. 

St Malo is largely frequented for sea-bathing, but not so much 
as Dinard, on the opposite side of the Ranee. The town presents 
a tortuous maze of narrow streets and small squares lined with 
high and sometimes quaint buildings (e.g. the 16th-century 
house in which Rene Duguay-Trouin was born). Above all rises 
the stone spire (1859) of the cathedral, a building begun in the 
1 2th century but added to and rebuilt at several subsequent 
periods. The castle (13th cent.), which defends the town 
towards the " Sillon," is flanked with four towers, one of which, 
the great keep, is an older and loftier structure, breached in 1378 
by the duke of Lancaster. St Malo has statues to Chateaubriand, 
Duguay-Trouin and the privateer Robert Surcouf (1773-1827), 
natives of the town. The museum contains remains of the 
ship " La Petite Hermine," in which Jacques Cartier sailed to 
the St Lawrence (q.v.), and a natural history collection. 

In the 6th century the island on which St Malo stands was the 
retreat of Abbot Aaron, who gave asylum in his monastery to 
Malo (Maclovius or Malovius), a Cambrian priest, who came 
hither to escape the episcopal dignity, but afterwards became 
bishop of Aleth (now St Servan) ; the see was transferred to St 
Malo only in the 12th century. Henceforth the bishops of St 
Malo claimed the temporal sovereignty over the town, a claim 
which was resolutely disputed by the dukes of Brittany. The 
policy of the citizens themselves, who thus gained substantial 
powers of self-government, was directed by consistent hostility 
to England and consequently to the dukes. They took the side 
of Bishop Josselin de Rohan and his successor in their quarrel 
with dukes John IV. and John V., and it was not till 1424 that 
John V., by the agency of Charles VI. of France and with the 
sanction of the pope, finally established his authority over the 
town. In 1488 St Malo unsuccessfully resisted the French 
troops on behalf of the duke. During the troubles of the League 
the citizens hoped to establish a republican government, and on 
the nth of March 1590 they exterminated the royal garrison 
and imprisoned their bishop and the canons. But four years 
later they surrendered to Henry IV. of France. During the 
following century the maritime power of St Malo attained 
some importance. In November 1693 and July 1695 the English 
vainly bombarded it. The people of St Malo had in the course of 
a single war captured upwards of 1 500 vessels (several of them 
laden with gold and other treasure) and burned a considerable 
number more. Enriched by these successes and by the wealth 
they drew from the New World, the shipowners of the town not 
only supplied the king with the means necessary for the famous 
Rio de Janeiro expedition conducted by Duguay-Trouin in 

1711, but also lent him large sums for carrying on the war of the 
Spanish Succession. In June 1758 the English sent a third 
expedition against St Malo under the command of Charles 
Spencer, third duke of Marlborough, and inflicted great loss on the 
royal shipping in the harbour of St Servan. But another expedi- 
tion undertaken in the following September received a complete 
check. In 1778 and during the wars of the Empire the St Malo 
privateers resumed their activity. In 1789 St Servan was 
separated from St Malo and in 1801 St Malo lost its bishopric. 
During the Reign of Terror the town was the scene of sanguinary 

See M. J. Poulain, Hisloire de Saint-Malo . . . d'apres les docu- 
ments inedits (2nd ed., Lille, 1887). 

SAINT-MARC GIRARDIN (1801-1873), French politician and 
man of letters, whose real name was Marc Girardin, was born 
in Paris on the 22nd of February 1801. After a brilliant uni- 
versity career in Paris he began in 1828 to contribute to the 
Journal des Debats, on the staff of which he remained for nearly 
half a century. At the accession of Louis Philippe he was 
appointed professor of history at the Sorbonne and master of 
requests in the Conseil d'Etat. Soon afterwards he exchanged 
his chair of history for one of poetry, continuing to contribute 
political articles to the Debats, and sitting as deputy in the 
chamber from 1835 to 1848. He was charged in 1833 with a 
mission to study German methods of education, and issued a 
report advocating the necessity of newer methods and of technical 
instruction. In 1844 he was elected a member of the Academy. 
During the revolution of February 1848 Girardin was for a 
moment a minister, but after the establishment of the republic 
he was not re-elected deputy. After the war of 1870-71 he was 
returned to the Bordeaux assembly by his old department — the 
Haute Vienne. His Qrleanist tendencies and his objections to 
the republic were strong, and though he at first supported Thiers, 
he afterwards became a leader of the opposition to the president. 
He died, however, on the 1st of April 1873 at Morsang-sur-Seine, 
before Thiers was actually driven from power. 

His chief work is his Cours de litter ature dramatique (1 843-1 863), 
a series of lectures better described by its second title De V usage des 
passions dans le drame. The author examines the passions, discussing 
the mode in which they are treated in ancient and modern drama, 
poetry and romance. The book is really a defence of the ancients 
against the moderns, and Girardin did not take into account the 
fact that only the best of ancient literature has come down to us. 
Against the Romanticists he waged untiring war. Among his other 
works may be noticed Essais de litter ature (2 vols. 1844), made up 
chiefly of contributions to the Debats ,- his Notices sur. VAllemagne 
(1834), and many volumes of collected Souvenirs, Reflexions, &c, on 
foreign countries and passing events. His latest works of literary 
importance were La Fontaine et les Fabulistes (1867) and an £tude 
sur J.-J. Rousseau (1870) which had appeared in the Revue des deux 

See Ch. Labitte, " Saint-Marc Girardin," in the Revue des deux 
mondes (Feb. 1845) ; Tamisier, Saint-Marc Girardin; etude liiteraire 
(1876); Hatzfield and Meunier, Les Critiques litteraires du XIX" 
siede (1894). 

SAINT-MARTIN, LOUIS CLAUDE DE (1743-1803), French 
philosopher, known as " le philosophe inconnu," the name under 
which his works were published, was born at Amboise of a poor 
but noble family, on the 18th of January 1743. By his father's 
desire he tried first law and then the army as a profession. While 
in garrison at Bordeaux he came under the influence of Martinez 
de Pasquales, usually called a Portuguese Jew (although later 
research has made it probable that he was a Spanish Catholic), 
who taught a species of mysticism drawn from cabbalistic 
sources, and endeavoured to found thereon a secret cult with 
magical or theurgical rites. In 177 1 Saint-Martin left the army 
to become a preacher of mysticism. His conversational powers 
made him welcome in Parisian salons, but his zeal led him to 
England, where he made the acquaintance of William Law (q.v.), 
the English mystic, to Italy and to Switzerland, as well as to the 
chief towns of France. At Strassburg in 1788 he met Charlotte 
de Boecklin, who initiated him into the writings of Jacob Boehme, 
and inspired in his breast a semi-romantic attachment. His 
later years were devoted almost entirely to the composition of his 
chief works and to the translation of those of Boehme. Although 
he was not subjected to any persecution in consequence of his 



opinions, his property was confiscated after the Revolution 
because of his social position. He was brought up a strict 
Catholic, and always remained attached to the church, although 
his first work, Of Errors and Truth, was placed upon the Index. 
He died at Aunay, near Paris, on the 23rd of October 1803. 

His chief works are — Lettre a un ami sur la Revolution Francaise; 
&lair sur I' association humaine; De V esprit des choses; Ministere 
de I'homme-esprit. Other treatises appeared in his (Euvres posthumes 
(1807). Saint-Martin regarded the French Revolution as a sermon 
in action, if not indeed a Miniature of the last judgment. His ideal 
society was " a natural and spiritual theocracy," in which God would 
raise up men of mark and endowment, who would regard themselves 
strictly as " divine commissioners " to guide the people. All ecclesi- 
astical organization was to disappear, giving place to a purely 
spiritual Christianity, based on the assertion of a faculty superior 
to the reason— moral sense, from which we derive knowledge of God. 
God exists as an eternal personality, and the creation is an over- 
flowing of the divine love, which was unable to contain itself. The 
human soul, the human intellect or spirit, the spirit of the universe, 
and the elements or matter are the four stages of this divine emana- 
tion, man being the immediate reflection of God, and nature in turn 
a reflection of man. Man, however, has fallen from his high estate, 
and matter is one of the consequences of his fall. But divine love, 
united to humanity in Christ, will work the final regeneration. 

See J. B. Gence, Notice biographique (1824); L. I. Moreau, Le 
Philosophe inconnu (1850); E. M. Caro, Essai sur la vie et la 
doctrine de Saint-Martin (1852); Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, 
x.190; A.J. Matter, Saint-Martin, le philosophe inconnu (1862); 
A. Franck, La Philosophic mystique en France a la fin du dix-huitieme 
siecle (1866) ; A. E. Waite, The Life of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin 
(1901). There are English translations of The Ministry of Man the 
Spirit (1864) and of Select Correspondence (1863) by E. B. Penny. 

ST MARTIN, an island in the West Indies, about 5 m. S. of 
the British island of Anguilla in 18 N. and 63 W. It is 38 sq. m. 
in area and nearly triangular in form, composed of conical hills, 
culminating in Paradise Peak (1920 ft.). It is the only island in 
the Antilles owned by two European powers; 17 sq. m. in the 
N., belonging to France, form a dependency of Guadeloupe, 
while the rest of the island, belonging to Holland, is a dependency 
of Curacao. Sugar, formerly its staple, has been succeeded by 
salt. The chief town of the French area is Marigot, a free port 
on the W. coast; of the Dutch, Philipsburg, on the S. St Martin 
was first occupied by French freebooters in 1638, but ten years 
later the division between France and Holland was peaceably 
made. The inhabitants, mostly English-speaking negroes, 
number about 3000 in the French part, and in the Dutch the 
population in 1908 was 3817. 

ST MARY (Santa Maria), an island in the Atlantic Ocean, 
belonging to Portugal and forming part of the Azores (q.v.). 
Pop. (1900), 6383; area, 40 sq. m. St Mary is the southernmost 
and easternmost of the Azores, lying south of the larger island 
of St Michael's, through the medium of which its trade is con- 
ducted, as it has no good harbours of its own. It produces wheat 
in abundance, of which a considerable quantity is exported. 
Various volcanic rocks are the predominant formations, but beds 
of limestone also occur, giving rise to numerous stalactite grottoes 
all over the island. The chief town is Villa do Porto (2506). 

ST MARYLEBONE (commonly called Marylebone), a north- 
western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded 
N. by Hampstead, E. by St Pancrasand Holborn, S. by the City 
of Westminster, and W. by Paddington. Pop. (1901), 133,301. 
It is mainly a rich residential quarter; the most fashionable part 
is found in the south, in the vicinity of Cavendish and Portman 
Squares, but there are numerous fine houses surrounding Regent's 
Park and in the north-western district of St John's Wood. 
Oxford Street, with its handsome shops, bounds the borough on 
the south, crossing Regent Street at Oxford Circus; Edgware 
Road on the west; Marylebone Road crosses from east to west, 
and from this Upper Baker Street gives access to Park, 
Wellington, and Finchley Roads; and Baker Street leads south- 
ward. Poor and squalid streets are found, in close proximity 
to the wealthiest localities, between Marylebone Road and 
St John's Wood Road, and about High Street in the south, the 
site of the original village. The formation of the Great Central 
Railway, the Marylebone terminus of which, in Marylebone 
Road, was opened in 1899, caused an extensive demolition of 
streets and houses in the west central district. St Marylebone 

was in the manor of Tyburn, which takes name from the Tyburn, 
a stream which flowed south to the Thames through the centre 
of the present borough. The church was called St Mary at the 
Bourne. The name Tyburn (q.v.) was notorious chiefly as 
applied to the gallows which stood near the existing junction of 
Edgware Road and Oxford Street (Marble Arch). The manor 
at the Domesday Survey was in the possession of the nunnery 
at Barking, but the borough includes several estates, such as the 
manor of Lyllestone in the west, the name of which is preserved 
in Lisson Grove. From 1738 to 1776 Marylebone Gardens (which 
had existed under other names from the close of the 17th century) 
became one of the most favoured evening resorts in London. 
They extended east of High Street as far as Harley Street, but 
by 1778 the ground was being built over. Another historic site 
is Horace Street near Edgware Road, formerly Cato Street, from 
which the conspiracy which bore that name was directed against 
the ministry in 1820. 

The borough includes almost the whole of Regent's Park, with a 
portion of Primrose Hill north of it. These have altogether an area 
of 472 acres. The park, originally Marylebone Park, was enclosed by 
James I., and received its modern name from the Prince Regent, 
afterwards George IV. It contains the Zoological Gardens, one of 
the most noteworthy institutions of its kind, attracting numerous 
visitors to its splendid collections of living animals. Here are also the 
gardens of the Royal Botanic Society, incorporated in 1839. They 
are enclosed and beautifully laid out, and contain hot-houses and a 
museum. Exhibitions are held each year. The Toxophilite Society, 
founded in 1781, has also occupied grounds here since 1883. The 
picturesque lake is supplied by the ancient Tyburn. The Regent's 
Canal skirts the north side of the park. Another famous enclosure is 
Lord's Cricket Ground, St John's Wood Road. The founder, Thomas 
Lord (1814), at first established a cricket ground in the present Dorset 
Square, but it was soon moved here. Lord's, as it is called, is the 
headquarters of the M.C.C. (Marylebone Cricket Club), the governing 
body of the game ; here are played the home matches of this club and 
of the Middlesex County Cricket Club, the Oxford and Cambridge, 
Eton and Harrow, and other well-known fixtures. The Wallace Art 
Collection, Hertford House, Manchester Square, was bequeathed 
by Sir Richard Wallace to the nation on the death of his wife in 1897. 
The waxwork exhibition named after Madame Tussaud, who founded 
it in Paris in 1780, occupies large buildings in Marylebone Road. 
The Parkes Museum of the Sanitary Institute is in Margaret Street. 
The Queen's Hall, Langham Place, is used for concerts, including a 
notable annual series of orchestral promenade concerts. StMarylebone 
contains a great number of hospitals, among which are the Middlesex, 
Mortimer Street; Throat Hospital and Dental Hospital and School, 
Great Portland Street; Lying-in and Ophthalmic Hospitals, Maryle- 
bone Road; Samaritan Hospital for women, Seymour Street ; Con- 
sumption Hospital, Margaret Street; and the Home for incurable 
children, St John's Wood Road. There are also several industrial 
homes. Harley Street, between Marylebone Road and Cavendish 
Square, is noted as the residence of medical practitioners. Educa- 
tional institutions include the Trinity and the Victoria Colleges of 
Music, in Manchester Square and Berners Street respectively; the 
Bedford College for women, and the Regent's Park Baptist College. 
The parliamentary borough of Marylebone has east and west divisions, 
each returning one member. The borough council consists of a 
mayor, 10 aldermen and 60 councillors. Area, 1472-8 acres. 

SAINT MARYS, a city of Auglaize county, Ohio, U.S.A., on 
the Saint Marys river and the Miami & Erie canal, about 85 m. 
W.N.W. of Columbus. Pop. (1910), 5732. Saint Marys is served 
by the Lake Erie & W estern > the Western Ohio (electric), and the 
Toledo & Ohio Central railways. About 1 m. west is a feeding 
reservoir of the canal covering about 17,600 acres. Saint Marys 
is in the Ohio oil region. The city occupies the site of a former 
Shawnee village, in which a trading post was established in 
1782 by James Girty, 1 from whom the place was for some years 

1 James Girty (1743-1817) was one of the notorious Girty brothers, 
the sons of Simon Girty (d. 1751), an Irish immigrant. The brothers 
were taken prisoners by the French and Indian force which in 1756 
captured Fort Granville, in what is now Mifflin county, Pennsylvania. 
James was adopted by the Shawnees and lived among them for three 
years, after which he acted as an interpreter and trader; he fre- 
quently accompanied the Indians against the English settlers, and 
exhibited the greatest ferocity. He conducted a profitable trading 
business with the Indians at St Marys in 1783-1794, when he with- 
drew to Canada upon the approach of General Wayne, and again 
from 1795 until just before theWarof 1812, when he again withdrew 
to Canada, where he died. His brother Simon (1741-1818), who lived 
with the Senecas for several years after his capture, was even more 
bloodthirsty; he served against the Indians in Lord Dunmore's 
War, and in 1776, during the War of Independence, entered the 



called Girty's Town. Fort St Marys was built in 1784 or 1785 
by a detachment of General Anthony Wayne's troops, and in 
1812 Ft. Barbee was erected at the instance of General W. H. 
Harrison by Colonel Joshua Barbee. During the War of 181 2 
the place was for some time the headquarters of General 
Harrison's army. St Marys was laid out as a town in 1823, and 
became a city in 1903 under the general municipal code which 
came into effect in that year. 

ST MARY'S LOCH, a fresh-water lake of Selkirkshire, Scotland. 
It lies in the high land towards the western border, and is visited 
from Selkirk (16 m. E. by N.) or Moffat (15 m. S.W.). It is 
814 ft. above the sea, is from 80 to 90 ft. deep, 3 m. long, about 
1 m. wide at its widest, and has a shore-line of 73 m. A narrow 
isthmus divides its head from the small Loch of the Lowes 
(about 1 m. long), which is believed to have been once part of it, 
the difference of level being only r 5 in. St Mary's is emptied by 
the Yarrow, and its principal feeder is Megget Water, a noted 
angling stream. It takes its name from St Mary's Kirk, the ruins 
of which lie near the northern shore. From the 13th century, 
when the church is first mentioned, till its destruction in 1557, 
it was variously known as the Forest Kirk (in which William 
Wallace was elected Warden of Scotland) . St Mary's of Farmaini- 
shope, an old name of the adjoining lands of Kirkstead, St Mary 
of the Lowes, and the Kirk of Yarrow. It had been partly 
restored, but gradually fell into decay, its place being taken by 
the church of Yarrow farther down the vale. In the graveyard 
was buried John Grieve (1781-1836), the Edinburgh hatter, 
a poet of some capacity, patron of James Hogg, the Ettrick 
Shepherd. At the head of the lake is the celebrated inn opened 
by Tibbie Shiel (Mrs Richardson, d. 1878), which was visited by 
many distinguished men of letters. 

ST MAUR-DES-FOSSES, a south-eastern suburb of Paris, 
on the right bank of the Marne, 7 m. from the centre of the city. 
Pop. (1906), 28,016. St Maur and the residential district sur- 
rounding it cover a peninsula formed by a loop in the Marne, 
the neck of which is crossed by the canal of St Maur. In the 
reign of Clovis II. the monastery of Les Fosses was founded; 
the amplification of the name came when the body of St Maurus 
was brought there by the monks of St Maur-sur-Loire. About 
the same time was inaugurated the pilgrimage of Notre-Dame 
des Miracles, which still takes place annually. In 1465 a treaty 
of peace, putting an end to the " War of the Public Weal," 
was concluded between Louis XI. and his revolted barons at 
St Maur. 

ST MAUR-SUR-LOIRE, a village of western France in the 
department of Maine-et-Loire on the Loire about 15 m. below 
Saumur. Here St Maurus towards the middle of the 6th century 
founded the first Benedictine monastery in Gaul. About the 
middle of the 9th century it was reduced to ruins by the Normans; 
in anticipation of the disaster the relics of the saint were trans- 
ferred to the abbey of Fosses (afterwards St Maur-des-Fosses: 
see above). St Maur-sur-Loire was afterwards restored and 
fortified; the extant remains consist of a part of the church 
(12th and 17th centuries) and buildings of 'the 17th and 18th 

ST MAWES, a small seaport in the St Austell parliamentary 
division of Cornwall, England, beautifully situated on an arm 
of Falmouth Harbour. Pop. (1901), 1178. The inlet admits only 
small vessels to the little harbour, but there is a considerable 
fishing industry. A large circular castle, vis-a-vis with that, of 
Pendennis near Falmouth, and dating from the same period 
(Henry VIII.), guards the entrance. Near the shore of the inlet 
opposite St Mawes is the small church of St Anthony in Roseland, 
an excellent example of Early English work, retaining a good 
Norman doorway. 

British service as an interpreter, and after the war instigated Indian 
attacks on the frontier and fought with the Indians against General 
Arthur St Clair and General Anthony Wayne. Another brother, 
George Girty (1745-c. 1812), lived among the Delawares for several 
years, was also a trader and interpreter, and was likewise a renegade. 
Thomas (1739-1820), though he associated much with the Indians, 
did not participate in their wars. See W. Butterfield's History of the 
Girtys (Cincinnati, 1890). 

The history of St Mawes is simple. The saint of that name 
is said to have made the creek of the Fal a halting-place in the 
5th century. The chapel of St Mawes, pulled down in 18 12, 
was licensed by the bishop in 1381, and both chapel and village 
were' situated within the manor of Bogullos, which in the 16th 
century belonged to the family of Wydeslade. In the 16th 
century John Leland speaks of the castle as lately begun and 
describes St Mawes as " a quarter of a mile from the castle, a 
pretty village or fishertown with a pier called St Mawes and there 
is a chapel of the saint and his chair of stone and hard by his 
well." The number of houses half a century later did not exceed 
twenty, and John Wydeslade, as lord of the manor of Bogullos, 
owned the village. For the part which he took in the rebellion 
of 1549 Wydeslade was hanged and his lands forfeited, and in 
1562 the manor was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Reginald 
Mohun of Hall. In the same year St Mawes was incorporated 
and invested with the right of returning two members to the 
House of Commons, a privilege which it enjoyed until 1832. 
In 1607 the portion of the manor of Bogullos which embraced 
St Mawes was sold by Sir Thomas Arundell, who had married 
a daughter of Sir William Mohuh, to Thomas Walker, and by 
the latter it was resold to Sir George Parry, who represented 
the borough in parliament from 1640 to 1642. Sir George Parry 
sold St Mawes to John Tredenham, whose sons, Sir William and 
Sir Joseph, and Sir Joseph's son, John Tredenham, became 
successively its parliamentary representatives. On the death of 
the last named St Mawes passed by sale to John Knight, whose 
widow married Robert Nugent, afterwards Earl Nugent, and 
until the Reform Act of 1832 the Nugents controlled the elections 
at St Mawes. The corporation, founded in 1562, which consisted 
of a mayor, or portreeve, and other officers elected by about 
twenty free tenants, was dissolved under the Municipal Cor- 
porations Act in 1835. Its silver mace now belongs to the 
corporation of Wolverhampton, to whom it passed after the 
great sale of the effects of the duke of Buckingham at Stowe 
in 1848, the duke having obtained it as the heir of the Earls 

ST MICHAEL'S (Sao Miguel), the largest island in the 
Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. Pop. (1900), 121,340; 
area, 297 sq. m. The east end of St Michael's rises from a head- 
land 1400 ft. high to the inland peak of Vara (3573 ft.), whence 
a central range (2000 to 2500 ft.) runs westward, terminating 
on the south coast in the Serra da Agoa do Pau, about half- 
way across the island. The range gradually declines in approach- 
ing its last point, where it is not more than 100 ft. high. The 
middle part of the island is lower, and more undulating, its 
western extremity being marked by the conspicuous Serra 
Gorda (1572 ft.); its shores on both sides are low, broken and 
rocky. The aspect of the western portion of the island is that 
of a vast truncated cone, irregularly cut off at an elevation of 
about 800 ft., and falling on the north, south and west sides' 
to a perpendicular coast between 300 and 800 ft. high. In the 
highest parts an undergrowth of shrubs gives the mountains 
a rich and wooded appearance. Like all volcanic countries, 
the island has an uneven surface with numerous ravines, and 
streams of semi-vitrified and scoriaceous lava which resist all 
atmospheric influences and repel vegetation. Heavy rains 
falling on the mountains afford a constant supply of water 
to four lakes at the bottom of extinct craters, to a number of 
minor reservoirs, and through them, to small rapid streams 
on all sides. 

Hot springs abound in many parts, and vapour issues from 
almost every crevice. But the most remarkable phenomena 
are the Caldeiras ("Cauldrons"), or Olhos ("Eyes"), i.e. 
boiling fountains, which rise chiefly from a valley called the 
Furnas (" Furnaces "), near the western extremity of the island. 
The water rises in columns about 12 ft. high and dissolves in 
vapour. The ground in the vicinity is entirely covered with 
native sulphur, like hoar-frost. At a small distance is the Muddy 
Crater, 45 ft. in diameter, on a level with the plain. Its contents 
are in a state of continual and violent ebullition, accompanied 
with a sound resembling that of a tempestuous ocean. Yet they 



never rise above its level, unless occasionally to throw to a small 
distance a spray of the consistence of melted lead. The Furnas 
abounds also in hot springs, some of them of a very high tempera- 
ture. There is almost always, however, a cold spring near the 
hot one. These have long been visited by sufferers from palsy, 
rheumatism, scrofula and similar maladies. Bath-rooms and 
other buildings have been erected. 

The plains of St Michael's are fertile, producing wheat, barley and 
Indian corn; vines, oranges and other fruit trees grow luxuriantly 
on the sides of the mountains. The plants are made to spring even 
from the interstices of the volcanic rocks, which are sometimes 
blasted to receive them. Raised in this manner, these fruits are of 
superior quality; but the expense of such a mode of cultivation 
necessarily restricts it. The western part of the island yields hemp. 

The principal town and seaport is Ponta Delgada (q.v.), with 
'7.675 inhabitants in 1900. The other chief towns are Arrifes 
(5644), Lagoa (7950), Povoacao (5093), Ribeira Grande (8496) and 
Villa Franca do Campo (8162). (See also Azores.) 

ST MICHAEL'S MOUNT, a lofty pyramidal island, exhibiting 
a curious combination of slate and granite, rising 400 yds. 
from the shore of Mount's Bay, in Cornwall, England. It is 
united with Marazion by a natural causeway cast up by the sea, 
and passable only at low tide. If its identity with the Mictis 
of Timaeus and the Ictis of Diodorus Siculus be allowed, St 
Michael's Mount is one of the most historic spots in the west 
of England. It was possibly held by a body of religious in the 
Confessor's time and given by Robert, count of Mortain, to 
Mount St Michael, of which Norman abbey it continued to be a 
priory until the dissolution of the alien houses by Henry V., 
when it was given to the abbess and Convent of Syon. It was 
a resort of pilgrims, whose devotions were encouraged by an in- 
dulgence granted by Pope Gregory in the nth century. The 
Mount was captured on behalf of Prince John by Henry Pomeroy 
in the reign of Richard I. John de Vere, earl of Oxford, seized 
it and held it during a siege of twenty-three weeks against 6000 
of the king's troops in 1473. Perkin Warbeck occupied the 
Mount in 1497. Humphry Arundell, governor of St Michael's 
Mount, led the rebellion of 1549. During the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth it was given to Robert, earl of Salisbury, by whose 
son it was sold to Sir Francis Basset. Sir Arthur Basset, brother 
of Sir Francis, held the Mount against the parliament until 
July 1646. It was sold in 1659 to Colonel John St Aubyn 
and is now the property of his descendant Lord Levan. The 
chapel is extra-diocesan and the castle is the residence of Lord 
St Levan. 

Many relics, chiefly armour and antique furniture, are preserved 
in the castle. The chapel of St Michael, a beautiful 15th-century 
building, has an embattled tower, in one angle of which is a small 
turret, which served for the guidance of ships. Chapel rock, on the 
beach, marks the site of a shrine dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
where pilgrims paused to worship before ascending the Mount. 
A few houses are built on the hillside facing Marazion, and a 
spring supplies them with water. The harbour, widened in 1823 
to allow vessels of 500 tons to enter, has a pier dating from the 
15th century, and subsequently enlarged and restored. Pop. 
(1901), in. 

ST MIHIEL, a town of north-eastern France, in the department 
of Meuse, on the right bank of the Meuse and the Canal de l'Est, 
23 m. S. by E. of Verdun by rail. Pop. (1906) of the town, 
S943 (not including a large garrison), of the commune, 9661. 
St Mihiel is famous for its Benedictine abbey of St Michael, 
founded in 709, to which it owes its name. The abbey buildings 
(occupied by the municipal offices) date from the end of the 17th 
century and the beginning of the 1 8th century, and the church from 
the 1 7th century. The latter contains a wooden carving of the 
Virgin by the sculptor Ligier Richier, born at St Mihiel in 1506. 
Other interesting buildings are the church of St Etienne, chiefly 
in the flamboyant Gothic style, which contains a magnificent 
Holy Sepulchre by Ligier Richier, and several houses dating 
from the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. On the road to Verdun 
are seven huge rocks, in one of which a sepulchre (18th century), 
containing a life-sized figure of Christ, has been hollowed. St 
Mihiel formerly possessed fortifications and two castles which 
were destroyed in 1635 by the royal troops in the course of a 
quarrel between Louis XIII. and Charles IV., duke of Lorraine. 
The town is the seat of a court of assizes, and has the tribunal 

of first instance belonging to the arrondissement of Commercy 
and a communal college. 

ST MORITZ (in Ladin, San Murezzan), the loftiest (6037 ft.) 
and the most populous village of the Upper Engadine in the 
Swiss canton of the Grisons. It is built above the north shore 
of the lake of the same name (formed by the Inn), and is by rail 
56 m. from Coire by the Albula railway, or by road 48! m. from 
Martinsbruck (the last village in the Engadine), or by road 30 m., 
over the Maloja Pass, from Chiavenna. In 1900 it had a popula- 
tion of 1603, 475 being German-speaking, 433 Ladin-speaking, 
and 504 (railway workmen) Italian-speaking, while 837 were 
Protestants and 743 Catholics. The village is about 1 m. north 
of the baths, an electric tramway connecting the two. Both are 
now much frequented by foreign visitors. The baths (chalybeate, 
sparkling with free carbonic acid) were known and much resorted 
to in the 16th century, when they were described by Paracelsus; 
they were visited in 1779 by Archdeacon W. Coxe. They are 
frequented chiefly by non-English visitors in summer, the 
English season at St Moritz being mainly the winter, for the sake 
of skating and tobogganing. (W. A. B. C.) 

ST NAZAIRE, a town of western France, capital of an arron- 
dissement in the department of Loire-Inferieure, 40 m. W.N.W. 
of Nantes by rail and 29 m. by river. Pop. (1906), 30,345. St 
Nazaire, situated on the right bank of the Loire at its mouth, 
is a modern town with straight thoroughfares crossing one 
another at right angles. It possesses nothing of antiquarian 
interest except a granite dolmen 10 ft. long and 5 ft. wide resting 
horizontally on two other stones sunk in the soil, above which 
they rise 6| ft. The only noteworthy building is a modern church 
in the Gothic style of the 14th century. The harbour, which 
constitutes the outport of Nantes and is accessible to ships 
of the largest size, is separated from the estuary by a narrow 
strip of land, and comprises an outer harbour and entrance, 
two floating docks (the old dock and the Penhouet dock), three 
graving docks, and the extensive shipbuilding yards of the Loire 
Company and of the General Transatlantic Company whose 
steamers connect St Nazaire with Mexico, the Antilles and the 
Isthmus of Panama. Ships for the navy and the mercantile 
marine are built, and there are important steel-works, blast- 
furnaces, forges, and steam saw-mills. The town is the seat of a 
sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a board of trade- 
arbitration, an exchange, a chamber of commerce, a communal 
college, and schools of navigation and industry. Next to British 
and French, Spanish, Norwegian and Swedish vessels most 
frequent the port. In the decade 1898-1907 the value of imports 
greatly fluctuated, being highest in 1898 (£2,800,000) and lowest 
in 1904 (£1,688,000), the average for each of the ten years being 
£2,280,000. The value of the exports in the same period varied 
between £3,724,000 in 1899 and £1,396,000 in 1906, the average 
being £2,935,200. Imports include coal and patent fuel, iron 
ore and pyrites, timber, rice and hemp; exports include iron 
ore, coal and patent fuel, pit wood, sugar, garments and woven 
goods, preserved fish, and wine and spirits. 

According to remains discovered on excavating the docks, St 
Nazaire seems to occupy the site of the ancient Corbilo, placed by 
Strabo among the more important maritime towns of Gaul. At the 
close of the 4th century the site of Corbilo was occupied by Saxons, 
and, their conversion to Christianity being effected one or two hun- 
dred years later by St Felix of Nantes, the place took the name of 
St Nazaire. It was still only a little " bourg " of some 3000 in- 
habitants when under the second empire it was chosen as the site 
of the new harbour for Nantes, because the ascent of the Loire was 
becoming more and more difficult. In 1868 the sub-prefecture was 
transferred to St Nazaire from Savenay. 

ST NECTAIRE (corrupted into Sennecterre and Senneterre), 
the name of an estate in Auvergne, France, which gave its name 
to a feudal house holding distinguished rank in the 13th century. 
The eldest branch of this family held the marquisate of La 
Fert6 (q.v.), and produced a heroine of the religious wars of the 
1 6th century, Madeleine de St Nectaire, who married Guy de St 
Exupery, seigneur de Miremont, in 1548, and fought successfully 
at the head of the Protestants in her territory against the troops 
of the League. To the same house belonged the branches of the 
marquises of Chateauneuf, the seigneurs of Brinon-sur-Sauldre 



and St Victour, and the seigneurs of Clavelier and Fontenilles, 
all of which are now extinct. (M. P.*) 

ST NEOTS (pronounced St Neets), a market town in the 
southern parliamentary division of Huntingdonshire, England, 
on the right (east) bank of the Ouse, 51 1 m. N. of London by 
the Great Northern railway. Pop. of urban district, (1901) 
3880. A stone bridge crosses the river, built in 1589 from the 
ruins of a former priory. The parish church of St Mary is a 
fine Perpendicular building of the later 15th century. The 
original oak roof is noteworthy. Among other buildings may 
be mentioned the Victoria museum (1887), the library and 
literary institute, and the endowed school (1760). Paper-mills, 
breweries, floui-mills, and engineering works furnish the chief 
industries of the town. 

The name of St Neots is derived from the monastery founded 
in the adjoining parish of Eynesbury in the reign of King Edgar 
(967-975). St Neot, a priest of Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset, 
became a recluse at a place which he named Neotstoke, near 
Bodmin in Cornwall, where he died about the end of the 9th 
century. His shrine at Eynesbury being threatened by the 
incursion of the Danes early in the nth century, the relics were 
conveyed to Crowland Abbey, in Lincolnshire, of which he 
became one of the patron saints. But in n 12 the monastery 
was refounded from that of Bee in Normandy. An Anglo-Saxon 
enamelled mosaic in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford is 
supposed to contain a portrait of St Neot. In 1648 a troop of 
Royalists under the command of Villiers, duke of Buckingham, 
was routed in St Neots by the Parliamentarians. 

ST NICOLAS, a town of Belgium in the province of East 
Flanders, about 12 m. S.W. of Antwerp. Pop. (1904), 32,767. 
It is the principal town of Waes, formerly a district of bleak and 
barren downs, but now the most productive part of Belgium. 
St Nicolas is the centre and distributing point of this district, 
being an important junction on the direct line from Antwerp 
to Ghent; it has also many manufactures of its own. The 
principal church dedicated to St Nicolas was finished in 1696, 
but the other public buildings are only of the 19th century. 

ST NICOLAS, or St Nicolas du Port, a town of north-eastern 
France, in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, on the left bank 
of the Meurthe, 8 m. S.E. of Nancy by rail. Pop. (1906), 4796. 
The town has a fine Gothic church dating from the end of the 
15th and the first half of the 16th century, and possessing a 
finger-joint of St Nicolas formerly the object of pilgrimages 
which were themselves the origin of well-known fairs. The 
latter became less important after 1635, when the Swedes sacked 
the town. There are important salt- workings in the vicinity; 
cotton spinning and weaving are carried on. Its port, shared 
with Varangeville on the opposite side of the river, has an active 

ST OMER, a town and fortress of northern France, capital 
of the department of Pas-de-Calais, 42 m. W.N.W. of Lille on 
the railway to Calais. Pop. (1906), 17,261. At St Omer begins 
the canalized portion of the Aa, which reaches the sea at Grave- 
lines, and under its walls it connects with the Neuffoss6 canal, 
which ends at the Lys. The fortifications were demolished 
during the last decade of the 19th century and boulevards and 
new thoroughfares made in their place. There are two harbours 
outside and one within the city. St Omer has wide streets and 
spacious squares, but little animation. The old cathedral 
belongs almost entirely to the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. 
A heavy square tower finished in 1499 surmounts the west portal. 
The church contains interesting paintings, a colossal statue of 
Christ seated between the Virgin and St John (13th century, 
originally belonging to the cathedral of Therouanne and presented 
by the emperor Charles V.), the cenotaph of St Omer (13th 
century) and numerous ex-votos. The richly decorated chapel 
in the transept contains a wooden figure of the Virgin (12th 
century), the object of pilgrimages. Of St Bertin, the church of 
the abbey (built between 1326 and 1520 on the site of previous 
churches) where Childeric III. retired to end his days, there 
remain some arches and a lofty tower, which serve to adorn a 
public garden, Several other churches or convent chapels are of 
xxiv. 2 

interest, among them St Sepulchre (14th century), which has a 
beautiful stone spire and stained-glass windows. A fine collection 
of records, a picture-gallery, and a theatre are all accommodated 
in the town hall, built of the materials of the abbey of St Bertin. 
There are several houses of the 16th and 17th centuries; of 
the latter the finest is the Hotel Colbert, once the royal lodging, 
and now occupied by an archaeological museum. Among the 
hospitals the military hospital is of note as occupying the well- 
known college opened by the English Jesuits in 1592. The old 
episcopal palace adjoining the cathedral is used as a court-house. 
The chief statue in the town is that of Jacqueline Robin (see 
below). St Omer is the seat of a sub-prefect, of a court of assizes, 
of tribunals of first instance and of commerce, of a chamber 
of commerce, and of a board of trade arbitration. Besides the 
lycee, there are schools of music and of art. The industries 
include the manufacture of linen goods, sugar, soap, tobacco- 
pipes, and mustard, the distilling of oil and liqueurs, dyeing, 
salt-refining, malting and brewing. The suburb of Haut Pont 
to the north of St Omer is inhabited by a special stock, which has 
remained faithful to the Flemish tongue, its original costume 
and its peculiar customs, and is distinguished by honesty and 
industry. The ground which these people cultivate has been 
reclaimed from the marsh, and the legres (i.e. the square blocks 
of land) communicate with each other only by boats floated on 
the ditches and canals that divide them. At the end of the marsh, 
on the borders of the forest of Clairmarais, are the ruins of the 
abbey founded in 1140 by Thierry d'Alsace, to which Thomas 
Becket betook himself in 1165. To the south of St Omer, on a 
hill commanding the Aa, lies the camp of Helfaut, often called 
the camp of St Omer. On the Canal de Neuf-Fesse, near the 
town, is the Ascenseur des Fontinettes, a hydraulic lift enabling 
canal boats to surmount a difference of level of over 40 ft. 

Omer, bishop of Therouanne, in the 7th century established 
the monastery of St Bertin, from which that of Notre-Dame 
was an offshoot. Rivalry and dissension, which lasted till 
the Revolution, soon sprang up between the two monasteries, 
becoming especially virulent when in 1559 St Omer became a 
bishopric and Notre-Dame was raised to the rank of cathedral. 
In the 9th century the village which grew up round the mona- 
steries took the name of St Omer. The Normans laid the place 
waste about 860 and 880, but ten years later found town and 
monastery surrounded by walls and safe from their attack. 
Situated on the borders of territories frequently disputed by 
French, Flemish, English and Spaniards, St Omer long continued 
subject to siege and military disaster. In 1071 Philip I. and 
Count Arnulf III. of Flanders were defeated at St Omer by 
Robert the Frisian. In n 27 the town received a communal 
charter from William Clito, count of Flanders. In 1493 it came 
to the Low Countries as part of the Spanish dominion. The 
French made futile attempts against it between 1551 and 1596, 
and again in 1638 (under Richelieu) and 1647. But in 1677, after 
seventeen days' siege, Louis XIV. forced the town to capitulate; 
and the peace of Nijmwegen permanently confirmed the con- 
quest. In 1 71 1 St Omer, on the verge of surrendering to Prince 
Eugene and the duke of Marlborough, owing to famine, was 
saved by the daring of Jacqueline Robin, who risked her life in 
bringing provisions into the place. St Omer ceased to be, a 
bishopric in 1801. 

See L. Deschamps de Pas, Hist, de la ville de Saint-Omer (2nd ed., 
Arras, 1 881). For a full bibliography of other works see U. Chevalier, 
Repertoire des sources hist, topo-bibliographie (Montbeliard, 1903), 
ii. 2743 seq. 

French violinist, was the son of a merchant at Toulouse, where 
he was born on the 5th of June 1813. He entered the Paris 
Conservatoire under Habeneck in 1831, and became professor 
of the violin in the Conservatoire of Toulouse. In 1844 he made 
his first appearance in England, at a Philharmonic concert 
directed by Mendelssohn. Settling in London, he was in 1845 
appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Music. In the 
early organizations for chamber music which culminated in the 
establishment of the Popular concerts, Sainton bore an important 




part; and when the Royal Italian Opera was started at Covent 
Garden, he led the orchestra under Costa, with whom he migrated 
to Her Majesty's Theatre in 1871. From 1848 to 1855 he was 
leader of the Queen's Band, and in 1862 he conducted the music 
at the opening of the International Exhibition. In i860, he 
married the famous contralto singer, Miss Charlotte Dolby (see 
below). He was leader of the principal provincial festivals for 
many years, and gave a farewell concert at the Albert Hall in 
1883. He died on the 17th of October 1890. His method was 
sound, his style artistic, and his educational wcrk of great value, 
the majority of the most successful orchestral violinists having 
been his pupils. 

contralto singer, was born in London on the 17th of May 1821, 
studied at the Royal Academy of Music from 1832 to 1837, 
Crivelli being her principal singing-master. In 1837 she was 
elected to a king's scholarship, and first appeared at a Phil- 
harmonic concert in 1841. In October 1845 she sang at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig, through the influence of Mendelssohn, 
who had been delighted by her singing in St Paul. The contralto 
music in his Elijah was written for her voice, but she did not 
appear in that work till the performance at Exeter Hall on the 
16th of April 1847. She married M. Sainton in i860, and in 
1870 she retired from the career of a public singer, but two years 
afterwards started a " vocal academy " in London. She made 
various successful attempts as a composer, and the cantatas 
" The Legend of St Dorothea" (1876), "The Story of the Faithful 
Soul "(1879), and " Florimel " (1885), enjoyed considerable 
success. Her last public appearance was at her husband's 
farewell concert in June 1883, and she died on the 18th of 
February 1885. A scholarship in her memory was founded at 
the Royal Academy of Music. Her voice was of moderate power 
and of fine quality, but it was her dignified and artistic style that 
gave her the high place she held for so many years both in 
oratorio and ballads. 

SAINTONGE, one of the old provinces of France, of which 
Saintes (q.v.) was the capital, was bounded on the N.W. by 
Aunis, on the N.E. by Poitou, on the E. by Angoumois, on the 
S. by Guienne, and on the W. by Guienne and the Atlantic. 
It now forms a small portion of the department of Charente and 
the greater part of that of Charente Inferieure. In the time of 
Caesar, Saintonge was occupied by the Santones, whose capital 
was Mediolanum; afterwards it was part of Aquitania Secunda. 
The civitas Santonum, which formed the bishopric of Saintes, 
was divided into two pagi: Santonicus (whence Sanctonia, 
Saintonge) and Al ienensis, later Alniensis (Aunis). Halved by 
the treaty of 1259, it was wholly ceded to the king of England 
in 1360, but reconquered by Du Guesclin in 1371. Up to 1789 
it was in the same gouvernement with Angoumois, but from a 
judiciary point of view Saintonge was under the parlement 
of Bordeaux and Angoumois under that of Paris. 

See D. Massiou, Histoire politique, civile el religieuse de la Saintonge 
el de V Aunis (6 vols., 1836-1839; 2nd ed., 1846); P. D. Rainguet, 
Biographie saintongeaise (1852). See also the publications of the 
Societe des archives historiques de la Saintonge et de V Aunis (1874 fol.). 

ST OUEN, an industrial town of northern France, in the 
department of Seine, on the right bank of the Seine 1 m. N. 
of the fortifications of Paris. Pop. (1906) 37,673. A chateau of 
the early 19th century occupies the site of a chateau of the 
17th century bought by Madame de Pompadour in 1745, where 
in 1814 Louis XVIII. signed the declaration promising a con- 
stitutional charter to France. Previously there existed a chateau 
built by Charles of Valois in the early years of the 14th century, 
where King John the Good inaugurated the short-lived order of 
the Knights of " Notre Dame de la noble maison," called also 
the " ordre de l'etoile." The industries of St Ouen include 
metal founding, engineering and machine construction and the 
manufacture of government uniforms, pianos, chemical products, 
&c. It has important docks on the Seine and a race-course. 

ST PANCRAS, a northern metropolitan borough of London, 
England, bounded E. by Islington, S.E. by Finsbury, S. by 
Holborn, and W. by St Marylebone and Hampstead, and extend- 

ing N. to the boundary of the county of London. Pop. (1901) 
2 35>3 I 7- I n the south it includes a residential district, contain- 
ing boarding-houses and private hotels. In the centre are 
Camden Town and Kentish Town, and in the north, where part 
of Highgate is included, are numerous villas, in the vicinity of 
Parliament Hill, adjoining Hampstead Heath. A thorough- 
fare called successively Tottenham Court Road, Hampstead 
Road, High Street Camden Town, Kentish Town Road, and 
Highgate Road, runs from south to north; Euston Road 
crosses it in the south, and Camden Road and Chalk Farm Road 
branch from it at Camden Town. Besides the greater part of 
Parliament Hill (267 acres), purchased for the public use in 
1886, the borough includes a small part of Regent's Park (mainly 
in the borough of St Marylebone) and Waterlow Park (29 acres) 
on the slope of Highgate Hill. It also contains the termini, 
King's Cross, St Pancras, and Euston, of the Great Northern, 
Midland, and London and North Western railways, with extensive 
goods depdts of these companies. The parish church of St 
Pancras in the Fields, near Pancras Road, has lost its ancient 
character owing to reconstruction, though retaining several 
early monuments. The new church in Euston Road (1822) is 
a remarkable adaptation of classical models. Among institutions, 
University College, Gower Street, was founded in 1826, and 
provides education in all branches common to universities 
excepting theology. With the department of medicine is con- 
nected the University College Hospital (1833) opposite the 
College. There are several other hospitals; among them the 
Royal Free Hospital (Gray's Inn Road), the North-west London 
hospital, Kentish Town, and, in Euston Road, the British 
(Forbes Winslow memorial) hospital for mental disorders, 
British hospital for skin diseases, and New hospital for women, 
administered by female physicians. St Katherine's Hospital, 
a picturesque building overlooking Regent's Park, with a chapel 
containing some relics of antiquity, was settled" here (1825) on 
the formation of the St Katherine's Docks near the Tower of 
London, where it was founded by Queen Matilda in 1 148. Its 
patronage has always been associated with queens, and here 
was established the Queen Victoria Home for Nurses of the poor, 
founded out of the women's gift of money to the Queen at her 
jubilee (1887). Other institutions are the London School of 
Medicine for women, the Royal Veterinary College and the 
Aldenham technical institute. The Passmore Edwards Settle- 
ment, taking name from its principal benefactor, was founded 
largely through the instrumentality of Mrs Humphry Ward. 
Near Regent's Park is Cumberland Market. The parliamentary 
borough of St Pancras has north, south, east and west divisions, 
each returning one member. The borough council consists of 
a mayor, 10 aldermen and 60 councillors. Area, 2694-4 acres. 

St Pancras is mentioned in Domesday as belonging to the chapter 
of St Paul's Cathedral, in which body the lordship of the manors of 
Cantelows (Kentish Town) and Totenhall (Tottenham Court) was 
also invested. Camden Town takes name from Baron Camden 
(d. 1794), lord chancellor under George III. King's Cross was so 
called from a statue of George IV., erected in 1830, greatly ridiculed 
and removed in 1845, but an earlier name, Battle Bridge, is tradition- 
ally derived from the stand of Queen Boadicea against the Romans, 
or from one of Alfred's contests with the Danes. Somers Town, 
between King's Cross and Camden Town, was formerly inhabited 
by refugees from the French Revolution, many of whom were buried 
in St Pancras churchyard. In the locality of Somers Town there 
were formerly to be traced earthworks of unknown age, which William 
Stukeley argued had belonged to a Roman camp of Julius Caesar. 
Attached to the former manor-house of Totenhall was one of the 
famous pleasure resorts of the 17th and 18th centuries, and from 
c. 1760 to the middle of the 19th century the gardens at Bagnigge 
Wells (King's Cross Road) were greatly favoured; there were here, 
moreover, medicinal springs. 

ST PAUL, a volcanic island in the southern Indian Ocean, 
in 38 42' 50" S., 77 32' 29" E., 60 m. S. of Amsterdam Island, 
belonging to France. The two islands belong to two separate 
eruptive areas characterized by quite different products; and 
the comparative bareness of St Paul contrasts with the dense 
vegetation of Amsterdam. On the north-east of St Paul, which 
has an area of 2f sq. m., is a land-locked bay, representing the 
old crater, with its rim broken down on one side by the sea. 



The highest ridge of the island is not more than 820 ft. above 
the sea. On the south-west side the coasts are inaccessible. 
According to Velain, the island originally rose above the ocean 
as a mass of rhyolitic trachyte similar to that which still forms 
the Nine Pin rock to the north of the entrance to the crater. 
Next followed a period of activity in which basic rocks were 
produced by submarine eruptions — lavas and scoriae of anorthitic 
character, palagonitic tuffs, and basaltic ashes; and finally 
from the crater, which must have been a vast lake of fire like 
those in the Sandwich Islands, poured forth quiet streams of 
basaltic lavas which are seen dipping from the centre of the 
island towards the cliffs at angles of 20 to 30 . The only remain- 
ing indications of volcanic activity are the warm springs and 
emanations of carbon dioxide. 

See C. Velain, Passage de Venus sur le soleil (9 decembre 1874). 
Expedition francaise aux lies St Paul et Amsterdam (Paris, 1877); 
Description geologique de la presqu'ile d 'Aden . . . Reunion ... 5/ 
Paul et Amsterdam (Paris, 1878); and an article in Annates de 
geographie, 1893. 

ST PAUL, the capital of Minnesota, U.S.A., and the county- 
seat of Ramsey county, situated on the Mississippi river, about 
2150 m. above its mouth, at the practical head of navigation, 
just below the Falls of St Anthony. It is about 360 m. N. W. 
of Chicago, Illinois, and its W. limits directly touch the limits 
of Minneapolis. Pop. (1880) 41,473; (1890) 133,156; (1900) 
163,632, of whom 46,819 were foreign-born (12,935 Germans, 
9852 Swedes, 4892 Irish, 3557 English-Canadians, 2900 
Norwegians, 2005 English, 1488 Austrians, 1343 Bohemians, 
1206 Danes, and 1015 French-Canadians), 100,599 of foreign 
parentage (i.e. both parents foreign born), and 2263 negroes; 
(1910 census) 214,744. Land area (1906) 52-28 sq. m. St 
Paul is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago 
Great Western, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Northern 
Pacific, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie, the Chicago 
& North-western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Great 
Northern, and the Minneapolis & St Louis railways. Five 
bridges span the Mississippi, the largest of which, known as 
High Bridge, is 2770 ft. long and 200 ft. high. Four interurban 
lines connect with Minneapolis. 

St Paul is attractively situated 670-880 ft. above sea-level, 
on a series of lofty limestone terraces or bluffs, formerly heavily 
wooded. It lies on both sides of the river, but the principal part is 
on the east bank. In its park system the numerous lakes within 
and near the city have been utilized. Of the parks, Como Park 
(425 acres; including Lake Como and a fine Japanese garden 
and a lily pond), and Phalen Park (600 acres, more than 400 of 
which are water area), are the largest. There are also 47 smaller 
squares and " neighbourhood parks " aggregating 560 acres. 
In Indian Park (135 acres), at the crest of the bluffs (Dayton's 
Bluffs), in the east central part of the city, are burial-mounds 
of the Sioux. Summit Avenue Boulevard, 200 ft. wide and 
extending for 25 m. along the heights, is a fine residential street. 
Boulevards along the bluffs on either side of the river connect 
with the Minneapolis park system. Harriet Island, in the 
Mississippi river opposite the business centre of the city, is 
attractively parked, and on it are public paths. Adjoining the 
city on the south-west, at the junction of the Minnesota and 
Mississippi rivers, is the Fort Snelling U.S. Government Military 
R eservation , with a round stone fort, built in 1 8 20. The principal 
public building is the State Capitol, completed in 1905. It was 
designed by Cass Gilbert (b. 1859), is of Minnesota granite and 
white Georgia marble with a massive central white dome, and 
has sculptural decorations by D. C. French and interior decora- 
tions by John La Farge, E. H. Blashfield, Elmer E. Garnsey 
(b. 1862), and Edward Simmons (b. 1852). Other prominent 
buildings are the City Hall and Court House, a Gothic greystone 
structure; the Federal building, of greystone, opposite Rice 
Park; a Young Men's Christian Association building; the 
Metropolitan Opera House; the Auditorium, which was built by 
public subscription; the St Paul armoury (1905), with a drill 
hall; the Chamber of Commerce; and the Union railway station. 
Among the principal churches are the Roman Catholic Cathedral, 
and the People's, the Central Presbyterian, the Park Congre- 

gational, and the First Baptist churches. The wholesale district 
is in the lower part of the city near the Union railway station ; 
the retail shops are mostly in an area bounded by Wabasha, 
Seventh, Fourth and Roberts streets. 

St Paul has an excellent public school system, which include. .) 
in 1909 three high schools, a teachers' training school, a manua 
training high school, forty-eight grade schools, and a parenta 
school. Among other educational institutions are the Freemai 
School; St Paul Academy; Barnard School for Boys; Si 
Paul College of Law (1900); the College of St Thomas (Romar 
Catholic, 1885); St Paul Seminary (Roman Catholic, 1894), 
founded by James J. Hill as the provincial seminary of the 
ecclesiastical province of St Paul with an endowment of $500,000, 
40 acres of land, and a library of 10,000 volumes; Luther 
Theological Seminary (1885); Hamline University (co-educa- 
tional; Methodist Episcopal), chartered in 1854, with a medical 
school in Minneapolis (chartered 1883; part of Hamline since 
1895), and having in the college and preparatory school, in 1908- 
1909, 17 instructors and 384 students; Macalester College 
(Presbyterian; co-educational), founded as Baldwin Institute 
in 1853, reorganized and renamed in 1874 in honour of a bene- 
factor, Charles Macalester (1798-1873) of Philadelphia; and the 
School of Agriculture (1888) and the Agricultural Experiment 
Station (1887) of the University of Minnesota, in St Anthony 
Park, west of Como Park and south of the fair grounds. Among 
the libraries are the City Public Library, the State Law Library 
and the Minnesota Historical Society Library. The Minnesota 
Historical Society, organized in 1849, nas an archaeological 
collection in the east wing of the Capitol. In the private residence 
of James J. Hill is a notable art gallery, containing one of the 
largest and best collections of the Barbizon School in existence. 
The principal newspapers are the Dispatch (Independent, 1878) 
and the Pioneer- Press, the latter established by James M. 
Goodhue (1800-1852) in 1849. Among the hospitals and charit- 
able institutions are the City and County, St Joseph's and 
St Luke's hospitals, all having nurses' training schools; the 
Swedish Hospital, the Scandinavian Orphan Asylum, the Home, 
for the Friendless, the Magdalen Home and the Women's 
Christian Home. Within the city limits (east of Indian Mounds 
Park) is the Willowbrook (state) Fish Hatchery, second to none 
in the United States in completeness of equipment; and adjoin- 
ing the city on the north-west are the extensive grounds (200 
acres) and buildings of the State Agricultural Society, where 
fairs are held annually. 

Although as a manufacturing city St Paul, not possessing 
the wonderful water-power of its sister city, does not equal 
Minneapolis, yet as a commercial and wholesale distributing 
centre it is in some respects superior, and it is the principal 
jobbing market of the North-west. Situated at the natural 
head of navigation on the Mississippi, it has several competing 
lines of river steamboats in addition to the shipping facilities 
provided by its railways and the lines of the Minnesota Transfer 
Co., a belt line with 62 m. of track encircling St Paul and Minne- 
apolis. St Paul is the port of entry for the Minnesota Customs 
District, and imports from Canada and from the Orient via the 
Pacific railways constitute an important factor in its commercial 
life, its imports and exports were valued at $6,154,289 and 
$9,909,940 respectively in 1909. Coal and wood, grain, farm 
produce and dairy products are important exports. St Paul 
is the principal market in the United States for the furs of the 
North-west, and there are extensive stock-yards and slaughtering 
and packing houses in the neighbouring city of South St Paul 
(pop. in 1910, 4510), St Paul ranks second to Minneapolis 
among the cities of the state as a manufacturing centre. The 
total value of its factory products in 1905 was $38,318,704, 
an increase of 27-5% since 1900. The following were among 
the largest items: fur goods; printing and publishing — book 
(especially law-book) and job, newspapers and periodicals; 
malt liquors; steam-railway car building and repairing; boots 
and shoes; foundry and machine-shop products; lumber and 
planing-mill products; men's clothing; tobacco, cigars and 
cigarettes; and saddlery and harness. 



St Paul is governed under a charter of 1900, which may be 
amended by popular vote on proposals made by a permanent 
charter commission. The mayor, comptroller and city treasurer 
are elected for two years. The mayor has the veto power and 
appoints the members of boards of police, parks, library, fire, 
water-supply and education. The legislature is bicameral, 
consisting of an assembly of nine members elected on a general 
city ticket and a board of aldermen chosen one from each of the 
twelve wards. The water-supply is pumped through 275 m. of 
water mains from a group of lakes north of the city, and the 
system has a capacity of 40,000,000 gallons per day. 

History. — The earliest recorded visit of a European to the 
site of St Paul was that of the Jesuit Louis Hennepin in 1680. 
The traders Pierre Le Sueur and Nicholas Perrot visited the 
region between 1690 and 1700, and apparently established a 
temporary trading post somewhere in the neighbourhood. The 
first man of English descent to record his visit was Jonathan 
Carver, who, according to his journal, spent some time in the 
vicinity in 1767-1768. In 1805 Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike con- 
cluded a treaty with the Sioux. The first steamboat made 
its way up the river in 1823. The site of St Paul was opened to 
settlement by the treaty of Prairie du Chien, negotiated by 
Governor Henry Dodge of Wisconsin with the Chippewas in 
1837. Two years later (1839) the first permanent settlement 
was made by Swiss and Canadian refugees from Lord Selkirk's 
Red River colony. In 1841 Father Lucien Gaultier erected a 
log mission chapel, which he named St Paul's; from this the 
settlement was named St Paul's Landing and finally St Paul. 
On the erection of Minnesota Territory in 1849, St Paul was 
incorporated as a village and became the Territorial capital. Its 
population in 1850 was only n 12. It was chartered as a city 
in 1854, and continued as the capital of the new state after its 
admission (1858). The first railway connecting St Paul and 
Minneapolis was completed in 1862, at which time St Paul's 
population exceeded 10,000 and in 1869 through railway con- 
nexion with Chicago was effected. The city of West St Paul 
was annexed in 1874. The growth of the city had been com- 
paratively slow until 1870, in which year the population was 
20,030; but the rapid railway construction and the settlement 
and clearing of the Western farm lands increased its commercial 
and industrial importance as it did that of its sister city, Minne- 
apolis. In 1884 the city (limits were extended to the Minneapolis 

See F. C. Bliss, St Paul, its Past and Present (St Paul, 1888); 
C. C. Andrews, History of St Paul, Minnesota (Syracuse, N.Y., 
1 890) ; Warner and Foote, History of Ramsey County and the City of 
St Paul (Minneapolis, 1881) ; C. D. Elfelt, " Early Trade and Traders 
in St Paul," and A. L. Larpenteur, " Recollections of the City and 
People of St Paul," both in the Minnesota Historical Society's 
Collections, vol. ix. (1901). 

ST PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, the cathedral church of the diocese 
of London, England, standing in the heart of the City, at the 
head of Ludgate Hill. (For plan, &c, see Architecture: 
Renaissance in England.) The name of a bishop of London, 
Restitutus, is recorded in 314, but his individuality and even 
his existence are somewhat doubtful, and nothing is known of 
the existence of a church until Bede's notice that early in the 
7th century one was built here by ^Ethelberht of Kent at the 
instance of the missionary Mellitus, who became bishop. Tradi- 
tion placed upon the site a Roman temple of Diana. The church 
was dedicated to St Paul, and, after passing through many 
vicissitudes, was removed in 1083, when Bishop Maurice, with 
the countenance of William the Conqueror, undertook the 
erection of a new cathedral. The building was not pressed 
forward with vigour, and in 1135 much of it was damaged by 
fire. The tower was completed in 1221; an Early English 
choir followed shortly after, and was enlarged after 1255 when 
Bishop Fulk brought great energy to bear upon the repair and 
elaboration of the building. At the close of the century the 
cathedral Was regarded as finished; but a new spire was built 
early in the 14th century. Much of the Norman work, particu- 
larly in the nave, had been left untouched by the Early English 
builders (who in other parts merely encased it), and the cathedral 

was a magnificent monument of these styles, and of the early 
Decorated. Perpendicular additions were not extensive, and the 
cathedral remained with little alteration until 1561, when 
lightning struck the spire and fired the church. The spire 
was never rebuilt. In the time of James I. the fabric had so 
far decayed that the king was prevailed upon to make a personal 
examination of it, and Inigo Jones was entrusted with the work 
of restoration. In accordance with the architectural tendencies 
of his time he added a classical portico to the west front, and 
made similar alterations to the transepts. Again, however, in 
1666 the bad state of the fabric necessitated extensive repair, 
and Dr (afterwards Sir) Christopher Wren furnished a scheme 
including a central dome. All his plans were complete in August 
of that year, but in September the great fire of London almost 
destroyed the building, and rendered what was left unsafe and 
beyond restoration. 

Estimates of the dimensions of the old cathedral differ, Stow 
making the extreme length 690 ft., but modern investigations give 
596 ft. The internal height of the choir was 101 ft., and that of the 
nave, which was of twelve bays, 93 ft., and the extreme breadth 
of the building was 104 ft. The summit of the wonderful spire was 
489 ft. above the ground. The present building is wider than the 
old, and its orientation is more northerly, but its northern, eastern 
and southern extremities approximately correspond with those of 
old St Paul's, the west front of which, however, with its flanking 
towers, lay nearly 100 ft. west of Wren's front. It should be noticed 
that the eastern part of the old cathedral incorporated the original 
parish church of St Faith after 1255, when part of the new crypt 
was allotted to the parish in return. Moreover, the ancient church 
of St Gregory by St Paul actually adjoined the cathedral on the 
south-west. In the angle west of the south transept lay a cloister, 
in the midst of which was the octagonal chapter house, dating from 
1332. To the north-east of the cathedral stood Paul's Cross, in an 
open space devoted to public meetings; it included a pulpit, and 
here religious disputations were held and papal bulls promulgated. 
In 1643 it was removed, but a new cross, erected under the will of 
H. C. Richards, K.C., M.P., was unveiled in 1910. 

The formal provision for the rebuilding of the cathedral was 
made in 1668, and the foundation stone was laid in 1675. The 
first service was held in it in 1697, and the last stone was set in 
place in 1 710. The cost is curiously estimated, but was probably 
about £850,000, the greater part of which was defrayed by a 
duty on sea-borne coal. The material is Portland stone. Wren 
had to face many difficulties. He naturally insisted on the style 
of the Renaissance, and his first design was for a building in the 
form of a Greek cross, but the general desire was that at least 
the ground-plan of the old English cathedrals should be followed, 
and the form of a Latin cross was forced upon him. He offered 
various further designs, and one was accepted, but Wren set 
the broadest construction upon the permission granted him to 
alter its ornamental details, and luckily so. The extreme length 
of the building is 513 ft., the breadth across the transepts 248 ft., 
of the nave 122 ft., of the west front 179 ft. The length of the 
nave is 223 ft., and of the choir 168 ft., leaving 122 ft. beneath 
the dome at the crossing. The cross at the top of the lantern 
above the dome is 363 ft. above the ground. 

The cathedral is approached on the west from an open pavement, 
on which stands a statue of Queen Anne. There is also an inscription 
marking the spot on which Queen Victoria returned thanks on the 
occasion of her Diamond Jubilee (1897). A broad flight of steps 
leads up to the west front, of two orders, flanked by towers. In the 
north tower is a chime of bells ; in the south the clock, with the old 
great bell (17 16), tolled on the death of certain high personages, 
and the new great bell, placed in 1882, weighing about 17 tons. 
The nave is of four bays, with aisles, and chapels of one bay width 
immediately east of the western towers. The transepts are of two 
bays, and are entered by north and south porches approached by 
circular flights of steps. On the pediment of the south porch is 
sculptured a phoenix with the inscription Resurgam (I shall rise 
again), in allusion to a famous episode. Wren, planning his site 
and desiring to mark in the ground the point of the centre of his 
dome, bade a workman bring a piece of stone for the purpose. 
He picked up at hazard a fragment of an ancient tombstone bearing 
this single word, which Wren adopted as a motto. The choir of four 
bays terminates in an apse, but the rich and lofty modern reredos 
stands forward, and the apse is thus divided off from the body of 
the church and forms the Jesus chapel. The choir stalls are a fine 
example of the work of Grinling Gibbons. The dome is supported 
by the four vast piers in the angles of the cross, within which are 
small chambers, and by eight inner piers. The spandrels between the 
I arches which stand upon these piers are ornamented with mosaics, 



from the designs of G. F. Watts and others, executed by Salviati. 
Wren had looked forward to a comprehensive scheme of decoration 
in mosaic. The later extension of this work was entrusted to Sir 
W. B. Richmond. Above the arches is a circular gallery known as 
the Whispering Gallery from the fact that a whisper can be easily 
heard from one side to the other. Above this there are pilasters, 
with square-headed windows, in three out of every four intervening 
spaces; and above again, the domed ceiling, ornamented in mono- 
chrome by Sir James Thornhill immediately after its completion; 
but the paintings have suffered from the action of the atmosphere 
and are hardly to be distinguished from below. The inner wall of 
the dome begins to slope inward from the level of the Whispering 
Gallery, but this is masked outside by a colonnade, extending up 
to a point a little above the top of the internal pilasters. From 
this point upward the dome is of triple construction, consisting of (i) 
the inner dome of brick, pierced at the top to render the lantern 
visible from below; (2) a brick cone, the principal member of the 
structure, bearing the lantern; (3) the dome visible from without, 
of lead on a wooden frame. The golden gallery at the base of the 
lantern (top of the outer dome) is about 65 ft. above the top of the 
inner dome. 

The monuments in St Paul's are numerous, though not to be 
compared with those in Westminster Abbey. The most notable is 
that in the nave to the duke of Wellington (d. 1852) by Alfred 
Stevens. In the crypt, which extends beneath the entire building, 
are many tombs and memorials — that of Nelson in the centre 
beneath the dome, those of many famous artists in the so-called 
Painters' Corner, and in the south choir aisle that of Wren himself, 
whose grave is marked only by a plain slab, with the well-known 
inscription ending Si monumentum requiris, circumspice (" If thou 
seekest a monument, look about thee "). Above the south-west 
chapel in the nave is the chapter library, with many interesting 
printed books, MSS. and drawings relating to the cathedral. For 
St Paul's School, established by John Colet, dean, and formerly 
adjacent to the cathedral, see the article on Hammersmith, whither 
it was subsequently removed. 

Authorities. — Parentalia or Memoirs (of Sir Christopher Wren), 
completed by his son Christopher, now published by his Grandson, 
Stephen Wren (London, 1758); Sir William Dugdale, History of St 
Paul's (1818); Dean Milman, Annals of St Paul's (1868); William 
Longman, The Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul (1873); Docu- 
ments illustrating the History of St Paul's (Camden Society, 1880); 
Rev. W. Sparrow-Simpson, Chapters in the History of Old St Paul's 
(1881); Gleanings from Old St Paul's (1889); and St Paul's and Old 
City Life (1894) ; Rev. A. Dimock, St Paul's (in Bell's " Cathedral " 
series, 1901); Rev. Canon Benham, Old St Paul's (1902). In this 
last work and elsewhere are shown the valuable drawings of Wen- 
ceslaus Hollar, showing the old cathedral immediately before the 
great fire. 

ST PAUL'S ROCKS, a number of islets in the Atlantic, nearly 
i° N. of the equator and 540 m. from South America, in 29° 15' 
\V. The whole space occupied does not exceed 1400 ft. in length 
by about half as much in breadth. Besides sea-fowl the only 
land creatures are insects and spiders. Fish are abundant, seven 
species (one, Holocentrum sancti pauli, peculiar to the locality) 
being collected by the " Challenger " during a brief stay. Dar- 
win (On Volcanic Islands) decided that St Paul's Rocks were 
not of volcanic origin; later investigators maintain that they 
probably are eruptive. 

See Reports of the Voyage of H. M.S. Challenger: Narrative of the 
Cruise, vol. i. 

ST PETER, a city and the county-seat of Nicollet county, 
Minnesota, U.S.A., on the Minnesota river, about 75 m. S.W. of 
Minneapolis. Pop. (1905, state census) 4514 (875 foreign-born); 
(1910) 4176. It is served by the Chicago & North-Western 
railway and by steamboat lines on the Minnesota river, which 
is navigable for light draft steamboats to this point. The 
neighbouring lakes with their excellent fishing attract many 
summer visitors. The city has a Carnegie library, and is the seat 
of the Minnesota Hospital for the Insane (1866), and of Gustavus 
Adolphus College (Swedish Evangelical Lutheran; co-educa- 
tional), which was founded in 1862 and has a college, an Academy 
and School of Pedagogy, a School of Commerce and a School 
of Music. St Peter is an important market for lumber and grain; 
it has stone quarries and various manufactures. Settled about 
1852, St Peter was incorporated as a village in 1865, and was 
chartered as a city in 1891. In 1857 the legislature, a short time 
before its adjournment for the session, passed a bill to remove 
the capital of Minnesota to St Peter, but the bill was not pre- 
sented to the governor for his signature within the prescribed 
time, and when the legislature re-convened a similar bill could 
not be passed. 

ST PETER PORT, the chief town of Guernsey, one of the 
Channel Islands. Pop. (1901) 18,264. It lies picturesquely on a 
steep slope above its harbour on the east coast of the island. 
The harbour is enclosed by breakwaters, the southern of which 
connects with the shore and continues beyond a rocky islet on 
which stands Castle Cornet. It dates from the 12th century 
and retains portions of that period. Along the sea-front of the 
town there extends a broad sea-wall, which continues north- 
ward nearly as far as the small port of St Sampson's, connected 
with St Peter Port by an electric tramway. To the south of 
the town Fort George, with its barracks, stands high above the 
sea. On the quay there is a bronze statue of Albert, Prince 
Consort (1862), copied from that on the south side of the Albert 
Hall, London. St Peter Port was formerly walled, and the sites 
of the five gates are marked by stones. St Peter's, or the town 
church, standing low by the side of the quay, was consecrated 
in 1312, but includes little of the building of that date. It has, 
however, fine details of the 14th and 15th centuries, and is, as a 
whole, the most noteworthy ecclesiastical building in the islands. 
The other principal buildings are the court house, used for the 
meetings of the royal court and the states, the Elizabeth College 
for boys, founded by Queen Elizabeth, but occupying a house 
of the year 1825, and the Victoria Tower, commemorating a 
visit of Queen Victoria in 1846. Hauteville House, the residence 
of Victor Hugo from 1856 to 1870, is preserved as he left it, and 
is open to the public. The harbour is the chief in the island, 
and a large export trade is carried on especially in vegetables, 
fruit and flowers. The construction of the harbour was ordered 
by King Edward I. in 1275. 

ST PETERSBURG, a government of north-western Russia, 
at the head of the Gulf of Finland, stretching for 130 m. along 
its south-east shore and the southern shore of Lake Ladoga, and 
bordering on Finland, with an area of 17,221 sq. m. It is hilly 
on the Finland border, but flat and marshy elsewhere, with the 
exception of a small plateau in the south (Duderhof Hills), 300 
to 550 ft. high. It has a damp and cold climate, the average 
temperatures being: at St Petersburg, for the year 39 F., for 
January 15 , for July 64°; yearly rainfall, 18-7 in.; at Ser- 
maks, at the mouth of the Svir on the E. side of Lake Ladoga 
(6o° 28' N.), for the year 37°, for January 13°, for July 62 ; 
yearly rainfall, 20-8 in. Numerous parallel ridges of glacier 
origin intersect the government towards Lake Peipus and north 
of the Neva. Silurian and Devonian rocks appear in the south, 
the whole covered by a thick glacial deposit with boulders 
(bottom moraine) and by thick alluvial deposits in the valley 
of the Neva. The bays of Kronstadt, Koporya, Luga and 
Narva afford good anchorage, but the coast is for the most part 
fringed with reefs and sandbanks. The chief river is the Neva. 
The feeders of Lake Ladoga — the Volkhov, the Syas, and the 
Svir, the last two forming part of the system of canals connecting 
the Neva with the Volga — are important channels of commerce, 
as also is the Narova. Marshes and forests cover about 45% 
of the area (70% at the end of the 18th century). The popula- 
tion, which was 635,780 in 1882, numbered 873,043 in 1897, 
without the capital and its suburbs ; including the latter it was 
2,103,965. Of this latter number 466,750 were women and 
160,499 lived in towns. The estimated pop. in 1906 was 2,510,100. 
The average density was 121 per sq. m. The population is chiefly 
Russian, with a small admixture of Finns and Germans, and 
according to religion it is distributed as follows : Greek Orthodox, 
78%; Nonconformists, i-6%; Lutherans, 17%; and 
Roman Catholics, 2-4%. A remarkable feature is the very slow 
natural increase of the population. During the 25 years 1867 to 
1 89 1 the natural increase was only 867. The government is 
divided into eight districts, the administrative headquarters 
of which, with their populations in 1897, are: St Petersburg 
(q.v.), Gdov (2254 inhabitants), Luga (5687), Novaya Ladoga 
(4144), Peterhof (11,300), Schliisselburg (5285), Tsarskoye Selo 
(22,353) and Yamburg (4166). Most of the towns are summer 
resorts for the population of the capital. Till the latter part 
of the 19th century education stood at a very low level, but 
progress has since been made, and now three-quarters of all who 



enter the army from this government are able to read. The 
zemstvo (provincial council) has organized village libraries and 
lectures on a wide scale. Many improvements have been 
made, especially since 1897, in sanitary organization. Generally 
speaking, agriculture is at a low ebb. The principal crops are 
cereals (rye, oats and barley), potatoes and green crops, the 
total area under cultivation being only 13%. These crops, 
which are often ruined by heavy rains in the late summer, are 
insufficient for the population. Flax is cultivated to some 
extent. Nearly 21% of the area consists of meadows and 
pasture. Dairy -farming is developing. Timber, shipping, stone- 
quarrying and fishing are important industries; the chief 
factories are cotton, tobacco, machinery, sugar, rubber and 
paper mills, chemical works, distilleries, breweries and printing 

, ST PETERSBURG, the capital of the Russian empire, situated 
at the head of the Gulf of Finland, at the mouth of the Neva, 
in 59° 56' N., and 30° 20' E., 400 m. from Moscow, 696 m. from 
Warsaw, 1400 m. from Odessa (via Moscow), and 1390 m. from 
Astrakhan (also via Moscow). The Neva, before entering the 
Gulf of Finland, forms a peninsula, on which the main part of 
St Petersburg stands, and itself subdivides into several branches. 
The islands so formed are only 10 or n ft. above the average 
level of the water. Their areas are rapidly increasing, while the 
banks which continue them seaward are gradually disappearing. 
The mainland is not much higher than the islands. As the river 
level rises several feet during westerly gales, extensive portions 
of the islands and of the mainland are flooded every winter. 
In 1777, when the Neva rose 10-7 ft., and in 1824, when it rose 
13-8 ft., nearly the whole of the city was inundated, and the 
lower parts were again under water in 1890, 1897 and 1898, 
when the floods rose 8 ft. A ship canal, completed in 1875-1888 
at a cost of £1,057,000, has made the capital a seaport. Be- 
ginning at Kronstadt j it terminates at Gutuyev Island in a harbour 
capable of accommodating fifty sea-going ships. It is 23 ft. deep 
and 175 m. long. The Neva is crossed by three permanent 
bridges — the Nicholas, the Troitsky or Trinity (1897-1903), and 
the Alexander or Liteinyi; all three fine specimens of archi- 
tecture. One other bridge — the Palace — across the Great Neva 
connects the left bank of the mainland with Vasiiyevskiy or 
Basil Island; but, being built on boats, it is removed during the 
autumn and spring. Several wooden or floating bridges connect 
the islands, while a number of stone bridges span the smaller 
channels. In winter, when the Neva is covered with ice 2 to 3 ft. 
thick, temporary roadways for carriages and pedestrians are made 
across the ice and artificially lighted. In winter, too, thousands 
of peasants come in from the villages with their small Finnish 
horses and sledges to ply for hire. 

The Neva continues frozen for an average of 147 days in the 
year (25th November to 21st April). It is unnavigable, however, 
for some time longer on account of the ice from Lake Ladoga, 
which is sometimes driven by easterly winds into the river at the 
end of April and beginning of May. The climate of St Petersburg 
is changeable and unhealthy. Frosts are made much more 
trying by the wind which accompanies them; and westerly 
gales in winter bring oceanic moisture and warmth, and melt the 
snow before and after hard frosts. The summer is hot, but 
short, lasting barely more than five or six weeks; a hot day, how- 
ever, is often followed by cold weather: changes of temperature 
amounting to 35 Fahr. within twenty-four hours are not un- 
common. In autumn a chilly dampness lasts for several weeks, 
and in spring cold and wet weather alternates with a few warm 

Mean temperature, Fahr. . 

Rainfall, inches 

Prevailing winds .... 
Average daily range of tempera- 
ture, Fahr 



The Year. 


Topography. — The greatei part of St Petersburg is situated 
on the mainland, on the left bank of the Neva, including the best 
streets, the largest shops, the bazaars and markets, the palaces, 

cathedrals and theatres, as well as all the railway stations, 
except that of the Finland railway. From the Liteinyi bridge 
to that of Nicholas a granite embankment, bordered by palaces 
and large private houses, lines the left bank of the Neva. About 
midway, behind a range of fine houses, stands the Admiralty, 
the very centre of the capital. Formerly a wharf, on which Peter 
the Great caused his first Baltic ship to be built in 1706, it is 
now the seat of the ministry of the navy and of the hydrographical 
department, the new Admiralty building standing farther down 
the Neva on the same bank. A broad square, partly laid out as 
a garden (Alexander Garden), surrounds the Admiralty on the 
west, south and east. To the west, opposite the senate, stands the 
fine memorial to Peter the Great, erected in 1782, and now 
backed by the cathedral of St Isaac. A bronze statue, a master- 
piece by the French sculptor Falconet, represents the founder 
of the city on horseback, at full gallop, ascending a rock and 
pointing to the Neva. South of the Admiralty is the ministry 
of war and to the east the imperial winter palace, the work of 
Rastrelli (1764), a fine building of mixed style; but its admirable 
proportions mask its huge dimensions. It communicates by a 
gallery with the Hermitage Fine Arts Gallery. A broad semi- 
circular square, adorned by the Alexander I. column (1834), 
separates the palace from the buildings of the general staff and 
the foreign ministry. The range of palaces and private houses 
facing the embankment above the Admiralty is interrupted 
by the macadamized " Field of Mars," formerly a marsh, but 
transformed at incredible expense into a parade-ground, and the 
Lyetniy Sad (summer-garden) of Peter the Great. The Neva 
embankment is continued to a little below the Nicholas bridge 
under the name of " English embankment," and farther down 
by the new Admiralty buildings. 

The topography of St Petersburg is very simple. Three long 
streets, the main arteries of the capital, radiate from the Admiralty 
— the Prospekt Nevskiy(Neva Prospect), the Gorokhovaya, and 
the Prospekt Voznesenskiy (Ascension Prospect). Three girdles 
of canals, roughly speaking concentric, intersect these three 
streets — the Moika, the Catherine and the Fontanka; to these 
a number of streets run parallel. The Prospekt Nevskiy is a 
very broad street, running straight east-south-east for 3200 yds. 
from the Admiralty to the Moscow railway station, and thence 
1650 yds. farther, bending a little to the south, until it again 
reaches the Neva at Kalashnikov Harbour, near the vast com- 
plex of the Alexander Nevski monastery (1713), the seat of the 
metropolitan of St Petersburg. The part of the street first 
mentioned owes its picturesque aspect to its width, its atrractive 
shops, and still more its animation. But the buildings which 
border it are architecturally poor. Neither the cathedral of the 
Virgin of Kazan (an ugly imitation on a small scale of St Peter's 
in Rome), nor the still uglier Gostiniy Dvor (a two-storied 
quadrilateral building divided into second-rate shops) , nor the 
Anichkov Palace (which resembles immense barracks), nor even 
the Roman Catholic and Dutch churches do anything to embellish 
it. About midway between the public library and the Anichkov 
Palace an elegant square hides the old-fashioned Alexandra 
theatre; nor does a profusely adorned memorial (1873) to 
Catherine II. beautify it much. The Gorokhovaya is narrow 
and badly paved, and is shut in between gloomy houses occupied 
mostly by artizans. The Voznesenskiy Prospekt, on the con- 
trary, though as narrow as the last, has better houses. On the 
north, it passes into a series of large squares connected with 
that in which the monument of Peter the Great stands. 
One of them is occupied by the cathedral of St Isaac (of 
Dalmatia), and another by the memorial (1859) to Nicholas I., 
the gorgeousness and bad taste of which contrast strangely 
with the simplicity and significance of that of Peter the 
Great. The general aspect of the cathedral is imposing both 
without and within; but on the whole this architectural 
monument, built between 1819 and 1858 according to a plan 
of Montf errant, under the personal direction of Nicholas I., 
does not correspond either with its costliness (£2,431,300) or 
with the efforts put forth for its decoration by the best Russian 



The eastern extremity of Vasilyevskiy Island is the centre of 
commercial activity; the stock exchange is situated there as 
well as the quays and storehouses. The remainder of the island 
is occupied chiefly by scientific and educational institutions — ■ 
the academy of science, with a small observatory, the university, 
the philological institute, the academy of the first corps of cadets, 
the academy of arts, the marine academy, the mining institute 
and the central physical observatory, all facing the Neva. 
Petersburg Island contains the fortress of St Peter and St Paul 
( 1 703-1 740), opposite the Winter Palace; but the fortress is 
now a state prison. A cathedral which stands within its walls 
is the burial-place of the emperors and the imperial family. 
The mint and an artillery museum are also situated within the 
fortress. The remainder of the island is meanly built, and is 
the refuge of the poorer officials (chinovniks) andof the intellectual 
proletariat. Its northern part, separated from the main island 
by a narrow channel, bears the name of Apothecaries' Island, 
and is occupied by a botanical garden of great scientific value 
and several fine private gardens and parks. Krestovskiy, 
Elagin and Kamennyi Islands, as also the opposite (right) bank 
of the Great Nevka (one of the branches of the Neva) are occupied 
by public gardens, parks and summer residences. The mainland 
on the right bank of the Neva above its delta is known as the 
Viborg Side, and is connected with the main city by the Liteinyi 
bridge, closely adjoining which are the buildings of the military 
academy of medicine and spacious hospitals. The small streets 
(man j' of them unpaved), with numerous wooden houses, are 
inhabited by students and workmen; farther north are great 
textile and iron factories. Vast orchards and the yards of the 
artillery laboratory stretch north-eastwards, while the railway 
and the high road to Finland, running north, lead to the park 
of the Forestry Institute. The two villages of Okhta, on the 
right bank, are suburbs; higher up, on the left bank, are several 
factories (Alexandrovsk) which formerly belonged to the crown. 
The true boundary of St Petersburg on the south is the Obvodnyi 
Canal, running parallel to the three canals already mentioned 
and forming a sort of base to the Neva peninsula; but numerous 
orchards, cemeteries and factories, and even unoccupied spaces, 
are included within the city boundaries in that direction, though 
they are being rapidly covered with buildings. Except in a few 
principal streets, which are paved with wood or asphalt, the 
pavement is usually of granite setts. There are two government 
dockyards, the most important of which is the new admiralty 
yard in the centre of the city. At this yard there are three 
building slips and a large experimental basin, some 400 ft. in 
length, for trials with models of vessels. The Galerny Island 
yard is a little lower down the river, and is devoted entirely to 
construction. There are two building slips for large vessels, 
besides numerous workshops, storehouses and so forth. The 
Baltic Yard is near the mouth of the Neva, and was taken over 
by the ministry of marine in 1894. Since that time the establish- 
ment has been enlarged, and a new stone building slip, 520 ft. 
in length, completely housed in, has been finished. 

Population. — The population of St Petersburg proper at the 
censuses specified was as follows: — 





Proportion of Men 
to every 100 Women. 









A further increase was revealed by the municipal census of 1900, 
when the population of the city was 1,248,739, having thus 
increased 30-9% in ten years. In 1905 the total population 
was estimated to number 1,429,000. The population of the 
suburbs was 134,710 in 1897, and 190,635 in 1900. Including 
its suburbs, St Petersburg is the fifth city of Europe in point of 
size, coming after London, Paris, Berlin and Vienna. The large 
proportion of men in its population is due to the fact that great 
numbers come from other parts of Russia to work during the 
winter in the textile factories, and during the summer at un- 

loading the boats. Russians numbered 828,354 in 1897, or 73-1% 
of the population; Germans 43,798, or 3-9%; Poles 22,307, 
or i-9%; Finns, 16,731, or 1.5%; and Jews 10,353, or 0-9%. 
The various religions are represented by 84-9% Orthodox 
Greeks, 9-9 Protestants, and 3-3 Roman Catholics. The pro- 
portion of illegitimate children is ten times higher than in the 
rest of Russia, namely 250 to 286 per thousand births. It is 
thus nearly the same as in Paris, but lower than in Moscow 
(292 per thousand) and Vienna (349 per thousand) . The mortality 
varies very much in different parts of the city — from 12 per 
thousand in the best situated, the admiralty quarter, to 16 in 
other central parts, and 25 and 27 in the outlying quarters. 
The mortality has, however, notably decreased, as it averaged 
36 per thousand in the years 1870 to 1874, and only 27 from 1886 
to 1895, and 24 in 1897. Infectious diseases, i.e. turberculosis, 
diphtheria, inflammation of the lungs, typhoid, scarlet fever 
and measles, are the cause of 37 to 38% of all deaths. The 
high mortality in certain quarters is largely due to overcrowding 
and bad water. 

An interesting feature of the Russian capital is the very high 
proportion of people living on their own earnings or income 
(" independent ") as compared with those who live on the earnings 
or income of some one else (" dependent "). Only a few industrial 
establishments employ more than twenty workmen, the average 
being less than ten and the figure seldom falling below five. 
The large factories are beyond the limits of St Petersburg. 
Although 36% of the population above six years old are unable 
to read, the workmen are amongst the most intelligent classes 
in Russia. 

Education, Science and Art. — Notwithstanding the hardships and 
prosecutions to which it is periodically subjected, the university 
(nearly 4000 students) exercises a pronounced influence en the life of 
St Petersburg. The medical faculty forms a separate academy, 
under military jurisdiction, with about 1500 students. There are, 
moreover, a philological institute, a technological institute, a forestry 
academy, an engineering academy, two theological academies 
(Orthodox Greek and Roman Catholic), an academy of arts, five 
military academies and a high school of law. Higher instruction for 
women is provided by a medical academy, a free university, four 
other institutions for higher education, and a school of agriculture. 
The scientific institutions include an academy of sciences, opened in 
1726, which has rendered immense service in the exploration of 
Russia. The oft-repeated reproach that it keeps its doors shut to 
Russian savants, while opening them too widely to German ones, is 
not without foundation. The Pulkovo astronomical observatory, 
the chief physical (meteorological) observatory (with branches 
throughout Russia and Siberia), the astronomical observatory at 
Vilna, the astronomical and magnetical observatory at Peking, and 
the botanical garden, are all attached to the academy of sciences. 
The Society of Naturalists and the Physical and Chemical Society 
have issued most valuable publications. The geological committee 
is ably pushing forward the geological survey of the country; the 
Mineralogical Society was founded in 1817. The Geographical 
Society, with branch societies for West and East Siberia, Caucasus, 
Orenburg, the north-western and south-western provinces of 
European Russia, is well known for its valuable work, as is also the 
Entomological Society. There are four medical societies, and an 
archaeological society (since 1 846) , an historical society, an economical 
society, gardening, forestry, technical and navigation societies. The 
conservatory of music, with a new building (1891-1896), gives 
superior musical instruction. The Musical Society is worthy of 
notice. Art, on the other hand, has not freed itself from the old 
scholastic methods at the academy. Several independent artistic 
societies seek to remedy this drawback, and are the true cradle of 
the Russian genre painters. 

The imperial public library contains valuable collections of books 
(1,000,000) and MSS. The library of the academy of sciences con- 
tains more than 500,000 volumes, 13,000 MSS., rich collections of 
works on oriental languages, and valuable collections of periodical 
publications from scientific societies throughout the world. The 
museums of the Russian capital occupy a prominent place among 
those of Europe. That of the Academy of Sciences, of the Navy, of 
Industrial Art (1896), of the Mineralogical Society, of the Academy 
of Arts, the Asiatic museum, the Suvorov museum (1901), with 
pictures by Vereshchagin, the Zoological museum and several others 
are of great scientific value. The Hermitage Art Gallery contains a 
first-rate collection of the Flemish school, some pictures of the 
Russian school, good specimens of the Italian, Spanish and old 
French schools, invaluable treasures of Greek and Scythian 
antiquities, and a good collection of 200,000 engravings. Old 
Christian and old Russian arts are well represented in the museums 
of the Academy of Arts. The New Michael Palace was in 1 895-1 898 




converted into a museum of Russian art— the Russian museum 
is one of the handsomest buildings in the city. 

In the development of the Russian drama St Petersburg has played 
a far less important part than Moscow, and the stage there has never 
reached the same standard of excellence as that of the older capital. 
On the other hand, St Petersburg is the cradle of Russian opera and 
Russian music. There are in the city only four theatres of import- 
ance — all imperial — two for the opera and ballet, one for the native 
drama, and one for the French and German drama. 

Industries and Trade.— St Petersburg is much less of a manufactur- 
ing city than Moscow or Berlin. The period 1880 to 1890 was very 
critical in the history of the northern capital. With the develop- 
ment of the railway system the southern and south-western provinces 
of Russia began to prosper more rapidly than the upper Volga 
provinces; St Petersburg began to lose its relative importance in 
favour of the Baltic ports of Riga and Libau, and its rapid growth 
since the Crimean War seemed in danger of being arrested. The 
danger, however, passed away, and in the last decade of the 19th 
century the city continued its advance with renewed vigour. A 
great influx of functionaries of all sorts, consequent upon the state 
taking into its hands the administration of the railways, spirits, &c, 
resulted in the rapid growth of the population, while the introduction 
of a cheap railway tariff, and the subsidizing and encouraging in 
other ways of the great industries, attracted to St Petersburg a 
considerable number of workers, and favoured the growth of its 
larger industrial establishments. St Petersburg is now one of the 
foremost industrial provinces in Russia, its yearly returns placing it 
immediately after Moscow and before Piotrkow, in Poland. The 
chief factories are cottons and other textiles, metal and machinery 
works, tobacco, paper, soap and candle factories, breweries, dis- 
tilleries, sugar refineries, ship-building yards, printing works, 
potteries, carriage works, pastry and confectionery and chemicals. 
The export trade of St Petersburg is chiefly in grain (especially rye 
and oats), flour and bran, oil seeds, oil cakes, naphtha, eggs, flax and 
timber. It shows very great fluctuations, varying in accordance 
with the ciops, the range being from £8,000,000 to £10,000,000. The 
exports are almost entirely to western Europe by sea (from £5,500,000 
to £6,5O0,r>x>), and to Finland (£1,500,000 to £3,000,000). The im- 
ports consist chiefly of coal, metals, building materials, herrings, 
coffee and tea, better-class timber, raw cotton, wood pulp and 
cellulose, and manufactured goods, and amount to about £14,000,000 

Six railways meet at St Petersburg. Two run westwards along 
both shores o' the Gulf of Finland to Hangoudd and to Port Baltic 
respectively; two short lines connect Oranienbaum, opposite 
Kronstadt and Tsarskoye Selo (with Pavlovsk) with the capital; 
and three great trunk lines run — south-west to Warsaw (with 
branches to Riga and Smolensk), south-east to Moscow (with 
branches to Novgorod and Rybinsk), and east to Vologda, Vyatka 
and Perm. The Neva is the principal channel for the trade of St 
Petersburg with the rest of Russia, by means of the Volga and its 

Administration. — The municipal affairs of the city are in the hands 
of a municipality, elected by three categories of electors, and is 
practically a department of the chief of the police. The city is under 
a separate governor-general, whose authority, like that of the chief 
of police, is unlimited. 

Environs. — St Petersburg is surrounded by several fine residences, 
mostly imperial palaces with large and beautiful parks. Tsarskoye 
Selo, 15 m. to the south-east, and Peterhof, on the Gulf of Finland, 
are summer residences of the emperor. Pavlovsk, 17 m. S. of the 
city, has a fine palace and parks, where summer concerts attract 
thousands of people. There is another imperial palace at Gatchina, 
29 m. S. Oranienbaum, 25 m. W. on the south shore of the Gulf of 
Finland, is a rather neglected place. Pulkovo, on a hill 9 m. S. from 
St Petersburg, is well known for its observatory ; while several 
villages north of the capital, such as Pargolovo and Murino, are 
visited in summer by the less wealthy inhabitants. 

History. — The region between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of 
Finland was inhabited in the 9th century by Finns and some 
Slavs. Novgorod and Pskov made efforts to secure and maintain 
dominion over this region, so important for their trade, and in 
the 13th and 14th centuries they built the forts of Koporya 
(in the present district of Peterhof), Yam (now Yamburg), and 
Oryeshek (now Schlusselburg) at the point where the Neva 
issues from Lake Ladoga. They found, however, powerful 
opponents in the Swedes, who erected the fort of Landskrona 
at the junction of the Okhta and the Neva, and in the Livonians, 
who had their fortress at Narva. Novgorod and Moscow 
successively were able by continuous fighting to maintain their 
supremacy over the region south of the Neva throughout the 
16th century; but early in the 17th century Moscow was com- 
pelled to cede it to Sweden, which erected a fortress on the Neva 
at the mouth of the Okhta. In 1700 Peter the Great began his 
wars with Sweden. Oryeshek was taken in 1702, and in the 

following year the Swedish fortress on the Neva. Two months 
later (29th June 1703) Peter laid the foundations of a cathedral 
to St Peter and St Paul, and of a fort which received his own 
name (in its Dutch transcription, "Piterburgh" ). Next year 
the fort of Kronslott was erected on the island of Kotlin, as also 
the Admiralty on the Neva, opposite the fortress. The emperor 
took most severe and almost barbarous measures for increasing 
his newly founded city, which was built on marshy ground, the 
buildings resting on piles. Thousands of people from all parts 
of Russia were removed thither and died in erecting the fortress 
and building the houses. Under Elizabeth fresh compulsory 
measures raised the population to 150,000, and this figure was 
nearly doubled during the reign of Catherine II. (1762-1796). 
The chief embellishments of St Petersburg were effected during 
the reigns of Alexander I. (1801-1825) and Nicholas I. (1825- 
1855). From the earliest years of Russian history trade had taken 
this northern direction. Novgorod owed its wealth to this fact; 
and as far back as the 12th century the Russians had their forts 
on Lake Ladoga and the Neva. In the 14th and 15th centuries 
they exchanged their wares with the Danzig merchants at Nu 
or Nu — now Vasilyevskiy Island. By founding St Petersburg 
Peter the Great only restored the trade to its old channels. The 
system of canals for connecting the upper Volga and the Dnieper 
with the great lakes of the north completed the work; the 
commercial mouth of the Volga was thus transferred to the 
Gulf of Finland, and St Petersburg became the export harbour 
for more than half Russia. Foreigners hastened thither to take 
possession of the growing export trade, and to this the Russian 
capital is indebted for its cosmopolitan character. The develop- 
ment of the railway system and the colonization of southern 
Russia now operate, however, adversely to St Petersburg, 
while the rapid increase of population in the Black Sea region 
is tending to shift the Russian centre of gravity; new centres 
of commercial, industrial, and intellectual life are being developed 
at Odessa and Rostov. The revival of Little Russia is another 
influence operating in the same direction. Since the abolition 
of serfdom and in consequence of the impulse given to Russian 
thought by this reform, the provinces are coming more and more 
to dispute the right of St Petersburg to guide the political life 
of the country. It has been often said that St Petersburg is 
the head of Russia and Moscow its heart. The first part at least 
of this saying is true. In the development of thought and in 
naturalizing in Russia the results of west European culture and 
philosophy St Petersburg has played a prominent part. It 
has helped greatly to familiarize the public with the teachings 
of west European science and thinking, and to give to Russian 
literature its liberality of mind and freedom from the trammels 
of tradition. St Petersburg has no traditions, no history beyond 
that of the palace conspiracies, and there is nothing in its past 
to attract the writer or the thinker. But, as new centres of 
intellectual life and new currents of thought develop again at 
Moscow and Kiev, or arise anew at Odessa and in the eastern 
provinces, these places claim the right to their own share in 
the further development of intellectual life in Russia. 

(P. A. K., J. T. Be.) 

(1658-1743), French writer, was born at the chateau de Saint- 
Pierre-l'Eglise near Cherbourg on the 18th of February 1658. 
His father was bailli of the Cotentin, and Saint-Pierre was 
educated by the Jesuits. In Paris he frequented the salons of 
Madame de la Fayette and of the marquise de Lambert. He was 
presented to the abbacy of Tiron, and was elected to the 
Academy in 1695. In the same year he gained a footing at court 
as almoner to Madame. But in 1718, in consequence of the 
political offence given by his Discours sur la polysynodie, he was 
expelled from the Academy. He afterwards founded the club 
of the Entre sol, an independent society suppressed in 1731. 
He died in Paris on the 29th of April 1743. 

Saint-Pierre's works are almost entirely occupied with an 
acute though generally visionary criticism of politics, law and 
social institutions. They had a great influence on Rousseau, 
who left elaborate examinations of some of them, and reproduced 


not a few of their ideas in his own work. His Pi-ojet de paix 
perpituelle, which was destined to exercise considerable influence 
on the development of the various schemes for securing universal 
peace which culminated in the Holy Alliance, was published in 
1713 at Utrecht, where he was acting as secretary to the French 
plenipotentiary, the Abbe de Polignac, and his Polysynodie 
contained severe strictures on the government of Louis XIV., 
with projects for the administration of France by a system of 
councils for each department of government. His works include 
a number of memorials and projects for stopping duelling, 
equalizing taxation, treating mendicancy, reforming education 
and spelling, &c. It was not, however, for his suggestions for 
the reform of the constitution that he was disgraced, but because 
in the Polysynodie he had refused to Louis XIV. the title of le 
Grand. Unlike the later reforming abbes of the philosophe 
period, Saint-Pierre was a man of very unworldly character and 
quite destitute of the Frondeur spirit. 

His works were published at Amsterdam in 1738-1740 and his 
Annates politique* in London in 1757. A discussion of his principles, 
with a view to securing a just estimation of the high value of his 
political and economic ideas, is given by S. Siegler Pascal in Un 
Contemporain egare au XVI II' siecle. Les Projets de I' abbe de Saint- 
Pierre, 1658-1743 (Paris, 1900). 

1814), French man of letters, was born at Havre on the 19th of 
January 1737. He was educated at Caen and at Rouen, and 
became an engineer. According to his own account he served 
in the army, taking part in the Hesse campaign of 1760, but 
was dismissed for insubordination, and, after quarrelling with 
his family, was in some difficulty. He appears at Malta, St 
Petersburg, Warsaw, Dresden, Berlin, holding brief commissions 
as an engineer and rejoicing in romantic adventures. But he 
came back to Paris in 1765 poorer than he set out. He came 
into possession of a small sum at his father's death, and in 1 768 
he set out for the Isle of France (Mauritius) with a government 
commission, and remained there three years, returning home 
in 1 77 1. These wanderings supplied Bernardin with the whole 
of his stock-in-trade, for he never again quitted France. On 
his return from Mauritius he was introduced to D'Alembert 
and his friends, but he took no great pleasure in the company 
of any literary man except J. J. Rousseau, of whom in his last 
years he saw much, and on whom he formed both his character 
and his style. His Voyage a I' lie de France (2 vols., 1773) gained 
him a reputation as a champion of innocence and religion, and 
in consequence, through the exertions of the bishop of Aix, 
a pension of 1000 livres a year. It is soberest and therefore 
the least characteristic of his books. The Etudes de la nature 
(3 vols., 1784) was an attempt to prove the existence of God from 
the wonders of nature; he set up a philosophy of sentiment to 
oppose the materializing tendencies of the Encyclopaedists. 
His masterpiece, Paul et Virginie, appeared in 1789 in a supple- 
mentary volume of the Etudes, and his second great success, 
much less sentimental and showing not a little humour, the 
Chaumiere indienne, not till 1790. In 1792 he married a very 
young girl, Felicite Didot, who brought him a considerable 
dowry. For a short time in 1792 he was superintendent 
of the Jardin des Plantes, and on the suppression of the office 
received a pension of 3000 livres. In 1795 he became a member 
of the Institute. After his first wife's death he married in 1800, 
when he was sixty-three, another young girl, Desiree Pelleport, 
and is said to have been very happy with her. On the 21st of 
January 1814 he died at his house at Eragny, near Pontoise. 

Paul et Virginie has been pronounced gaudy in style and unhealthy 
in tone. Perhaps Bernardin is not fairly to be judged by this famous 
story, in which the exuberant sensibility of the time finds equally 
exuberant expression. His merit lies in his breaking away from the 
arid vocabulary which more than a century of classical writing has 
brought upon France, in his genuine preference for the beauties of 
nature, and in his attempt to describe them faithfully. After 
Rousseau, and even more than Rousseau, Bernardin was in French 
literature the apostle of the return to nature, though both in him and 
his immediate follower Chateaubriand there is still much mannerism 
and unreality. 

Aimfe Martin, disciple of Bernardin and the second husband of his 
second wife, published a complete edition of his works in 18 volumes 


(Paris, 1818-1820), afterwards increased by seven volumes of 
correspondence and memoirs (1826). Paul et Virginie, the Chaumiere 
indienne, &c. have often been separately reprinted. See also Arvede 
Barin's Bernardin de Saxnt Pierre (1891). 

ST PIERRE and MIQTJELON, two islands 10 m. off the south 
coast of Newfoundland, united area about 91 sq. m. Both are 
rugged masses of granite, with a few small streams and lakes, a 
thin covering of soil and scanty vegetation. Miquelon, the larger 
of the two, consists of Great Miquelon and Little Miquelon, or 
Langlade; previous to 1783 these were separated by a' navigable 
channel, but they have since become connected by a dangerous 
mudbank. St Pierre has a sheltered harbour with about 14 ft. of 
water, and a good roadstead for large vessels. Their importance 
is due to their proximity to the great Banks, which makes 
them the centre of the French Atlantic fisheries. These are kept 
up by an elaborate system of bounties by the French government, 
which considers them of great importance as training sailors 
for the navy. Fishing lasts from May till October, and is carried 
on by nearly five hundred vessels, of which about two-thirds 
are fitted out from St Pierre, the remainder coming from St 
Malo, Cancale and other French coast towns. The resident 
population, which centres in the town of St Pierre, is about 6500, 
swelled to over 10,000 for a time each year by extra fishing hands 
from France, but is steadily declining owing to emigration into 
Canada. Owing to the low rates of duty, vast quantities of goods, 
especially French wines and liquors, are imported, and smuggled 
to Newfoundland, the United States and Canada, though of 
late years this has been checked by a gradual rise in the 
scale of duties, and by the presence since 1904 of a British 
consul. St Pierre is connected with Halifax (N.S.) and St Johns 
(Newfoundland) by a regular packet service, and is a station 
of the Anglo American Cable Co. and the Compagnie francaise 
des cdbles tttegraphiques. Excellent facilities for primary and 
secondary education are given, but the attraction of the fisheries 
prevents their being fully used. 

The islands were occupied by the French in 1660, and fortified 
in 1700. In 1702 they were captured by the British, and held 
till 1763, when they were given back to France as a fishing 
station. They are thus the sole remnant of the French colonies 
in North America. Destroyed by the English in 1778, restored 
to France in 1783, again captured and depopulated by the English 
in 1793, recovered by France in 1802 and lost in 1803, the islands 
have remained in undisputed French possession since 1814 
(Treaty of Paris). 

See Henrique, Les Colonies francaises , t. ii. (Paris, 1889) ; Levasseur, 
La France, t. ii. (Paris, 1893); L'Annee coloniale, yearly since 1899, 
contains statistics and a complete bibliography; P. T. McGrath in 
The New England Magazine (May 1903) describes the daily life of the 
people. (W. L. G.) 

ST POL, COUNTS OF. The countship of St Pol-sur-Ternoise in 
France (department of Pas-de-Calais), belohged in the nth 
and 1 2th centuries to a family surnamed Candavene. Elizabeth, 
heiress of this house, carried the countship to her husband, 
Gaucher de Chatillon, in 1205. By the marriage of Mahaut de 
Ch&tillon with Guy VI. of Luxemburg, St Pol passed to the house 
of Luxemburg. It was in possession of Louis of Luxemburg, 
constable of France, who was beheaded in 1475. The constable's 
property was confiscated by Louis XL, but was subsequently 
restored in 1488 to his granddaughters, Marie and Francoise of 
Luxemburg. Marie (d. 1542) was countess of St Pol, and married 
Francois de Bourbon, count of Vend6me. Their son, Francois de 
Bourbon, count of St Pol (1491-1545), was one of the most devoted 
and courageous generals of Francis I. Marie, daughter of the 
last-mentioned count, brought the countship of St Pol to the 
house of Orleans-Longueville. In 1705 Marie of Orleans sold it to 
Elizabeth of Lorraine-Lillebonne, widow of Louis de Melun, 
prince of Epinoy, and their daughter married the prince of 
Roban-Soubise, who thus became count of St Pol. (M. P.*) 

ST POL-DE-LEON, a town of north-western France, in the 
department of Finistere, about 1 m. from the shore of the 
English Channel, and 13J m. N. of Morlaix by the railway to 
Roscoff. Pop. (1906), town, 3353; commune, 8140. St Pol-de- 
Leon is a quaint town with several old houses. The cathedral is 



largely in the Norman Gothic style of the 13th and early 14th 
centuries. The west front has a projecting portico and two 
towers 180 ft. high with granite spires. Within the church there 
are beautifully carved stalls of the 16th century and other works 
of art. On the right of the high altar is a wooden shrine con- 
taining the bell of St Pol de Leon, which was said to cure headache 
and diseases of the ear, and at the side of the main entrance 
is a huge baptismal font, popularly regarded as the stone 
coffin of Conan Meriadec, king of the Bretons. Notre Dame de 
Kreizker, dating mainly from the second half of the 14th century, 
has a celebrated spire, 252 ft. high, which crowns the central 
tower. The north porch is a fine specimen of the flamboyant 
style. In the cemetery, which has a chapel of the 15th century, 
there are ossuaries of the year 1 500. 

In the 6th century a Welsh monk, Paul, became bishop of 
the small town of Leon, and lord of the domain in its vicinity, 
which passed to his successors and was increased by them. 
In 1793 the town was the centre of a serious but unsuccessful 
rising provoked by the recruiting measures of the Convention. 

Chevalier, then Comte de (1735-1821), French statesman, was 
born at Grenoble on the 12th of March 1735. He was admitted 
a knight (chevalier) of the Order of Malta at five years of age, 
and at fifteen entered the army. He left active service in 1763 
with the grade of colonel, and for the next four years represented 
the court of France at Lisbon. He was sent in 1768 to Constanti- 
nople, where he remained with one short interval till 1785, 
and married Wilhelmina von Ludolf , daughter of the Neapolitan 
ambassador. His Mtmoires sur I'ambassade de France en 
Turquie et le commerce des Francais dans le Levant, prepared 
during a visit to France, were only published in 1877, when they 
were edited by C. Schefer. After a few months spent at the court 
of the Hague, he joined the ministry of Necker as minister without 
a portfolio, and in Necker's second cabinet in 1789 was secretary 
of the royal household and minister of the interior. He became 
a special object of the popular hatred because he was alleged to 
have replied to women begging for bread, " You had enough 
while you had only one king; demand bread of your twelve 
hundred sovereigns." Nevertheless he held office until December 
1790. Shortly after his resignation he went to Stockholm, where 
his brother-in-law was Austrian ambassador. In 1795 he joined 
the comte de Provence at Verona as minister of the household. 
He accompanied the exiled court to Blankenburg and Mittau, 
retiring in 1808 to Switzerland. After vainly seeking permission 
to return to France he was expelled from Switzerland, and 
wandered about Europe until the Restoration. Besides the 
memoirs already mentioned he wrote an Examen des assemblies 
provinciates (1787). 

His eldest son, GuillaumeEmmanuel(i776-i8i4), became major- 
general in the Russian service, and served in the campaigns of 
Alexander I. against Napoleon. He died at Laon in 1 814. The 
second, Armand Emmanuel Charles (1782-1863), became civil 
governor of Odessa, and married Princess Sophie Galitzin. The 
third, Emmanuel Louis Marie Guignard, vicomte de Saint Priest 
(1789-1881), was a godson of Marie Antoinette. Like his elder 
brother he took part in the invasion of France in 18I4. At the 
Restoration he was attached to the service of the duke of AngoulSme, 
and during the Hundred Days tried to raise Dauphine in the royal 
cause. He served with distinction in Spain in 1823, when he was 
promoted lieutenant-general. After two years at Berlin he became 
French ambassador at Madrid, where he negotiated in 1828 the settle- 
ment of the Spanish debt. When the revolution of July compelled 
his retirement, Frederick VII. made him a grandee of Spain, with 
the title of duke of Almazan, in recognition of his services. He then 
joined the circle of the duchess of Berry at Naples, and arranged 
her escapade in Provence in 1832. Saint Priest was arrested, and 
was only released after ten months' imprisonment. Having arranged 
for an asylum in Austria for the duchess, he returned to Paris, where 
he was one of the leaders of legitimist society until his death, which 
occurred at Saint Priest, near Lyons, on the 26th of February 1881. 

Alexis Guignard, comte de Saint Priest (1805-1851), was the 
son of Armand de Saint Priest and Princess Galitzin. Educated in 
Russia, he returned to France with his father in 1822, and soon made 
his mark in literary circles. His most important works were Histoire 
de la royaule considSree dans ses origines jusqua la formation des 
principalis monarchies de I'Europe (2 vols., 1842) ; Histoire de la 
chute des Jesuiles (1844); Histoire de la conquite de Naples (4 vols., 

1 847-1 848). He was elected to the Academy in January 1849. 
Meanwhile he had departed from the legitimist tradition of his 
family to become a warm friend to the Orleans monarchy, which 
he served between 1833 and 1838 as ambassador in Brazil, at Lisbon 
and at Copenhagen. He died, while on a visit to Moscow, on the 29th 
of September 1 851. 

SAINT PRIVAT, a village of Lorraine, 7 m. N.W. of.Metz. 
The village and the slopes to the west played a great part in 
the battle of Gravelotte (August 18, 1870). (See Metz and 
Franco-German War.) At St Privat occurred the famous 
repulse of the Prussian Guard by Marshal Canrobert's corps. 

ST QUENTIN, a manufacturing town of northern France, 
capital of an arrondissement in the department of Aisne, 32 m. 
N.N.W. of Laon by rail. Pop. (1906) 49,305. The town stands 
on the right bank of the Somme, at its junction with the St 
Quentin Canal (which unites the Somme with the Scheldt) 
and the Ciozat Canal (which unites it with the Oise). The port 
carries on an active traffic in building materials, coal, timber, 
iron, sugar and agricultural produce. Built on a slope, with a 
southern exposure, the town is dominated by the collegiate 
church of St Quentin, one of the finest Gothic buildings in the 
north of France, erected during the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th 
centuries. The church, which has no west facade, terminates 
at that end in a tower and portal of Romanesque architecture; 
it has double transepts. Its length is 436 ft. and the height 
of the nave 124 ft. The choir (13th century) has a great re- 
semblance to that of Reims; like the chapels of the apse it is 
decorated with polychromic paintings. There are remains of a 
choir-screen of the 14th century. Under the choir is a crypt of 
the nth century, rebuilt in the 13th century, and containing the 
tombs of St Quentin (Quintin) and his fellow-martyrs Victoricus 
and Gentianus. The Champs Elysees, an extensive promenade, 
lies east of the cathedral. The hotel-de-ville of St Quentin is a 
splendid building of the 14th, 15th and 1 6th centuries, with a 
flamboyant facade, adorned with curious sculptures. The 
council-room is a fine hall with a double wooden ceiling and 
a huge chimneypiece, partly Gothic partly Renaissance. A 
monument commemorates the siege of 1557 (see below), and 
another close to the river the part, played by the town in 1870 
and 1871. A building of the 20th century is appropriated to the 
law court, the learned societies, the museum and the library. 
St Quentin is the seat of a sub-prefect, of tribunals of first instance 
and of commerce, and of a board of trade-arbitration, and has 
an exchange, a chamber of commerce and lycees for both sexes. 
The town is the centre of an industrial district which manufactures 
cotton and woollen fabrics. St Quentin produces chiefly pique 
and window-curtains, and carries on the spinning and preliminary 
processes and the bleaching and finishing. Other industries are 
the making of embroideries by machinery and by hand, and 
the manufacture of iron goods and machinery. Trade is in 
grain, flax, cotton and wool. 

St Quentin (anc. Augusta Veromanduorum) stood at the 
meeting-place of five military roads. In the 3rd century it was 
the scene of the martyrdom of Gaius Quintinus, who had come 
thither from Italy as a preacher of Christianity. The date of 
the foundation of the bishopric is uncertain, but about 532 
it was transferred to Noyon. Towards the middle of the 7th 
century St Eloi (Eligius), bishop of Noyon, established a collegiate 
chapter at St Quentin's tomb, which became a famous place of 
pilgrimage. The town thus gained an importance which was 
increased during the middle ages by the rise of its cloth manu- 
facture. After it had been thrice ravaged by the Normans, the 
town was surrounded by walls in 883. It became under Pippin, 
grandson of Charlemagne, one of the principal domains of the 
counts of Vermandois, and in 1080 received from Count Herbert 
IV. a charter which was extended in 1103 and is the earliest of 
those freely granted to the towns of northern France. From 
1420 to 1471 St Quentin was occupied by the Burgundians. 
In 1557 it was taken by the Spaniards (see below). Philip 
commemorated the victory over the relieving force under the 
Constable Montmorency by the foundation of the Escurial. 
Two years later the town was restored to the French, and 
in 1560 it was assigned as the dowry of Mary Stuart. The 



fortifications erected under Louis XIV. were demolished 
between 1810 and 1820. During the Franco-Prussian War 
St Quentin repulsed the German attacks of the 8th of October 
1870; and in January 1871 it was the centre of the great 
battle fought by General Faidherbe (below). 

1. Battle of 1557. — -An army of Spaniards under Emmanuel 
Philibert of Savoy, invading France from the Meuse, joined an allied 
contingent of English troops under the walls of St Quentin, which was 
then closely besieged. Admiral Coligny threw himself on to the 
town, and the old Constable Montmorency prepared to relieve it. 
On St Lawrence's Day, 10th August, the relieving column reached 
the town without difficulty, but time was wasted in drawing off the 
garrison, for the pontoons intended to bridge the canal had marched 
at the tail of the column, and when brought up were mismanaged. 
The besiegers, recovering from their surprise, formed the plan of 
cutting off the retreat of the relieving army. Montmorency had 
thrown out the necessary protective posts, but at the point which 
the besiegers ehose for their passage the post was composed of poor 
troops, who fled at the first shot. Thus, while the constable was 
busy with his boats, the Spanish army filed across the Bridge of 
Rouvroy, some distance above the town, with impunity, and Mont- 
morency, in the hope of executing his mission without fighting, 
refused to allow the cavalry under the due de Nevers to charge them, 
and miscalculated his time of freedom. The Spaniards, enormously 
superior in force, cut off and destroyed the French gendarmerie 
who formed the vanguard of the column, and then headed off the 
slow-moving infantry south of Essigny-le-Grand. Around the 
10,000 French gathered some 40,000 assailants with forty-two guns. 
The cafinon thinned their ranks, and at last the cavalry broke in and 
slaughtered them. Yet Coligny gallantly held St Quentin for 
seventeen days longer, Nevers rallied the remnant of the army 
andj garrisoning Peronne, Ham and other strong places, entrenched 
himself in front of Compiegne, and the allies, disheartened by a war 
of sieges and skirmishes, came to a standstill. Soon afterwards 
Philip, jealous of the renown of his generals and unwilling to waste 
his highly trained soldados in ineffective fighting, ordered the army 
to retreat (17th October), disbanded the temporary regiments and 
dispersed the permanent corps in winter quarters. 

2. The Battle of 1871 was fought between the German I. army 
under General von Goeben and the French commanded by General 
Faidherbe. The latter concentrated about St Quentin on the 18th 
of January, and took up a defensive position on both sides of the 
Somme Canal. The Germans, though inferior in numbers, were 
greatly superior in discipline and training, afnd General von Goeben 
boldly decided to attack both wings of the French together on the 
19th. The attack took the customary enveloping form. After 
several hours' fighting it was brought to a standstill, but Goeben, 
using his reserves in masterly fashion, drove a wedge into the centre 
of the French line between the canal and the railway, and followed 
this up with another blow on the other bank of the canal, along the 
Ham road. This was the signal for a decisive attack by the whole 
of the left wing of the Germans, but the French offered strenuous 
resistance, and it was not until four o'clock that General Faidherbe 
made up his mind to retreat. By skilful dispositions and orderly 
movement most of his infantry and all but six of his guns were 
brought off safely, but a portion of the army was cut off by the 
victorious left wing of the Germans, and the defeat, the last act in a 
long-drawn-out struggle, was sufficiently decisive to deny to the 
defenders any hope of taking the field again without an interval of 
rest and reorganization. Ten days later the general armistice was 

SAINT-REAL, CESAR VICHARD DE (1639-1692), French 
historian, was born in Savoy, but educated in Paris by the 
Jesuits. Varillas gave him his taste for history and served as 
his model; he wrote hardly anything but historical novels. 
The only merit of his Don Carlos (1673) is that of having furnished 
Schiller with several of the speeches in his drama. In the 
following year he produced the Conjuration des Espagnols contre 
la Republique de Venise en 1618, which had a phenomenal 
success, but is all the same merely a literary pastiche in the 
style of Sallust. This work and his reputation as a free-thinker 
brought him to the notice of Hortense Mancini, duchesse de 
Mazarin, whose reader and friend he became, and who took 
him with her to England (1675). The authorship of the duchess's 
Mimoires has been ascribed to him, but without reason. Among 
his authentic works is included a short treatise De la critique 
(1691), directed against Andry de Boisregard's Reflexions sur 
la langue franf,oise. His CEuvres completes were published 
in 3 volumes (1745); a second edition (1757) reached 8 volumes, 
but this is due to the inclusion of some works falsely attributed 
to him. Saint-Real was, in fact, a fashionable writer of his 
period; the demand for him in the book-market was similar 

to that for Saint-Evremond, to whom he was inferior. He 
wrote in an easy and pleasant, but mediocre style. 

See Pere Lelong; Bibliotheque historique de la France, No. 48, 122; 
Barolo, Memorie spettanti alia vita di Saint-Real (1780; Saint- Real 
was an associate of the Academy of Turin) ; Sayous, Histoire de la 
litterature frangaise & I'etrahger. 

ST REMY, a town of south-eastern France in the department 
of Bouches-du-Rhone, 15 m. N.E. of Aries by road. Pop. (1906), 
town, 3668; commune, 6148. It is prettily situated to the 
north of the range of hills named the Alpines or Alpilles in a 
valley of olive trees. The town has a modern church with a 
lofty 14th-century spire. About a mile to the south are Gallo- 
Roman relics of the ancient Glanum, destroyed about 480. 
They comprise a triumphal arch and a fine three-storied 
mausoleum of uncertain date. Near by is the old priory of St 
Paul-de-Mausole with an interesting church and cloister of 
Romanesque architecture. In the vicinity of St Remy there 
are quarries of building stone, and seed-cultivation is an 
important industry. 

ST RIQUIER, a town of northern France, in the department 
of Somme, 8 m. N.E. of Abbeville by rail. Pop. (1906) 1158. 
St Riquier (originally Centula) was famous for its abbey, founded 
about 625 by Riquier (Richarnis), son of the governor of the town. 
It was enriched by King Dagobert and prospered under the 
abbacy of Angilbert, son-in-law of Charlemagne. The buildings 
(18th century) are occupied by an ecclesiastical seminary. The 
church, a magnificent example of flamboyant Gothic architecture 
of the 15th and 16th centuries, has a richly sculptured west 
front surmounted by a square tower. In the interior the fine 
vaulting, the Renaissance font and carved stalls, and the frescoes 
in the treasury are especially noteworthy. The treasury, 
among other valuable relics, possesses a copper cross said to be 
the work of St Eloi (Eligius). The town has a municipal belfry 
of the 13th or 14th centuries. In 1536 St Riquier repulsed an 
attack by the Germans, the women especially distinguishing 
themselves. In 1544 it was burnt by the English, an event 
which marks the beginning of its decline. 

See H6nocque, " Hist, de l'abbaye et de la ville de St Riquier," in 
Mem. soc. antiq. Picardie. Documents inedits, ix.-xi. (Paris, 1880- 


SAINTS, BATTLE OF THE. This battle is frequently called 
by the date on which it took place — the 12th of April 1782. 
The French know it as the battle of Dominica, near the coast 
of which it was fought. The Saints are small rocky islets in 
the channel between the islands of Dominica and Guadaloupe 
in the West Indies. The battle is of exceptional importance in 
naval history; it was by far the most considerable fought 
at sea in the American War of Independence, and was to Great 
Britain of the nature of a deliverance, since it not only saved 
Jamaica from a formidable attack, but after the disasters in 
North America went far to restore British prestige. The comte 
de Grasse,with 33 sail of the line, was at Fort Royal in Martinique. 
His aim was to effect a combination with a Spanish force from 
Cuba, and invade Jamaica. A British fleet (36 sail of the line), 
commanded by Sir George, afterwards Lord Rodney (q.v.), was 
anchored in Gros Islet Bay, Santa Lucia. On the 8th of April 
the British lookout frigates reported that the French were 
at sea, and Rodney immediately sailed in pursuit. Light and 
variable sea or land breezes made the movements of both fleets 
uncertain. Some of the ships of each might have a wind, while 
others were becalmed. On the 9th of April eight ships of the 
British van, at some distance from the bulk of their fleet, and 
nearly opposite the mountain called the Morne au Diable in 
Dominica, were attacked by fifteen of the French. The comte 
de Grasse, whose own ships were much scattered and partly 
becalmed, and who moreover was hampered by the transports 
carrying soldiers and stores, did not press the attack home. 
His chief wish was to carry his fleet through the channel between 
Dominica and Guadaloupe, while Rodney was anxious to force a 
battle. During the night of the nth-i2th the greater part 
of the French had cleared the channel, but a collision took place 
between two of their ships by which one was severely damaged. 
The crippled vessel was seen and pursued by four ships of the 



British van. The comte de Grasse recalled all his vessels, and 
bore down towards the British. Rodney ordered the last of his 
ships to lead into action, the others following her in succession, 
and the detached ships falling in behind as they returned from 
the pursuit. The two fleets in line of battle passed one another, 
the French steering in a southerly, the British in a northerly 
direction. Both were going very slowly. Fire was opened 
about 8 o'clock, and by 10 o'clock the leading British ship had 
passed the last of the French. While the action was in progress, 
one of the variable winds of the coast began to blow from the 
south, while the northern extremities of the fleets were in an 
easterly breeze. Confusion was produced in both forces, and 
a great gap was created in the French line just ahead of the 
" Formidable" (ioo), Rodney's flagship. The captain of the fleet, 
Sir Charles Douglas, called his attention to the opening, and 
urged him to steer through it. The fighting instructions then 
in force made it incumbent on an admiral to preserve the order 
in which he began the action unchanged. Rodney hesitated to 
depart from the traditional order, but after a few moments 
of doubt accepted the suggestion. The " Formidable " was 
steered through the opening, followed by six of those immediately 
behind her. The ships towards the rear passed through the 
disordered French in the smoke, which was very thick, without 
knowing what they had done till they were beyond the enemy. 
About i o'clock the British had all either gone beyond the French 
or were to the east of them. The French were broken into 
three bodies, and were completely disordered. The comte de 
Grasse, in his flagship the " Ville de Paris," with five other 
vessels, was isolated from his van and rear. Rodney directed his 
attack on these six vessels, which were taken after a very gallant 
resistance. It was the general belief of the fleet that many more 
would have been captured if Rodney had pursued more vigorously, 
but he was content with the prizes he had taken. Two more 
of the French were captured by Sir Samuel Hood, afterwards 
Lord Hood, in the Mona Passage on the 19th of April. 

See Beatson, Naval and Military Memoirs (London, 1804), vol. 5; 
and a careful analysis from the French side by Chevalier, Histoire 
de la marine francaise pendant la gtierre de Vindependance americaine 
(Paris, 1877). (D. H.) 

composer, was born in Paris on the 3rd of October 1835. After 
having as a child taken lessons on the piano, and learned the 
elements of composition, he entered the Paris Conservatoire in 
the organ class, then presided over by Eugene Benoist, obtaining 
the second prize in 1849, an d the first two years later. For a 
short time he studied composition under Halevy, and in 1852, 
and again in 1864, competed without success for the Grand Prix 
de Rome. Notwithstanding these unaccountable failures, Saint- 
Saens worked indefatigably. In 1853, when only eighteen, he 
was appointed organist at the Church of St Merry, and from 
1861 to 1877 was organist at the Madeleine, in succession to 
Lefebure-Wely. An overture entitled " Spartacus," which has 
remained unpublished, was crowned at a competition instituted 
in 1863 by the Soci6te Sainte Cecile of Bordeaux. The greatest 
triumph of his early career was, however, attained in 1867, when 
the prize was unanimously awarded to him for his cantata " Les 
Noces de Promethee " in the competition organized during the 
International Exhibition of that year — a prize competed for by 
over two hundred musicians. 

Though he had acquired a great name as a pianist, and had 
made successful concert tours through Europe, he had not 
succeeded in reaching the ears of the larger public by the produc- 
tion of an opera, which in France counts for more than anything 
else. After the tragic events of 1870, when Saint-Saens did his 
duty as a patriot by serving in the National Guard, the oppor- 
tunity at last offered itself, and a one-act opera from his pen, 
La Princesse jaune, with words by Louis Gallet, was produced 
at the Opera Comique with moderate success on the 12th of June 
1872. Le Timbre d'argent, a four-act opera performed at the 
Theatre Lyrique in 1877, was scarcely more successful. In the 
meanwhile his " symphonic poems" " Le Rouet d'Omphale," 
" Danse Macabre," " Phaeton " and " La Jeunesse d'Hercule " 

obtained for him a world-wide celebrity. These admirable 
examples of " programme music " count among his best known 

At last, through the influence of Liszt, his Biblical opera Samson 
et Dalila was brought out at Weimar in 1877. This work, gener- 
ally accepted as his operatic masterpiece, had been begun as far 
back as 1869, and an act had been heard at one of Colonne's 
concerts in 1875. Notwithstanding its great success at Weimar, 
its first performance on French soil took place at Rouen in 1890. 
The following year it was given in Paris at the Eden Theatre, and 
finally in 1892 was produced at the Grand Opera, where it has 
remained one of the most attractive works of the repertoire. Its 
Biblical subject stood in the way of its being performed on the 
London stage until 1909, when it was given at Covent Garden 
with great success. None of his works is better calculated 
to exemplify the dual tendencies of his style. The first act, with 
its somewhat formal choruses, suggests the influence of Bach and 
Handel, and is treated rather in the manner of an oratorio. The 
more dramatic portions of the opera are not uninfluenced by 
Meyerbeer, while in the mellifluous strains allotted to the 
temptress there are occasional suggestions of Gounod. Of 
Wagner there is but little trace, save in the fact that the com- 
poser has divided his work into scenes, thus avoiding the old- 

fashioned denominations of " air,' 

1 duet, : 

trio," &c. The 

score, however, is not devoid of individuality. The influences 
mentioned above, possibly excepting that of Bach in the earlier 
scenes, are rather of a superficial nature, for Saint-Saens has 
undoubtedly a style of his own. It is a composite style, certainly, 
and all the materials that go towards forming it may not be 
absolutely his; that is, the eclecticism of his mind may lead him 
at one moment to adopt an archaic form of expression, at another 
to employ the current musical language of his day, and sometimes 
to blend the two. It is perhaps in the latter case that he shows 
most individuality; for although his works may denote the 
varied influences of such totally dissimilar masters as Bach, 
Beethoven, Liszt and Gounod, he ever contrives to put in some- 
thing of his own. 

After the production of Samson el Dalila Saint-Saens stood 
at the parting of the ways — looked at askance by the reactionary 
section of the French musicians, and suspected of harbouring 
subversive Wagnerian ideas, but ready to be welcomed by the 
progressive party. Both sides were doomed to disappointment, 
for in his subsequent operas Saint-Saens attempted to effect a 
compromise between the older and the newer forms of opera. 
He had already entertained the idea of utilizing the history of 
France for operatic purposes. The first and only result of this 
project has been Etienne Marcel, an opera produced at Lyons in 
1879. Although of unequal merit, owing partly to its want of 
unity of style, this work contains much music of an attractive 
kind, and scarcely deserves the neglect into which it has fallen. 
Forsaking the history of France he now composed his opera 
Henry VIII., produced at the Paris Grand Opera in 1883. The 
librettists had concocted a piece that was sufficiently well knit 
and abounded in dramatic contrasts. While adhering to his 
system of compromise by retaining certain conventional operatic 
features, Saint-Saens had in this instance advanced somewhat 
by employing leit motivs in a more rigorous fashion than hitherto, 
although he had not gone so far as to discard airs cut after the 
old pattern, duets and quartets. Henry VIII., which was given 
at Covent Garden in 1898, occupies an honourable place among 
the composer's works. Proserpine, a lyrical drama produced at 
the Paris Opera Comique in 1887, achieved a succes d'estime and 
no more. A not much better fate befell Ascanio, an opera 
founded on Paul Meurice's drama Benvenuto Cellini, and brought 
out at the Grand Opera in 1890. Phryne", however, a two-act 
trifle of a light description, produced at the Opera Comique in 
1893, met with success. In 1895 Fridigonde, an opera begun by 
Ernest Guiraud and completed by Saint-Saens, was produced in 
Paris. The " lyrical drama " Les Barbares, given at the Grand 
Opera in 1901, was received with marked favour. 

Saint-Saens worked successfully in every field of his art. Besides 
the operas above alluded to, he composed the following oratorios 



and cantatas: "Oratorio de Noel," " Les Noces de Promeithee," 
Psalm " Coeli enarrant," " Le Deluge," " La Lyre et la harpe "; 
three symphonies; four symphonic poems (" Le Rouet d'Omphale," 
"Phaeton," " Danse Macabre," "La Jeunesse d'Hercule'); five 
pianoforte concertos; three violin concertos; two suites, marches, 
and other works for orchestra; the ballet Zavotte; music to the 
drama Dejanire, given at the open-air theatre of Beziers; a quintet 
for piano and strings, a quartet for piano and strings, two trios for 
piano and strings, a string quartet, a septet, violoncello sonata, two 
violin sonatas; a Mass, a Requiem, besides a quantity of piano and 
organ music, and many songs, duets and choruses. He also published 
three books, entitled Harmonie et melodie, Portraits et souvenirs, and 
Problemes et mystkres, besides a volume of poems, Rimes familieres. 
The honorary degree of Doctorof Music was conferred upon himby 
Cambridge University in 1893. 


English man of letters, was born at Southampton on the 23 rd 
of October 1845. He was educated at King's College School, 
London, and at Merton College, Oxford (B.A., 1868), and spent six 
years in Guernsey as senior classical master of Elizabeth College. 
From 1874 to 1876 he was headmaster of the Elgin Educational 
Institute. He began his literary career in 1875 as a critic for the 
Academy, and for ten years was actively engaged in journalism, 
becoming an important member of the staff of the Saturday 
Review. Some of the critical essays contributed to the literary 
journals were afterwards collected in his Essays in English 
Literature, 1780-1860 (2 vols., 1890-1895), Essays on French 
Novelists (1891), Miscellaneous Essays (1892), Corrected Impres- 
sions (1895). His first book, A Primer of French Literature 
(1880), and his Short History of French Literature (1882; 6th 
ed., Oxford, 1901), were followed by a series of editions of French 
classics and of books and articles on the history of French litera- 
ture, which made him the most prominent English authority on 
the subject. His studies in English literature were no less 
comprehensive, and included the valuable revision of Sir Walter 
Scott's edition of Dryden's Works (Edinburgh, 18 vols., 1882- 
1893), Dryden (1881) in the " English Men of Letters " series, 
History of Elizabethan Literature (1887), History of Nineteenth 
Century Literature (1896), A Short History of English Literature 
(1898, 3rd ed. 1903), an edition of the Minor Caroline Poets of 
the Caroline Period (2 vols., 1905-1906), a collection of rare poems 
of great value, and editions of English classics. He edited the 
series of " Periods of European Literature," contributing the 
volumes on The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory 
(1897), and The Earlier Renaissance (1901). In 1895 he became 
professor of rhetoric and English literature at Edinburgh univer- 
sity, and subsequently produced two of his most important 
works, A History of Criticism (3 vols., 1900-1904), with the 
companion volume Loci Criiici, Passages Illustrative of Critical 
Theory and Practice (Boston, U.S.A., and London, 1903), and 
A History of English Prosody from the 12th Century to the 
Present Day (i., 1906; ii., 1908; iii., 1910); also The Later 
Nineteenth Century (1909). 

ST SERVAN, a town of western France, in the department of 
Ille-et-Vilaine, on the right bank of the Ranee, south of St Malo, 
from which it is separated by the Anse des Sablons, a creek 
1 m. wide (see St Malo). Pop. (1906) 9765. It is not enclosed 
by walls, and with its new nouses, straight wide streets and 
numerous gardens forms a contrast to its neighbour. North of 
the town there is a wet-dock, 27 acres in extent, forming part 
of the harbour of St Malo. The creek on which it opens is dry at 
low water, but at high water is 30 to 40 ft. deep. The dock is 
used chiefly by coasting and fishing vessels, a fleet starting 
annually for the Newfoundland cod-fisheries. Two other ports 
on the Ranee, south-west of the town at the foot of the tower 
of Solidor, are of small importance. This stronghold, erected 
towards the close of the 14th century by John IV., duke of 
Brittany, for the purpose of contesting the claims to the temporal 
sovereignty of the town of Josselin de Rohan, bishop of St Malo, 
consists of three distinct towers formed into a triangle by loop- 
holed and machicolated curtains. To the west St Servan termi- 
nates in a peninsula on which stands the " cit6," inhabited by 
work-people, and the "fort de la cite"; near by is a modern 
chapel which has replaced the cathedral of St Peter of Aleth, 

the seat of a bishopric from the 6th to the 12th century. The 
parish church is modern (1742-1842). St Servan has a com- 
munal college. It carries on steam-sawing, boat-building, rope- 
making and the manufacture of ship's biscuits. 

The " Cite " occupies the site of the city of Aleth, which at the 
close of the Roman empire supplanted Corseul as the capital of the 
Curiosolites. Aleth was a bulwark of Druidism in those regions and 
was not Christianized till the 6th century, when St Malo became its 
first bishop. On the removal of the bishopric to St Malo Aleth 
declined and was almost destroyed by St Louis in 1235; the houses 
that remained standing became the nucleus of a new community, 
originating from St Malo, which placed itself under the patronage of 
St Servan, apostle of the Orkneys. It was not till the Revolution 
that St Servan became a separate commune from St Malo with a 
municipality and police of its own. 

ST SEVER, a town of south-western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Landes, 11 m. S.S.W. of 
Mont de Marsan on the Southern railway between that town 
and Bayonne. Pop. (1906) town, 2508; commune, 4644. St 
Sever stands on an eminence on the left bank of the Adour in 
the district of the Chalosse. Its streets, bordered in places by 
old houses, are narrow and winding. The promenade of Morlanne 
laid out on the site of a Roman camp called Palestrion com- 
mands a fine view of the Adour and the pine forests of the 
Landes. The church of St Sever, a Romanesque building of the 
1 2th century, with seven apses, once belonged to the Bene- 
dictine abbey founded in the 10th century. The public in- 
stitutions of the town include the sub-prefecture, a tribunal of 
first instance, and a practical school of agriculture and viticulture 
which occupies a former Dominican convent. There is trade in 
the agricultural products of the Chalosse, especially geese. 

1693), French courtier, was born in August 1607, being the second 
son of Louis de Rouvroi, seigneur du Plessis (d. 1643), who had 
been a warm supporter of Henry of Guise and the League. With 
his elder brother he entered the service of Louis XIII. as a page 
and found instant favour with the king. Named first equerry 
in March 1627 he became in less than three years captain of the 
chateaux of St Germain and Versailles, master of the hounds, 
first gentleman of the bed-chamber, royal councillor and governor 
of Meulan and of Blaye. On the fall of La Rochelle he received 
lands in the vicinity valued at 80,000 livres. About three 
years later his seigniory of Saint-Simon in Vermandois was 
erected into a duchy, and he was created a peer of France. He 
was at first on good terms with Richelieu and was of service on 
the Day of Dupes (nth of November 1630). Having suffered 
disgrace for taking the part of his uncle, the baron of Saint- 
Leger, after the capture of Catelet (15th of August 1636), he 
retired to Blaye. He fought in the campaigns of 1638 and 1639, 
and after the death of Richelieu returned to court, where he was 
coldly received by the king (18th of February 1643). Thence- 
forth, with the exception of siding with Conde during the Fronde, 
he took small part in politics. He died in Paris on the 3rd of 
May 1693. By his first wife, Diane de Budos de Portes, a 
relative of Conde, whom he married in 1644 and who died in 
1670, he had three daughters. By his second wife, Charlotte 
de l'Aubespine, whom he married in 1672, he had a son Louis, 
the " author of the memoirs " (see below). 

(1760-1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris 
on the 17th of October 1760. He belonged to a younger branch 
of the family of the due de Saint-Simon (above). His education 
was directed by D'Alembert. At the age of nineteen he assisted 
the American colonies in their revolt against Britain. From 
his youth Saint-Simon felt the promptings of an eager ambition. 
His valet had orders to awake him every morning with the 
words, " Remember, monsieur le comte, that you have great 
things to do." Among his early schemes was one to unite the 
Atlantic and the Pacific by a canal, and another to construct 
a canal from Madrid to the sea. Although he was imprisoned 
in the Luxem'bourg during the Terror, he took no part of 
any importance in the Revolution, but profited by it to 
amass a little fortune by land speculation — not on any selfish 
account, however, as he said, but to facilitate his future projects. 

4 6 


Accordingly, when he was nearly forty years of age he went 
through a varied course of study and experiment, in order to 
enlarge and clarify his view of things. One of these experiments 
was an unhappy marriage — undertaken merely that he might 
have a salon — which, after a year's duration, was dissolved by 
mutual consent. The result of his experiments was that he 
found himself completely impoverished, and lived in penury 
for the remainder of his life. The first of his numerous writings, 
Lellres d'un habitant de Geneve, appeared in 1802; but his early 
writings were mostly scientific and political. In 1817 he began 
in a treatise entitled L' Industrie to propound his socialistic 
views, which he further developed in L'Organisateur (1810), a 
periodical on which Augustin Thierry and Auguste Comte 
collaborated. The first number caused a sensation, but it brought 
few converts. In 1821 appeared Du systeme industriel, and in 
1823-1824 Catechisme des industriels. The last and most im- 
portant expression of his views is the Nouveau Christianisme 
(1825), which he left unfinished. For many years before his 
death in 1825 (at Paris on the 19th of May), Saint-Simon had 
been reduced to the greatest straits. He was obliged to accept 
a laborious post, working nine hours a day for £40 a year, to 
live on the generosity of a former valet, and finally to solicit 
a small pension from his family. In 1823 he attempted suicide 
in despair. It was not till very late in his career that he 
attached to himself a few ardent disciples. 

As a thinker Saint-Simon was entirely deficient in system, 
clearness and consecutive strength. But his great influence 
on modern thought is undeniable, both as the historic founder 
of French socialism and as suggesting much of what was after- 
wards elaborated into Comtism. Apart from the details of his 
socialistic teaching, which are vague and unsystematic, we find 
that the ideas of Saint-Simon as to the reconstruction of society 
are very simple. His opinions were conditioned by the French 
Revolution and by the feudal and military system still prevalent 
in France. In opposition to the destructive liberalism of the 
Revolution he insisted on the necessity of a new and positive 
reorganization of society. So far was he from advocating fresh 
social revolt that he appealed to Louis XVIII. to inaugurate 
the new order of things. In opposition, however, to the feudal 
and military system, the former aspect of which had been 
strengthened by the restoration, he advocated an arrangement 
by which the industrial chiefs should control society. In place 
of the medieval church the spiritual direction of society should 
fall to the men of science. What Saint-Simon desired, therefore, 
was an industrialist state directed by modern science in which 
universal association should suppress war. In short, the men 
who are fitted to organize society for productive labour are 
entitled to bear rule in it. The social aim is to produce things 
useful to life. The contrast between labour and capital so much 
emphasized by later socialism is not present to Saint-Simon, 
but it is assumed that the industrial chiefs, to whom the control 
of production is to be committed, shall rule in the interest of 
society. Later on the cause of the poor receives greater atten- 
tion, till in his greatest work, The New Christianity, it takes 
the form of a religion. It was this development of his teaching 
that occasioned his final quarrel with Comte. Previous to the 
publication of the Nouveau Christianisme, Saint-Simon had not 
concerned himself with theology. Here he starts from a belief 
in God, and his object in the treatise is to reduce Christianity to 
its simple and essential elements. He does this by clearing it 
of the dogmas and other excrescences and defects which have 
gathered round the Catholic and Protestant forms of it. He 
propounds as the comprehensive formula of the new Christianity 
this precept — " The whole of society ought to strive towards 
the amelioration of the moral and physical existence of the 
poorest class; society ought to organize itself in the way best 
adapted for attaining this end." This principle became the 
watchword of the entire school of Saint-Simon. 

During his lifetime the views of Saint-Simon had very little 
influence; and he left only a few devoted disciples, who 
continued to advocate the doctrines of their master, whom they 
revered as a prophet. Of these the most important were 

Olinde Rodrigues, the favoured disciple of Saint-Simon, and 
Barthelemy Prosper Enfantin (q.v.), who together had received 
Saint-Simon's last instructions. Their first step was to establish 
a journal, Le Producteur, but it was discontinued in 1826. The 
sect, however, had begun to grow, and before the end of 1828, 
had meetings not only in Paris but in many provincial towns. 
An important departure was made in 1828 by Amand Bazard, 
who gave a " complete exposition of the Saint-Simonian faith " 
in a long course of lectures at Paris, which were well attended. 
His Exposition de la doctrine de St Simon (2 vols., 1828-1830), 
which is by far the best account of it, won more adherents. The 
second volume was chiefly by Enfantin, who along with Bazard 
stood at the head of the society, but who was superior in meta- 
physical power, and was prone to push his deductions to 
extremities. The revolution of July (1830) brought a new freedom 
to the socialist reformers. A proclamation was issued demanding 
the community of goods, the abolition of the right of inheritance, 
and the enfranchisement of women. Early next year the school 
obtained possession of the Globe through Pierre Leroux (q.v.), 
who had joined the school, which now numbered some of the 
ablest and most promising young men of France, many of the 
pupils of the Ecole Polytechnique having caught its enthusiasm. 
The members formed themselves into an association arranged 
in three grades, and constituting a society or family, which lived 
out of a common purse in the Rue Monsigny. Before long, 
however, dissensions began to arise in the sect. Bazard, a man 
of logical and more solid temperament, could no longer work in 
harmony with" Enfantin, who desired to establish an arrogant 
and fantastic sacerdotalism with lax notions as to marriage and 
the relation of the sexes. After a time Bazard seceded and many 
of the strongest supporters of the school followed his example. 
A series of extravagant entertainments given by the society 
during the winter of 1832 reduced its financial resources and 
greatly discredited it in character. They finally removed to 
Menilmontant, to a property of Enfantin, where they lived in a 
communistic society, distinguished by a peculiar dress. Shortly 
after the chiefs were tried and condemned for proceedings 
prejudicial to the social order; and the sect was entirely broken 
up (1832). Many of its members became famous as engineers, 
economists, and men of business. 

In the school of Saint-Simon we find a great advance on the vague 
and confused views of the master. In the philosophy of history they 
recognize epochs of two kinds, the critical or negative and the 
organic or constructive. The former, in which philosophy is the 
dominating force, is characterized by war, egotism and anarchy ; the 
latter, which is controlled by religion, is marked by the spirit of 
obedience, devotion, association. The two spirits of antagonism 
and association are the two great social principles, and on the degree 
of prevalence of the two depends the character of an epoch. The 
spirit of association, however, tends more and more to prevail over 
its opponent, extending from the family to the city, from the city to 
the nation, and from the nation to the federation. This principle of 
association is to be the keynote of the social development of the 
future. Under the present system the industrial chief exploits the 
proletariat, the members of which, though nominally free, must 
accept his terms under pain of starvation. The only remedy for this 
is the abolition of the law of inheritance, and the union of all the 
instruments of labour in a social fund, which shall be exploited by 
association. Society thus becomes sole proprietor, intrusting to 
social groups and social functionaries the management of the various 
properties. The right of succession is transferred from the family 
to the state. The school of Saint-Simon insists strongly on the 
claims of merit ; they advocate a social hierarchy in which each man 
shall be placed according to his capacity and rewarded according to 
his works. This is, indeed, a most special and pronounced feature of 
the Saint-Simon socialism, whose theory of government is a kind of 
spiritual or scientific autocracy, degenerating into the fantastic 
sacerdotalism of Enfantin. With regard to the family and the relation 
of the sexes the school of Saint- Simon advocated the complete 
emancipation of woman and her entire equality with man. The 
" social individual " is man and woman, who are associated in the 
exercise of the triple function of religion, the state and the family. In 
its official declarations the school maintained the sanctity of the 
Christian law of marriage. Connected with these doctrines was their 
famous theory of the " rehabilitation of the flesh," deduced from the 
philosophic theory of the school, which was a species of Pantheism, 
though they repudiated the name. On this theory they rejected the 
dualism so much emphasized by Catholic Christianity in its penances 
and mortifications, and held that the body should be restored to its 



due place of honour. It is a vague principle, of which the ethical 
character depends on the interpretation ; and it was variously inter- 
preted in the school of Saint-Simon. It was certainly immoral as 
held by Enfantin, by whom it was developed into a kind of sensual 
mysticism, a system of free love with a religious sanction. 

An excellent edition of the works of Saint-Simon and Enfantin 
was published by the survivors of the sect (47 vols., Paris, 1865- 
1878). See, in addition to the works cited above, L. Reybaud, 
Etudes sur les reformateurs contemporains (7th edition, Paris, 1864) ; 
Paul Janet, Saint-Simon el le Saint-Simonisme (Paris, 1878); A. J. 
Booth, Saint-Simon and Saint- Simonism (London, 1871); Georges 
Weill, Un Precurseur du socialisme, Saint-Simon el son ceuvre (Paris, 
1894), and a history of the £cole Saint- Simonienne, by the same 
author (1896); G. Dumas, Psychologie de deux messies positivistes 
St Simon et Comle (1905); E. Levasseur's Etudes sociates sous la 
Restauration, contains a good section on Saint-Simon. 

(T. K.;J.T. S.*) 

SAINT-SIMON, LOUIS DE ROUVROY, Due de (1675-1755), 
French soldier, diplomatist and writer of memoirs, was born at 
Versailles on the 16th of January 1675. The peerage granted 
to his father, Claude de St Simon (q.v.), is the central fact in his 
history. The French peerage under the old regime was a very 
peculiar thing, difficult to comprehend at all, but quite certain 
to be miscomprehended if any analogy of the English -peerage 
is imported into the consideration. No two things could be more 
different in France than ennobling a man and making him a 
peer. No one was made a peer who was not ennobled, but men 
of the noblest blood in France and representing their houses 
might not be, and in most cases were not, peers. Derived at 
least traditionally and imaginatively from the douze pairs of 
Charlemagne, the peers were supposed to represent the chosen 
of the noblesse, and gradually, in an indefinite and constantly 
disputed fashion, became associated with the parlement of Paris 
as a quasi-legislative (or at least law-registering) and directly 
judicial body. But the peerage was further complicated by the 
fact that not persons but the holders of certain fiefs were made 
peers. Strictly speaking, neither Saint-Simon nor any one 
else in the same case was made a peer, but his estate was raised 
to the rank of a duchS pairie or a comle pairie as the case might 
be. Still the peers were in a way a standing committee repre- 
sentative of the entire body of nobles, and it was Saint-Simon's 
lifelong ideal, and at times his practical effort to convert them 
into a sort of great council of the nation. 

His mother, Charlotte de l'Aubespine, belonged to a family not 
of the oldest nobility but one which had been distinguished 
in the public service at least since the time of Francis I. Her 
son Louis was well educated, to a great extent by herself, and 
he hadTiad for godfather and godmother Louis XIV. and the 
queen. After some tuition by the Jesuits (especially by Sanadon, 
the editor of Horace), he joined the mousquetaires gris in 1692. 
He was present at the siege of Namur, and the battle of Neer- 
winden. But it was at this very time that he chose to begin 
the crusade of his life by instigating, if not bringing, an action 
on the part ot the peers of France against Luxembourg, his 
victorious general, on a point of precedence. He fought, how- 
ever, another campaign or two (not under Luxembourg), and in 
1695 married Gabrielle de Durfort, daughter of the marechal 
de Lorges, under whom he latterly served. He seems to have 
regarded her with a respect and affection not very usual between 
husband and wife at the time; and she sometimes succeeded 
in modifying his aristocratic ideas. But as he did not receive 
the promotion he desired he flung up his commission in 1702. 
Louis took a dislike to him, and it was with difficulty that he was 
able to keep a footing at court. He was, however, intensely 
interested in all the transactions of Versailles, and by dint of a 
most heterogeneous collection of instruments, ranging from 
dukes to servants, he managed to obtain the extraordinary 
secret information which he has handed down. His own part 
appears to have been entirely subordinate. He was appointed 
ambassador to Rome in 1705, but the appointment was cancelled 
before he started. At last he attached himself to the duke of 
Orleans and, though this was hardly likely to conciliate Louis's 
goodwill to him, it gave him at least the status of belonging 
to a definite party, and it eventually placed him in the position 
of tried friend to the acting chief of the state. He was able, 

moreover, to combine attachment to the duke of Burgundy with 
that to the duke of Orleans. Both attachments were no doubt 
all the more sincere because of his undying hatred to " the 
bastards," that is to say, the illegitimate sons of Louis XIV. 
It does not appear that this hatred was founded on moral reasons 
or on any real fear that these bastards would be intruded into 
the succession. The true cause of his wrath was that they had 
precedence of the peers. 

The death of Louis seemed to give Saint-Simon a chance of 
realizing his hopes. The duke of Orleans was at once acknowledged 
regent, and Saint-Simon was of the council of regency. But no 
steps were taken to carry out his favourite vision of a France 
ruled by the nobles for its good, and he had little real influence 
with the regent. He was indeed gratified by the degradation of 
" the bastards," and in 1721 he was appointed ambassador to 
Spain to arrange for the marriage (not destined to take place) 
of Louis XV. and the infanta. His visit was splendid; he received 
the grandeeship, and, though he also caught the smallpox, 
he was quite satisfied with the business. After his return he had 
little to do with public affairs. His own account of the cessation 
of his intimacy with Orleans and Dubois, the latter of whom 
had never been his friend, is, like his own account of some other 
events of his life, obscure and rather suspicious. But there can 
be little doubt that he was practically ousted by the favourite. 
He survived for more than thirty years; but little is known of 
his life. His wife died in 1743, his eldest son a little later; he 
had other family troubles, and he was loaded with debt. When 
he died, at Paris on the 2nd of March 1755, he had almost entirely 
outlived his own generation (among whom he had been one of 
the youngest) and the prosperity of his house, though not its 
notoriety. This last was in strange fashion revived by a distant 
relative born five years after his own death, Claude Henri, 
comte de Saint-Simon (q.v.). 

It will have been observed that the actual events of Saint-Simon's 
life, long as it was and high as was his position, are neither numerous 
nor noteworthy. He is, however, an almost unique example of a 
man who has acquired great literary fame entirely by posthumous 
publications. He was an indefatigable writer, and he began very 
early to set down in black and white all the gossip he collected, all 
his interminable legal disputes of precedence, and a vast mass of 
unclassified and almost unclassifiable matter. Most of his manu- 
scripts came into the possession of the government, and it was 
long before their contents were published in anything like fulness. 
Partly in the form of notes on Dangeau's Journal, partly in that of 
original and independent memoirs, partly in scattered and multi- 
farious tracts and disquisitions, he had committed to paper an 
immense amount of matter. But the mere mass of these productions 
is their least noteworthy feature, or rather it is most remarkable as 
contrasting with their character and style. Saint-Simon, though 
careless and sometimes even ungrammatical, ranks among the most 
striking memoir-writers of France, the country richest in memoirs 
of any in the world. His pettiness, his absolute injustice to his 
private enemies and to those who espoused public parties with which 
he did not agree, the bitterness which allows him to give favourable 
portraits of hardly any one, his omnivorous appetite for gossip, his 
lack of proportion and perspective, are all lost sight of in admiration 
of his extraordinary genius for historical narrative and character- 
drawing of a certain sort. He has been compared to Tacitus, and 
for once the comparison is just. In the midst of his enormous mass 
of writing phrases scarcely inferior to the Roman's occur frequently, 
and here and there are passages of sustained description equal, for 
intense concentration of light and life, to those of Tacitus or of any 
other historian. As may be expected from the vast extent of his 
work, it is in the highest degree unequal. But he is at the same time 
not a writer who can be " sampled " easily, inasmuch'as his most 
characteristic phrases sometimes occur in the midst of long stretches 
of quite uninteresting matter. A few critical studies of him, 
especially those of Sainte-Beuve, are the basis of much, if not most, 
that has been written about him. Yet no one is so little to be taken 
at second-hand. Even his most famous passages, such as the 
account of the death of the dauphin or of the Bed of Justice where 
his enemy the duke of Maine was degraded, will not give a fair idea 
of his talent. These are his gallery pieces, his great " machines," as 
French art slang calls them. Much more noteworthy as well as more 
frequent are the sudden touches which he gives. The bishops are 
" cuistres violets " ; M. de Caumartin " porte sous son manteau toute ■ 
la fatuity que M. de Villeroy etale sur son baudrier"; another 
politician has a " mine de chat facheV' In short, the interest of the 
Memoirs, independent of the large addition of positive knowledge 
which they make, is one of constant surprise at the novel and adroit 
use of word and phrase. Some of Macaulay's most brilliant portraits 



and sketches of incident are adapted and sometimes almost literally 
translated from Saint-Simon. 

The first edition of Saint-Simon (some scattered pieces may have 
been printed before) appeared in 1788. It was a mere selection in 
three volumes and was much cut down before it was allowed to 
appear. Next year four more volumes made their appearance, and 
in 1 79 1 a new edition, still further increased. The whole, or rather 
not the whole, was printed in 1 829-1 830 and reprinted some ten 
years later. The real creator of Saint-Simon, as far as a full and exact 
text is concerned, was M. Cheruel, whose edition in 20 volumes dates 
from 1856, and was reissued again revised in 1872. So immense, 
however, is the mass of Saint-Simon's MSS. that still another 
recension was given by M. de Boislisle in 1882, with M. Cheruel's 
assistance, while a newer edition, yet once more revised from the 
MS., was begun in 1904. It must, however, be admitted that the 
matter other than the Memoirs is of altogether inferior interest and 
may be pretty safely neglected by any one but professed anti- 
quarian and historical students. For criticism on Saint-Simon there 
is nothing better than Sainte-Beuve's two sketches in the 3rd and 
15th volumes of the Causeries du lundi. The latter was written to 
accompany M. Cheruel's first edition. In English by far the most 
accurate treatment is in a Lothian prize essay by E. Cannan (Oxford 
and London, 1885). (G. Sa.) 

ST THOMAS, an incorporated city and port of entry of Ontario, 
Canada, capital of Elgin county, on Kettle creek, 13 m. S. of 
London and 8 m. N. of Lake Erie. Pop. (1901) 11,485. It is 
an important station on the Grand Trunk, Michigan Central, 
Lake Erie & Detroit River, and Canadian Pacific railways. 
It has numerous schools, a collegiate institute, and Alma ladies' 
college. The Michigan Central railway shops, car-wheel foundry, 
flour, flax and planing mills are the principal industries. 

ST THOMAS (Sao Thome), a volcanic island in the Gulf of 
Guinea immediately north of the equator (o° 23' N.) and in 
6° 40' E. With the island of Principe (Prince's Island), it forms 
the Portuguese province of St Thomas. From the Gabun, the 
nearest point of the mainland of Africa, St Thomas is distant 
166 m., and from Cameroon 297 m. The extreme length of the 
island is 32 m. the breadth W. to E. 21 m.; the area is about 
400 sq. m. 

From the coast the land rises towards lofty verdant mountains 
(St Thomas over 7000 ft.). At least a hundred streams, great and 
small, descend the mountain-sides through deep-cut ravines, many of 
them forming beautiful waterfalls, such as those of Blu-blu on the 
Agua Grande. The island during its occupation by the Netherlands 
acquired the name of " The Dutchman's Churchyard," and the death- 
rate is still very high. Malaria is common in the lower regions, but 
the unhealthiness of the island is largely due to the absence of hygienic 
precautions. During the dry season (June to September) the 
temperature ranges in the lower parts between 66-2° and 8o-6° F., 
and in the higher parts between 57/2° and 68°; in the rainy season 
it ranges between 69-8° and 89-6 in the lower parts, and between 
64-4° and 8o-6° in the higher parts. On Coffee Mount (2265 ft.) the 
mean of ten years was 68-9°, the maximum 90-5° and the minimum 
47-3°. The heat is tempered by the equatorial ocean current. The 
rainfall is very heavy save on the north coast. 

The ■ soil is exceedingly fertile and a considerable area is densely 
forested. Among the products are oranges, lemons, figs, mangoes, 
and in the lower districts the vine, pineapple, guava and banana. 
The first object of European cultivation was sugar, and to this the 
island owed its prosperity in the 1 6th century;, sugar has been 
displaced by coffee and, principally, cocoa, introduced in 1795 and 
1822 respectively. In 1907 the export of cocoa (including that from 
Principe) was over 24,000 tons, about a sixth of the world's supply. 
The cocoa zone lies between 650 and 2000 ft. above the sea. Vanilla 
and cinchona bark both succeed well, the latter at altitudes of from 
1800 to 3300 ft. Rubber, quinine, cinnamon, camphor and the 
kola-nut are also produced, but since 1890 — when the production was 
under 3000 tons — cocoa has been almost exclusively grown. About 
175 sq. m. were in 1910 under cultivation. The value of the imports 
was £175,000 in 1896 and £708,000 in 1908; that of the exports was 
£398,000 in 1896 and £1,760,000 in 1908. The shipping trade (190 
vessels of 490,000 tons in 1908) is chiefly in the hands of the Portu- 
guese. The revenue (1909-1910) was about £195,000, the expendi- 
ture £162,000. 

At the census of 1900 the inhabitants were returned at 37,776, of 
whom 1012 were whites (mainly Portuguese). The town of St 
Thomas, capital and chief port of the province, residence of the 
governor and of the Curador (the legal guardian of the servicaes, i.e. 
labourers), is situated on Chaves Bay on the N.E. coast. It is the 
starting-point of a railway 9 m. long, which connects with the 
Decauville railways on the cocoa estates. The inhabitants, apart 
from the Europeans, consist (1) of descendants of the original settlers, 
who were convicts from Portugal, slaves and others from Brazil and 
negroes from the Gabun and other parts of the Guinea coast. They 
number about 8000, are a brown-skinned, indolent race, and occupy 

rather than cultivate about one-eighth of the island. They are 
known as " natives " and use a Negro-Portuguese " lingua de S 
ThomeV' (2) On the south-west coast are Angolares — some 3000 in 
number — descendants of two hundred Angola slaves wrecked at Sete 
Pedras in 1544. They retain their Bunda speech and customs, and 
are expert fishermen and canoemen. (3) Contract labourers from 
Cape Verde, Kabinda, &c, and Angola. These form the bulk of the 
population. In 1891, before the great development of the cocoa 
industry, the population was only 22.000. 1 

St Thomas was discovered on the 21st of December 1470 by 
the Portuguese navigators Joao de Santarem and Pero de 
Escobar, who in the beginning of the following year discovered 
Annobom (" Good Year "). They found St Thomas uninhabited. 
The first attempts at colonization were Joao de Paiva's in 1485; 
but nothing permanent was accomplished till 1493, when a body 
of criminals and of young Jews taken from their parents to be 
baptized were sent to the island, and the present capital was 
founded by Alvaro de Carminha. In the middle of the 16th 
century there were over 80 sugar mills on the island, which 
then had a population of 50,000; but in 1567 the settlement 
was attacked by the French, and in 1574 the Angolares began 
raids which only ended with their subjugation in 1693. In 
1595 there was a slave revolt; and from 1641 to 1644 the Dutch, 
who had plundered the capital in 1600, held possession of the 
island. The French did great damage in 1709; the sugar 
trade had passed to Brazil and internal anarchy reduced St 
Thomas to a deplorable state. It was not until the later hall 
of the 19th century that prosperity began to return. 

The greatly increased demand for cocoa which arose in the 
last decade of the century led to the establishment of many 
additional plantations, and a very profitable industry was 
developed. Planters, however, were handicapped by the scarcity 
of labour, for though a number of Cape Verde islanders, Krumen 
and Kabindas sought employment on short-term agreements, 
the " natives " would not work. The difficulty was met by the 
recruitment of indentured natives from Angola, as many as 
6000 being brought over in one year. The mortality among these 
labourers was great, but they were very well treated on the 
plantations. No provision was, however, made for their repa- 
triation, while the great majority were brought by force from 
remote parts of Central Africa and had no idea of the character 
of the agreement into which they were compelled to enter. 
From time to time governors of Angola endeavoured to remedy 
the abuses of the system, which both in Portugal and Great 
Britain was denounced as indistinguishable from slavery, not- 
withstanding that slavery had been legally abolished in the 
Portuguese dominions in 1878. In March 1909 certain firms, 
British and German, as the result of investigations made in 
Angola and St Thomas, refused any longer to import cocoa 
from St Thomas or Principe Islands unless the recruitment of 
labourers for the plantations was made voluntary. Repre- 
sentations to Portugal were made by the British government, 
and the Lisbon authorities stopped recruitment entirely from 
July 1909 to February 1910, when it was resumed under new 
regulations. British consular agents were stationed in Angola 
and St Thomas to watch the working of these regulations. (See 
statement by Sir E. Grey reported in The Times, July 2nd, 1910). 
As one means of obviating the difficulties encountered in Angola 
the recruitment of labourers from Mozambique was begun in 
1908, the men going out on a yearly contract. 

Principe Island lies 00 m. N.E. of St Thomas, has an area 
of 42 sq. m. and is also of volcanic origin. Pop. (1900) 4327. 
The tsetse fly (which is not found in St Thomas) infests the 
wooded part of the island, and through it sleeping sickness has 
been spread among the inhabitants. The principal industry 
is the cultivation of cocoa. The chief settlement is St Antonio. 

See A. Negreiros, Historia ethnographica da Ilha de S ThomS 
(Lisbon, 1895) and lie de San ThomS (Paris, 1901); C. Gravier 
" Mission scientifique a l'ile de San Thom6 " Nouv. Arch. Miss. 
Scient. t. xv. (Paris, 1907) ; A. Pinto de Miranda Guedes, " Viagao em 
S Thome 1 " in B.S.G. Lisboa (1902) pp. 299-357; E. de Campos 

1 According to Aug, Chevalier (in O. Occidenle, May 20th, 1910) the 
population of St Thomas and Principe combined in Dec. 1909 was 
68,221, the " natives " being given at over 23,000. 



" S. Thome " B.S.G. Lisbon (1908), pp. 1 13-134; W. A. Cadbury, | 
Labour in Portuguese West Africa (2nd ed., London, 1910) ; A ilha 
de S Thome (Lisbon, 1907) ; The Boa Entrada Plantations 
(Edinburgh, 1907) ; and British Consular reports. 

ST THOMAS, an island in the Danish West Indies. It belongs 
to the Virgin Island group, and lies 40 m. E. of Porto Rico, 
in 18 20' N. and 64° 55' W. Pop. (1901) 11,012, mostly negroes. 
It is 13 m long, varies in width from 1 m. to 4 m. and has an 
area of 33 m. It consists of a single mountain ridge, the peaks of 
a submerged range, culminating in West Mountain (1555 ft.). 
St Thomas stands on a prolongation of the range which supports 
the Greater Antilles, and is built up of much disintegrated eruptive 
rock (porphyry and granite) The climate is tropical, varying 
in temperature between 70 F. and 8o° F., modified, however, by 
the sea breezes. The average yearly rainfall is about 45 in., 
earthquakes are not unknown, and hurricanes at times sweep 
over the island. The only town, Charlotte Amalie (pop. 8540), 
lies in the centre of the S coast, at the head of one of the finest 
harbours in the West Indies. This consists of an almost land- 
locked basin, about f m. across, varying in depth from 27 to 
36 ft., and entered by a narrow channel only 300 yds. wide. 
It is equipped with a floating dock, which can accommodate 
ships up to 3000 tons, a patent slip for smaller vessels and a 
repairing yard. Danish is the official language, but English 
predominates, while French, Spanish and Dutch are also spoken. 
St Thomas was once the greatest distributing centre in the West 
Indies, but the introduction of steamships and cables led to its 
decline, and the removal of the Royal Mail Steamship Company's 
headquarters to Barbados in 1885 was the final blow. The pro- 
duction of sugar, which decayed gradually after the abolition of 
slavery, is practically extinct. Aloes, fibrous plants and fruit 
are grown. St Thomas is the seat of government for the Danish 
West Indies (St Thomas, St John and St Croix), a crown colony 
administered by a governor, who is assisted by a colonial council. 
The governor resides for half the year in St Thomas, and in St 
Croix for the rest. The chief importance of St Thomas lies in 
the fact that it is a coaling station for ships plying to and from 
the West Indies. 

The island was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and first 
colonized by the Dutch in 1657. After their departure in 1667 
the island came into the hands of the British, and it was 
held by them till 167 1, when it passed into the hands of the 
Danish West India Company, which was succeeded in 1685 
by the so-called Brandenburg Company, the shareholders of 
which were mainly Dutch. The king of Denmark having taken 
over the island in 1754, declared it a free port, and during the 
European wars of the 18th century the neutrality of Denmark 
gave a great impetus to the trade of St Thomas. It was during 
this period that the distributing trade of the island grew up. It 
was held by the British in 1801 and again from 1807 to 181 5, 
during which it was the great rendezvous of British merchant 
vessels waiting for convoy. In 1867, when the islands were 
governed at a loss to the mother country, a treaty was concluded 
under which the United States agreed to buy them for 7! million 
dollars, but, although the suggestion first emanated from the 
United States, its Senate refused to ratify the treaty. In 1902 
another treaty of cession was signed by which the United States 
was to buy the islands for 5 million dollars, but the Danish 
parliament rejected it. The importance of the islands to the 
United States consists in their suitability as a West Indian naval 

ST TROND, a town of Belgium in the province of Limburg 
about 18 m. N.W. of Liege. Pop. (1904) 15,116. It occupies 
an important strategical position with regard to the N.E. frontier 
of Belgium, and General Brialmont recommended its fortifica- 
tion. In the middle ages it was a fortified town belonging to 
the bishops of Liege, and Charles the Bold captured it in 1467. 
In 1566 the Assembly of Compromise met at St Trond. 

SAINT-VICTOR, PAUL BINS, Comte de (1827-1881), known 
as Paul de Saint- Victor, French author, was born in Paris on 
the nth of July 1827. His father Jacques B. M. Bins, comte 
de Saint-Victor (1772-1858), is remembered by his poem 
L'Espirance, and by an excellent verse translation of Anacreon. 

Saint- Victor, who ceased to use the title of count as being out 
of keeping with his democratic principles, began as a dramatic 
critic on the Pays in 1851, and in 1885 he succeeded Theophile 
Gautier on the Presse. In 1866 he migrated to the Libertg, 
and in 1869 joined the staff of the Moniteur universel. In 1870, 
during the last days of the second empire, he was made inspector- 
general of fine arts. Almost all Saint- Victor's work consists of 
articles, the best known being the collection entitled Hommes 
et dieux (1867). His death interrupted the publication of 
Les Deux Masques, in which the author intended to survey the 
whole dramatic literature of ancient and modern times. Saint- 
Victor's critical faculty was considerable, though rather one- 
sided. He owed a good deal to Theophile Gautier, but he carried 
ornateness to a pitch far beyond Gautier's. Saint- Victor died 
in Paris on the 9th of July 1881. 

See also Deljant, Paul de Saint-Victor (1887). 
ST VINCENT, JOHN JERVIS, Earl of (1735-1823), British 
admiral, was the second son of Swynfen Jervis, solicitor to the 
admiralty, and treasurer of Greenwich hospital. He was born 
at Meaford in Staffordshire on the 9th of January 1735, and 
entered the navy on the 4th of January 1749. He became 
lieutenant on the 19th of February 1755, and served in that 
rank till 1759, taking part in the conquest of Quebec. He was 
made commander of the " Scorpion " sloop in 1759, and post- 
captain in 1 760. During the peace he commanded the " Alarm " 
32 in the Mediterranean, and when he was put on half pay he 
travelled widely in Europe, taking professional notes everywhere. 
While the War of American Independence lasted, he commanded 
the " Fourroyant " (80) in the Channel, taking part in the battle 
of Ushant on the 27th of July 1778 (see Keppel, Viscount) 
and in the various reliefs of Gibraltar. His most signal service 
was the capture of the French " Pegase " (74) after a long chase 
on the 19th of April 1782, for which he was made K.B. In 
1783 he entered parliament as member for Launceston, and in 
the general election of 1 784 as member for Yarmouth. In politics 
he was a strong Whig. On the 24th of September 1 787 he attained 
flag rank, and was promoted vice-admiral in 1793. From 
1793 till 1795 he was in the West Indies co-operating with the 
army in the conquest of the French islands. On his return he 
was promoted admiral. In November 1.795 he took command 
in the Mediterranean, where he maintained the blockade of 
Toulon, and aided the allies of Great Britain in Italy. 

But in 1796 a great change was produced by the progress of 
the French armies on shore and the alliance of Spain with France. 
The occupation of Italy by the French armies closed all the ports 
to his ships, and Malta was not yet in the possession of Great 
Britain. Then the addition of the Spanish fleet to the French 
altered the balance of strength in the Mediterranean. The 
Spaniards were very inefficient, and Jervis would have held his 
ground, if one of his subordinates had not taken the extraordinary 
course of returning to England, because he thought that the 
dangerous state of the country required that all its forces should 
be concentrated at home. He was therefore obliged to act on 
the instructions sent to him ( and to retire to the Atlantic, with- 
drawing the garrisons from Corsica and other places. His 
headquarters were now on the coast of Portugal, and his chief 
duty was to watch the Spanish fleet at Cadiz. On the 14th of 
February 1797 he gained a most complete victory against 
heavy odds (see St Vincent, Battle of). The determination 
to fight, and the admirable discipline of his squadron, which was 
very largely the fruit of his own care in preparation, supply 
the best proof that he was a commander of a high order. For 
this victory, which came at a very critical time, he was made 
an earl and was granted a pension of £3000. His qualities as 
a disciplinarian were soon to be put to a severe test. In 1797 
the grievances of the sailors, which were of old standing, and had 
led to many mutinies of single ships, came to a head in the great 
general mutinies at Spithead and the Nore. Similar movements 
took place on the coast of Ireland and at the Cape of Good 
Hope (see the article Navy: History). The spirit spread to 
the fleet under St Vincent, and there was an undoubted danger 
that some outbreak would take place in his command. The 



peril was averted by his foresight and severity. He had always I 
taken great care of the health of his men, and was as strict with 
the officers as with sailors. It must in justice be added that he 
was peculiarly fitted for the work. We have ample evidence 
from his contemporaries that he found a pleasure in insulting 
officers whom he disliked, as well as in hanging and flogging 
those of his men who offended him. He carried his strictness 
with his officers to an extent which aroused the actual hatred 
of many among them, and exasperated Sir John Orde (1751- 
1824) into challenging him to fight a duel. Yet he cannot be 
denied the honour of having raised the discipline of the navy to 
a higher level than it had reached before; he was always ready 
to promote good officers, and the efficiency of the squadron 
with which Nelson won the battle of the Nile was largely due 
to him. His health broke down under the strain of long cruising, 
and in June 1799 he resigned his command. 

When the earl's health was restored in the following year he 
took the command of the Channel fleet, into which he introduced 
his own rigid system of discipline to the bitter anger of the 
captains. But his method was fully justified by the fact that 
he was able to maintain the blockade of Brest for 121 days with 
his fleet. In 1801 he became first lord and held the office till 
Pitt returned to power in 1803. His administration is famous 
in the history of the navy, for he now applied himself to the very 
necessary task of reforming the corruptions of the dockyaids. 
Naturally he was fiercely attacked in and out of parliament. 
His peremptory character led him to do the right thing with the 
maximum of dictation at Whitehall as on the quarter-deck of 
his flagship. He also gave an opening to his critics by devoting 
himself so wholly to the reform of the dockyards that he neglected 
the preparation of the fleet for war. He would not recognize 
the possibility that the peace of Amiens would not last. Pitt 
made himself the mouthpiece of St Vincent's enemies, mainly 
because he considered him as a dangerous member of the party 
which was weakening the position of England in the face of 
Napoleon. When Pitt's second ministry was formed in 1803, 
St Vincent refused to take the command of the Channel fleet at 
his request. After Pitt's death he resumed the duty with the 
temporary rank of admiral of the fleet in 1806, but held it only 
till the following year. After 1810 he retired to his house at 
Rochetts in Essex. The rank of admiral of the fleet was conferred 
on him in 1821 on the coronation of George IV., and he died on 
the 14th of March 1823. Lord St Vincent married his cousin 
Martha Parker, who died childless in 1 8 1 6. There is a monument 
to the earl in St Paul's Cathedral, and portraits of him at different 
periods of his life are numerous. The earldom granted to Jervis 
became extinct on his death, but a viscounty, created for him 
in 1 801, passed by special remainder to Edward Jervis Ricketts 
(1767-1857), the second son of his sister Mary who had married 
William Henry Ricketts, of Longwood, Hampshire. The 2nd 
viscount took the name of Jervis, and the title is still held by 
his descendants. 

See Life by J. S. Tucker (2 vols.), whose father had been the 
admiral's secretary (marred by excessive eulogy). The life by 
Captain Brenton is rather inaccurate.. The Naval Career of Admiral 
John Markham contains an account of the reforms in the navy. 
His administrations produced a swarm of pamphlets. Many 
mentions of him will be found in the correspondence of Nelson. 

(D. H.) 

ST VINCENT, one of the British Windward Islands in the 
West Indies, lying about 13 15' N., 6i° 10' W., west of Barbados 
andsouth of St Lucia. It is about 18 m.long by n in extreme 
width, and has an area of 140 sq. m. A range of volcanic hills 
forms the backbone of the island; their slopes and spurs are 
beautifully wooded, and the valleys between the spurs are 
fertile and picturesque. The culminating point is the volcano 
called the Soufriere (3500 ft.) in the north, the disastrous eruption 
of which in May 1902 devastated the most fertile portion of the 
island, a comparatively level tract lying to the north, called the 
Carib Country (see below). The climate of St Vincent is fairly 
healthy and in winter very pleasant; the average annual rainfall 
exceeds 100 in., and the temperature ranges from 88° F. in August 
to 66° in December and January. Hurricanes are not uncommon. 

The capital of the island is Kingstown, beautifully situated on 
the south-west coast near the foot of Mount St Andrew (2600 ft.). 

The population of the island in 1891 was 41,054 (2445 white, 
7554 coloured, 31,055 black); in 1906 it was estimated at 44,000. 
There were about 3300 East Indian coolies, a large number of whom 
were introduced in 1861 and following years, but on the expiry of 
their indentures mostly returned home; there were also a few 
Caribs of mixed blood, the majority of the aboriginal Caribs having 
been deported to British Honduras in 1797. Kingstown has a 
population of about 4000. The principal products of the island are 
sugar (but the sugar-industry has here, as elsewhere, undergone 
various vicissitudes), arrowroot and rum; and the cultivation of Sea 
Island cotton, introduced about 1903, has been successfully de- 
veloped by the government, which established a ginnery at Kings- 
town. Other articles of export are cacao, cotton, spices, fruit, 
vegetables, live stock and poultry. The average annual value of 
exports in 1896-1906 was £63,157 (in 1903-1904, the year following 
that of the great was £38,174, and in 1905-1906 it was 
£53. 7 8 ) and of imports, £80,467. In 1905-1906 the value of im- 
ports from the United Kingdom was £25,471, and that of exports 
to the United Kingdom £24,405. 

The present constitution dates from 1877, when the legislative 
council, consisting of four official and four nominated unofficial 
members, was formed. In 1899 an important scheme was entered 
upon, by means of a grant of £15,000 from the Imperial treasury, for 
settling the labouring population, distressed by the failures of the 
sugar industry, in the position of peasant proprietors. Estates were 
acquired from private owners for this purpose, and besides this a 
number of small holdings on crown lands (which are situated mainly 
in the high-lying central parts of the island) have been sold. Educa- 
tion is carried on in 27 state-aided schools, and there are at Kings- 
town a grammar school and an agricultural school. The Anglican, 
Wesleyan and Roman Catholic churches are well represented, and 
there are some Presbyterians. 

St Vincent is generally stated to have been discovered on 
St Vincent's day, the 22nd of January 1498 by Columbus. Its 
Carib inhabitants, however, remained undisturbed for many 
years. In 1627 Charles I. granted the island to the earl of 
Carlisle; in 1672 it was re-granted to Lord Willoughby, having 
been previously (1660) declared neutral. In 1722 a further 
grant of the island was made, to the duke of Montague, and now 
for the first time a serious effort at colonization was made, but 
the French insisted on the maintenance of neutrality, and this 
was confirmed by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). In 1762, 
however, General Monckton captured the island; the treaty of 
Paris in 1763 confirmed the British possession, and settlement 
proceeded in spite of the refusal of the Caribs to admit British 
sovereignty. Recourse was had to arms, and in 1773 a treaty 
was concluded with them, when they were granted lands in the 
north of the island as a reserve. In 1779 the island was sur- 
rendered to the French, but it was restored to Britain by the 
treaty of Versailles (1783). In 1795 the Caribs rose, assisted 
by the French, and were only put down after considerable 
fighting by Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1796, after which the 
majority of them were deported. The emancipation of negro 
slaves in the island took place in 1838; in 1846 the first Portu- 
guese labourers were introduced, and in 1861 the first East 
Indian coolies. St Vincent suffered from a terrific hurricane 
in 1780, and the Soufriere was in eruption in 1821. Severe 
distress was occasioned by the hurricane of the nth of September 
1898, from which the island had not recovered when it was visited 
by the eruption of the Soufriere in 1902. This eruption was 
synchronous with that of Mont Pele in Martinique (q.v.). There 
had been signs of activity, since February 1901, but the most 
serious eruption took place on the 6th/7th of May 1902. There 
were earthquakes in the following July, and further eruptions 
on the 3rd of September and the 15th of October, and on the 
22nd of March 1903. Many sugar and arrowroot plantations were 
totally destroyed, and the loss of life was estimated at 2000. 
A Mansion House Fund was at once started in London for 
the relief of the sufferers, and subscriptions were sent from all 
parts of the civilized world, and notably from the United 

ST VINCENT, BATTLE OF, fought on the 14th of February 
1797, between the British and Spanish fleets, the most famous 
and important of many encounters which have taken place at 
the same spot. The battle of 1797 is of peculiar significance in 
British naval history, not only because it came at a vital moment, 


5 1 

but because it first revealed the full capacity of Nelson, which 
was well known in the navy, to all his countrymen. In the course 
of 1796 the Spanish government had made the disastrous 
alliance with the French republic, which reduced its country 
to the level of a pawn in the game against England. The Spanish 
fleet, which was in a complete state of neglect, was forced to sea. 
It consisted of 27 sail of the line under the command of Don Jose 
de Cordoba — fine ships, but manned in haste by drafts of soldiers, 
and of landsmen forced on board by the press. Even the flagships 
had only about eighty sailors each in their crews. Don Jose 
de C6rdoba, who had gone out with no definite aim, was in 
reality drifting about with his unmanageable ships in two 
confused divisions separated from one another, in light winds 
from the W. and W.S.W., at a distance of from 25 to 30 m. S.W. 
of the Cape. While in this position he was sighted by Sir John 
Jervis, of whose nearness to himself he was ignorant, and who 
had sailed from Lisbon to attack him with only 15 sail of the 
line. Jervis knew the inefficient condition of the Spaniards, 
and was aware that the general condition of the war called for 
vigorous exertions. He did not hesitate to give battle in spite 
of the numerical superiority of his opponent. Six of the Spanish 
ships were to the south of him, separated by a long interval from 
the others which were to the south west. The British squadron 
was formed into a single line ahead, and was steered to pass 
between the two divisions of the Spaniards. The six vessels 
were thus cut off. A feeble attempt was made by them to 
molest the British, but being now to leeward as Jervis passed 
to the west of them, and being unable to face the rapid and well 
directed fire to which they were exposed, they sheered off. One 
only ran down the British line, and passing to the stern of the 
last ship succeeded in joining the bulk of her fleet to windward. 
As the British line passed through the gap between the Spanish 
divisions the ships were tacked in succession to meet the wind- 
ward portion of the enemy. If this movement had been carried 
out fully, all the British ships would have gone through the gap 
and the Spaniards to windward would have been able to steer 
unimpeded to the north, and perhaps to avoid being brought 
to a close general action. Their chance of escape was baffled 
by the independence and promptitude of Nelson. His ship, the 
" Captain " (74), was the third from the end of the British line. 
Without waiting for orders he made a sweep to the west, threw 
himself across the bows of the Spaniards. His movement was 
seen and approved by Jervis, who then ordered the other ships 
in his rear to follow Nelson's example. The British force was 
thrown bodily on the enemy. As the Spanish crews were too 
utterly unpractised to handle their ships, and could not carry 
out the orders of their officers which they did not understand, 
their ships were soon driven into a herd, and fell on board of 
one another. Their incompetence as gunners enabled the 
" Captain " to assail their flagship, the huge " Santisima Trinidad " 
(130), with comparative impunity. The " San Josef " (112), and 
the " San Nicolas " (80), which fell aboard of one another, were 
both carried by boarding by the " Captain." Four Spanish 
ships, the " Salvador del Mundo " and " San Josef " (112), the 
" San Nicolas " (80), and the " San Isidro " (74), were taken. 
The " Santisima Trinidad " is said to have struck, but she 
was not taken possession of. By about half-past three the 
Spaniards were fairly beaten. More prizes might have been 
taken, but Sir John Jervis put a stop to the action to secure the 
four which had surrendered. The Spaniards were allowed to 
retreat to Cadiz. Sir John Jervis was made Earl St Vincent (g.v.) 
for his victory. The battle, which revealed the worthlessness 
of the Spanish navy, relieved the British government from a 
load of anxiety, and may be said to have marked the complete 
predominance of its fleet on the sea. 

Authorities. — A very interesting account of the battle of Cape 
St Vincent, A Narrative of the Proceedings of the British Fleet, &c. 
(London, 1797), illustrated by plans, was published immediately 
afterwards by Colonel Drinkwater Bethune, author of the History 
of the Siege of Gibraltar, who was an eyewitness from the " Lively " 
frigate. See also James's Naval History (London, 1837); and 
Captain Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power on the French Revolution 
and Empire (London, 1892). (D. H.) 

ST VITUS'S DANCE, 1 or Chorea, a disorder of the nervous 
system occurring for the most part in children, and characterized 
mainly by involuntary jerking movements of the muscles 
throughout almost the entire body (see Neuropathology). 
Among the predisposing causes age is important, chorea being 
essentially an ailment of childhood and particularly during the 
period of the second dentition between the ages of nine and twelve. 
It is not often seen in very young children nor after puberty; 
but there are many exceptions. It is twice as frequent with 
girls as with boys. Hereditary predisposition to nervous troubles 
is apt to find expression in this malady, especially if the general 
health becomes lowered. Of exciting causes strong emotions, 
such as fright, ill-usage or hardship of any kind, insufficient 
feeding, overwork or anxiety, are among the most common; 
while, again, some distant source of irritation, such as teething 
or intestinal worms, appears capable of giving rise to an attack. 
It is an occasional but rare complication of pregnancy. The 
connexion of chorea with rheumatism is now universally recog- 
nized, and is shown not merely by its frequent occurrence before, 
after or during the course of attacks of rheumatic fever in young 
persons, but even independently of this by the liability of the 
heart to suffer in a similar way in the two diseases. Poynton 
and Paine have demonstrated a diplococcus, which they regard 
as the specific micro-organism of rheumatism, and which has 
been found in the lymph spaces in the cortex in chorea. An 
attempt has recently been made to demonstrate the infectious 
nature of the chorea. 

The symptoms of St Vitus's dance sometimes develop 
suddenly as the result of fright, but much more frequently they 
come on insidiously. They are usually preceded by changes 
in disposition, the child becoming sad, irritable and emotional, 
while at the same time the general health is somewhat impaired. 
The first thing indicative of the disease is a certain awkwardness 
or fidgetiness of manner together with restlessness. In walking, 
too, slight dragging of one limb may be noticed. The convulsive 
muscular movements usually first show themselves in one part, 
such as an arm or a leg, and in some instances they may remain 
localized to that limited extent, while in all cases there is a tend- 
ency for the disorderly symptoms to be more marked on one 
side than on the other. When fully developed the phenomena 
of the disease are very characteristic. The child when standing 
or sitting is never still, but is constantly changing the position 
of the body or limbs or the facial expression in consequence 
of the sudden and incoordinate action of muscles or groups of 
them. These symptoms are aggravated when purposive move- 
ments are attempted or when the child is watched. Speech is 
affected both from the incoordinate movements of the tongue 
and from phonation sometimes taking place during an act of 
inspiration. The taking of food becomes a matter of difficulty, 
since much of it is lost in the attempts to convey it to the mouth, 
while swallowing is also interfered with owing to the' irregular 
action of the pharyngeal muscles. When the tongue is protruded 
it comes out in a jerky manner and is immediately withdrawn, 
the jaws at the same time closing suddenly and sometimes with 
considerable force. In locomotion the muscles of the limbs 
act incoordinately and there is a marked alteration of the gait, 
which is now halting and now leaping, and the child may be 
tripped by one limb being suddenly jerked in front of the other. 
In short, the whole muscular system is deranged in its operations, 
and the term " insanity of the muscles " not inaptly expresses 
the condition, for they no longer act in harmony or with purpose, 
but seem, as Trousseau expresses it, each to have a will of its own. 
The muscles of organic life (involuntary muscles) appear scarcely, 

1 This name was originally employed in connexion with those 
remarkable epidemic outbursts of combined mental and physical 
excitement which for a time prevailed among the inhabitants of some 
parts of Germany in the middle ages. It is stated that sufferers from 
this dancing mania were wont to resort to the chapels of St Vitus 
(more than one in Swabia), the saint being believed to possess the 
power of curing them. The transference of the name to the disease 
now under consideration was a manifest error, but so closely has the 
association now become that the original application of the term hat. 
been comparatively obscured. 



if at all, affected in this disease, as, for example, the heart, the 
rhythmic movements of which are not as a rule impaired. But 
the heart may suffer in other ways, especially from inflammatory 
conditions similar to those which attend upon rheumatism and 
which frequently lay the foundation of permanent heart-disease. 
In severe cases of St Vitus's dance the child comes to present 
a distressing appearance, and the physical health declines. 
Usually, however, there is a remission of the symptoms during 
sleep. The mental condition of the patient is more or less 
affected, as shown in emotional tendencies, irritability and a 
somewhat fatuous expression and bearing, but this change is 
in general of transient character and ceases with convalescence. 

This disease occasionally assumes a very acute and aggravated 
form, in which the disorderly movements are so violent as to 
render the patient liable to be injured, and to necessitate forcible 
control of the limbs, or the employment of anaesthetics to produce 
unconsciousness. Such cases are of very grave character, if, 
as is common, they are accompanied with sleeplessness, and 
they may prove rapidly fatal by exhaustion. In the great 
majority of cases, however, complete recovery is to be anticipated 
sooner or later, the symptoms usually continuing for from one 
to two months, or even sometimes much longer. 

The remedies proposed have been innumerable, but it is doubtful 
whether any of them has much control over the disease, which 
under suitable hygienic conditions tends to recover of itself. These 
conditions, however, are all-important, and embrace the proper 
feeding of the child with nutritious light diet, the absence of all 
sources of excitement and annoyance, and the rectification of any 
causes of irritation and of irregularities in the general health. For 
a time, and especially if the symptoms are severe, confinement to 
the house or even to bed may be necessary, but as soon as possible 
the child should be taken out into the open air and gently exercised 
by walking. Ruhrah, recognizing the importance of rest, recom- 
mends a modified Weir-Mitchell treatment. Of medicinal remedies 
the mst serviceable appear to be zinc, arsenic and iron, especially 
the last two, which act as tonics to the system and improve the 
condition of the blood. In view of the connexion of chorea with 
rheumatism, Koplik and Dr D. B. Lees recommend salicylate of soda 
in large doses. Recently ergot, hot packs and mcnobromate of 
camphor have found advocates, while cessation of the movements has 
followed, the application of an ether spray to the spine twice daily. 
As sedatives in cases of sleeplessness, bromide of potassium and 
chloral are of use. In long-continued cases of the disease much 
benefit will be obtained by a change of air as well as by the employ- 
ment of moderate gymnastic exercises. The employment of massage 
and of electricity is also likely to be beneficial. After recovery the 
general health of the child should for a long time receive attention, 
and care should be taken to guard against excitement, excessive 
study or any exhausting condition, physical or mental, from the fact 
that the disease is apt to recur, and that other nervous disorders still 
more serious may be developed from it. 

In the rare instances of the acute form of this malady, where the 
convulsive movements are unceasing and violent, the only measures 
available are the use of chloral or chloroform inhalation to produce 
insensibility and muscular relaxation, but the effect is only palliative. 

SAINT-WANDRILLE, a village of north-western France, 
in the department of Seine-Inferieure, 28 m. W.N.W. of Rouen 
by rail. It is celebrated for the ruins of its Benedictine abbey. 
The abbey church belongs to the 13th and 14th centuries; 
portions of the nave walls supported by flying buttresses are 
standing, and the windows and vaulting of the side aisles are in 
fair preservation. The church communicates with a cloister, 
from which an interesting door of the Renaissance period opens 
into the refectory. Beside this entrance is a richly ornamented 
lavabo of the Renaissance period. The refectory is a room over 
100 ft. long, lighted by graceful windows of the same period. 
The abbey was founded in the 7th century by St Wandrille, aided 
by the donations of Clovis II. It soon became renowned for 
learning and piety. In the 13th century it was burnt down, 
and the rebuilding was not completed till the beginning of the 
16th century. Later in the same century it was practically 
destroyed by the Huguenots, and again the restoration was not 
finished for more than a hundred years. The demolition of the 
church was begun at the time of the Revolution, but proceeded 
slowly and in 1832 was entirely stopped. 

SAINT YON, a family of Parisian butchers in the 14th and 
15th century. Guillaume de Saint Yon is cited as the richest 
butcher of the Grande Boucherie in the 14th century. The 

family played an important r61e during the quarrels of the 
Armagnacs and Burgundians. They were among the leaders 
of the Cabochian revolution of 1413. Driven out by the 
Armagnacs, they recovered their influence after the return of 
the Burgundians to Paris in 141 8, but had to flee again in 1436 
when the constable, Arthur, earl of Richmond, took the city. 
Gamier de Saint Yon was ichevin of Paris in 1413 and 1419; 
Jean de Saint Yon, his brother, was valet de ckambre of the 
dauphin Louis, son of King Charles VI. Both were in the service 
of the king of England during the English domination. Richard 
de Saint Yon was master of the butchers of the Grande Boucherie 
in 1460. 

See A. Langnon, Paris pendant la domination anglaise (Paris, 
1878) ; A. Colville, Les Cabochiens el Vordonnance de 1413. 

ST YRIEIX, a town of west central France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Haute-Vienne, on the 
left bank of the Loue, 26 m. S. of Limoges on the railway to 
Brive. Pop. (1906) town 3604, commune 7916. The town 
possesses a church in the early Gothic style known as Le Moutier, 
dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, and a tower of the 12th 
century which is a relic of its fortifications. Its quarries of 
kaolin discovered in 1765 were the first known in France. The 
town owes its name to Aredius (popularly St Yrieix) who in the 
6th century founded a monastery to which its origin was due. 

SAIS (Egyptian Sai), an ancient city of the Egyptian Delta, 
lying westward of the Thermuthiac or Sebennytic branch of the 
Nile. It was Capital of the 5th nome of Lower Egypt and must 
have been important from remote times. In the 8th century 
B.C. Sais held the hegemony of the Western Delta, while 
Bubastite families ruled in the east and the kings of Ethiopia 
in Upper Egypt. The Ethiopians found their most vigorous 
opponents in the Saite princes Tefnachthus and his son 
Bocchoris " the Wise " of the XXIVth Dynasty. After reigning 
six years the latter is said to have been burnt alive by Sabacon, 
the founder of the Ethiopian XXVth Dynasty. At the time 
when invasions by the Assyrians drove out the Ethiopian 
Taracus again and again, the chief of the twenty princes to whom 
Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal successively entrusted the 
government was Niku, king of Sais and Memphis. His son 
Psammetichus (q.v.) was the fdunder of the XXVI th Dynasty. 
Although the main seat of government was at Memphis, Sais 
remained the royal residence throughout this flourishing dynasty. 
Neith, the goddess of Sais, was identified with Athena, and 
Osiris was worshipped there in a great festival. 

The brick enclosure wall of the temple is still plainly visible near 
the little village of Sa el hagar (Sa of stone) on the east bank of the 
Rosetta branch, but the royal tombs and other monuments of Sais, 
some of which were described by Herodotus, and its inscribed records, 
have all gone. Only crude brick ruins and rubbish heaps remain on 
the site, but a few relics conveyed to Alexandria and Europe in the 
Roman age have come down to our day, notably the inscribed 
statue of a priest of Neith who was high in favour with Psam- 
metichus III., Cambyses and Darius. Bronze figures of deities are 
now the most interesting objects to be found at Sa el hagar. 

(F. Ll. G.) 

SAISSET, BERNARD (d. c. 1314), French bishop, was abbot 
of Saint Antonin de Pamiers in 1268. Boniface VIII., detaching 
the city of Pamiers from the diocese of Toulouse in 1295, made 
it the seat of a new bishopric and appointed Saisset to the see. 
Of a headstrong temperament, Saisset as abbot energetically 
sustained the struggle with the counts of Foix, begun two 
centuries before, for the lordship of the city of Pamiers, which 
had been shared between the counts and abbots by the feudal 
contract of pariage. The struggle ended in 1297 by an agree- 
ment between the two parties as to their common rights, and 
when the pope raised the excommunication incurred by the count, 
Saisset absolved him in the refectory of the Dominican monastery 
in Pamiers (1300). Saisset is, however, famous in French history 
for his opposition to King Philip IV. As an ardent Languedocian 
he hated the French, and spoke openly of the king in disrespectful 
terms. But when he tried to organize a general rising of the south, 
he was denounced to the king, perhaps by his old enemies the count 
of Foix and the bishop of Toulouse. Philip IV. charged Richard 
Leneveu, archdeacon of Auge in the diocese of Lisieux, and 



Jean de Picquigni, vidame of Amiens, to make an investigation, 
which lasted several months. Saisset was on the point of 
escaping to Rome when the vidame of Amiens surprised him 
by night in his episcopal palace. He was brought to Senlis, 
and on the 24th of October 1301 appeared before Philip and 
his court. The chancellor, Pierre Flotte, charged him with high 
treason, and he was placed in the keeping of the archbishop of 
Narbonne, his metropolitan. Philip IV. tried to obtain from 
the pope the canonical degradation of Saisset. Boniface VIII., 
instead, ordered the king in December 1301 to free the bishop, 
in order that he might go to Rome to justify himself. At the 
same time, he sent the famous bulls Salvator mundi, a sort of 
repetition of Clericis laicos, and Ausculla fili, which opened a 
new stage of the quarrel between the pope and king. In the 
heat of the new struggle Saisset was forgotten. He had been 
turned over in February 1302 into the keeping of Jacques des 
Normands, the papal legate, and was ordered to leave the kingdom 
at once. He lived at Rome until after the incident at Anagni. 
In 1308 the king pardoned him, and restored him to his see. 
He died, still bishop of Pamiers, about 1314. 

There is no proof for the legend that Bernard Saisset earned 
Philip IV. 's hatred in 1 300-1 301 by boldly sustaining the pope's 
demand for the liberation of the count of Flanders, and by 
publicly proclaiming the doctrine of papal supremacy. 

See Dom Vaissete, Histoire generate de Languedoc, ed. Privat, t. ix. 
pp. 216-310; Histoire litteraire de la France, t. xxvi. pp. 540-547; 
E. de RoziSre, Le Passage de Pamiers, in Bibliotheque de l'Ecole 
des Chartes (1871) ; Ch. V. Langlois in Lavisse's Histoire de France, 
t. i£I. . pt. ii., pp. 142-146. 

SAISSET, EMILE EDMOND (1814-1863), French philosopher, 
was born at Montpellier on the 16th of September 1814, and 
died at Paris on the 17th of December 1863. He studied 
philosophy in the school of Cousin, and carried on the eclectic 
tradition of his master along with Ravaisson and Jules Simon. 
He was professor of philosophy at Caen, at the Ecole Normale 
in Paris and later at the Sorbonne. 

His chief works are a monograph on Aenesidemus the Sceptic 
(1840); Le Scepticisme: Mnesidkme, Pascal, Kant (1845); a trans- 
lation of Spinoza (1843); Precurseurs et disciples de _ Descartes 
(1862); Discours de la philosophie de Leibnitz (1857) — a work which 
had great influence on the progress of thought in France; Essai de 
philosophie religieuse (1859) ; Critique et histoire de la philosophie{i86^). 

SAKA, or Shaka, the name of one or more tribes which invaded 
India from Central Asia. The word is used loosely, especially 
by Hindu authors, to designate all the tribes which from time 
to time invaded India from the north, much as all the tribes 
who invaded China are indiscriminately termed Tatars. Used 
more accurately, it denotes the tribe which invaded India 
130-140 B.C. They are the Sacae and Sakai of classical authors 
and the Se of the Chinese, which may represent an original 
Sek or Sok. The Chinese annalists state that they were a pastoral 
people who lived in the neighbourhood of the modern Kashgar. 
About 160 B.C. they were driven southward by the advance of 
the Yue-Chi from the east. One portion appears to have settled 
in western Afghanistan, hence called Sakasthana, in modern 
Persian Sejistan. The other section occupied the Punjab and 
possessed themselves of the territory which the Graeco-Bactrian 
kings had acquired in India, that is Sind, Gujarat and Malwa. 
The rulers of these provinces bore the title of Satrap (Kshatrapa 
or Chhatrapa) and were apparently subordinate to a king who 
ruled over the valley of Kabul and the Punjab. In 57 B.C. the 
Sakas were attacked simultaneously by Parthians from the west 
and by the Malava clans from the east and their power was 
destroyed. It should be added that what we know of Saka 
history is mostly derived from coins and inscriptions which admit 
,of various interpretations and that scholars are by no means 
agreed as to names and. dates. In any case their power, if it 
lasted so long, must have been swept away by the Kushan 
conquest of Northern India. 

Nothing is known of the language or race of the Sakas. Like 
most of the invaders of India at this period they adopted 
Buddhism, at least partially. They can be traced to the neigh- 
bourhood of Kashgar, but not like the Yue-Chi to the frontiers 
of China. They may have been Turanians akin to that tribe. 

or they may have been Iranians akin to the Iranian element 
in Transoxiana and the districts south of the Pamirs. They 
cannot be the same as the Scythians of Europe, though the name 
and original nomadic life are points in common. 

See Vincent Smith, Early History of India (1908) ; O. Franke, 
Beitrdge aus chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Turkvolker und 
Skythen (1904) ; P. Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings 
in India (1886); and various articles by Vincent Smith, Fleet, 
Cunningham, A Stein, Sylvain Levi and others in the Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Indian Antiquary, 
Zeitsch. der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, &c. (C. El.) 

SAKAI, an aboriginal people of the Malay peninsula found 
chiefly in south Perak, Selangor and Pahang. Representatives 
are widely scattered among Malayan villages, but these are so 
crossed with the Malays as to be no longer typical. An attempt 
has been made to identify the Sakai with the Mon-Annam group 
of races, i.e. the tribes which till 600 years ago possessed what 
is now Siam, and some of whom still occupy Pegu and Cambodia. 
Professor Virchow suggested that the Sakai belong to what 
he calls the Dravido-Australian race, the chief representatives 
of which he finds in the Veddahs of Ceylon, the civilized Tamils 
of south India and the aborigines of Australia. In essential 
characteristics of hair and head there is a remarkable agreement. 
The difficulty in accepting the theory is in the colour of the skin, • 
which among the Sakais is often a light shade of yellowish brown, 
whereas among Tamils black is the prevailing colour. Vijchow 
meets this by pointing out that Sinhalese, though admittedly 
Aryans, are often so dark as to be practically black. The 
Sakais are, however, it is now generally held, kinsmen of their 
Negrito neighbours, the Semangs (q.v.), and are, like the latter, 
dwarfish, seldom exceeding 4 ft. 9 in. Their skins are usually 
a darkish brown, but showing a reddish tinge about the breast 
and extremities. The head is long, and the hair a black brown, 
rather wavy then woolly. The face inclines to be long, and 
would be hatchet-shaped but for the breadth of the cheek bones. 
The chin is long and pointed, the forehead high and flat, the 
brows often beetling. The nose is small, slightly tilted or 
rounded off at the tip, but broad and with deep-set nostrils. 
The beard is usually scanty. The arm-stretch is almost always 
greater than their height. Their food is varied; the wilder 
tribes living on jungle fruits and game they hunt with the blow- 
pipe, while the more civilized grow yams, sweet potatoes, maize, 
sugar cane, rice and tapioca. The Sakai blow-pipe is a tube 
6 to 8 ft. long formed of a single joint of a rare species of bamboo 
(Bambusa Wrayi). This tube is inserted into another for protec- 
tion. The darts are made of fine slivers from the mid-rib of the 
leaf of certain palms, and are about the size of a knitting needle. 
The point is usually coated with poison compounded from the 
sap of the Upas tree (Antiaris toxicaria) and of a species of 
strychnos. Each dart is carried in a separate reed, thirty to 
fifty of these latter being rolled up and carried in a bamboo 
quiver. The Sakais can kill at thirty paces with these blow-pipes. 
They are nomads, building mere leaf-shelters in or under the 
trees. Their dress is of bark-cloth and they scar their faces, as 
do the Semangs. They are skilful in mat-making and basket- 
work, but they have no kind of weaving or pottery. They are 
musical, using a rough lute of bamboo and a nose-flute, and they 
sing well in chorus. They have in common with the Semangs 
curious marriage ceremonies. The dead are slung from a pole 
and carried to a distant spot in the jungle. Here, wrapped in 
new bark-cloth, the body is buried in a shallow trench, the 
clothes worn by the deceased being burned in a fire lighted near, 
the grave. When filled up, rice is sown on the grave and watered, 
and some herbs and bananas are planted round it for the soul 
to feed on. Afterwards a three-cornered hutch, not unlike a 
doll's-house but mounted on high piles, is built at the foot, in 
which the soul may live. This soul-house is about ij ft. high, 
is thatched with leaves and has a ladder by which the soul can 
climb in. 

SAK£, the national beverage of Japan. In character it 
stands midway between beer and wine. It is made chiefly 
from rice (see Brewing). Sake contains 12 to 15% of alcohol 
and about 3% of solid matter (extractives), 0-3% of lactic 



acid, a small quantity of volatile acid, 0-5 % of sugar and o-8 % 
of glycerin. There are about 20,000 sake breweries in Japan, 
and the annual output is about 150 million gallons. Sake is a 
yellowish-white liquid, its flavour somewhat resembling that of 
madeira or sherry. It is warmed prior to consumption, as the 
flavour is thereby improved and it is rendered more digestible. 
The name is said to be derived from the town of Osaka which, 
from time immemorial, has been famous for its sake. According 
to Morewood it is probable that the wine called " sack " in 
England derived its name from the Japanese liquor, being 
introduced by Spanish and Portuguese traders (see Wine). 

SAKHALIN, or Saghalien, a large elongated island in the 
North Pacific, lying between 45 57' and 54° 24' N., off the coast 
of the Russian Maritime Province in East Siberia, divided 
between the Russian and Japanese empires. Its proper Ainu 
name, Karafuto or Karaftu, has been restored to the island by the 
Japanese since 1905. Sakhalin is separated from the mainland 
by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary or Mamiya Strait, 
which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Yezo 
(Japan) by the Strait of La Perouse. The island is 600 m. long, 
and 16 to 105 broad, with an area of 24,560 sq. m. 

Its orography and geological structure are imperfectly known. 
Two, or perhaps three, parallel ranges of mountains traverse it from 
north to south, reaching 2000 to 5000 ft. (Mt. Ichara, 4860 ft.) high, 
with two or more wide depressions, not exceeding 600 ft. above the 
sea. Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous lime- 
stones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic 
ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast, and Tertiary conglomer- 
ates, sandstones, marls and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, 
in many parts of the island. The clays, which contain layers of 
good coal and an abundant fossil vegetation, show that during the 
Miocene period Sakhalin formed part of a continent which com- 
prised north Asia, Alaska and Japan, and enjoyed a comparatively 
warm climate. The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more 
arctic than that which exists at the present time, indicating probably 
that the connexion between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was 
broader than it is now. Only two rivers are worthy of mention. 
The Tym, 250 m. long and navigable by rafts and light boats for 
50 m., flows north and north-east with numerous rapids and shallows, 
and enters the Sea of Okhotsk. The Poronai flows south-south-east 
to the Gulf of Patience or Shichiro Bay, on the south-east coast. 
Three other small streams enter the wide semicircular Gulf of Aniva 
or Higashifushimi Bay at the southern extremity of the island. 

Owing to the influence of the raw, foggy Sea of Okhotsk, the 
climate is very cold. At Dui the average yearly temperature is only 
33-o°Fahr. (January 3-4°; July 6l-o°), 35-0° at Kusunai and 37-6° at 
Aniva (January, 9-5; July, 6o-2°). At Alexandrovsk near Dui the 
annual range is from 81 in July to -38° in January, while at Rykovsk 
in the interior the minimum is -49° Fahr. The rainfall averages 
22J in. Thick clouds for the most part shut out the sun; while the 
cold current from the Sea of Okhotsk, aided by north-east winds, 
brings immense ice-floes to the east coast in summer. The whole 
of the island is covered with dense forests, mostly coniferous. The 
Ayan spruce (Abies ayanensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalensis) 
and the Daurian larch are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the 
mountains are the Siberian rampant cedar (Cembra pumila) and the 
Kurilian bamboo (Arundinaria kurilense). Birch, both European 
and Kamchatkan (Betula alba and B. Ermani), elder, poplar, elm, 
wild cherry (Prunus padus), Taxus baccata and several willows are 
mixed with the conifers; while farther south the maple, mountain 
ash and oak, as also the Japanese Panax ricinifolium, the Amur cork 
(Philodendron amurense), the spindle tree (Euonymus macropterus) 
and the vine (Vitis thunbergii) make their appearance. The under- 
woods abound in berry-bearing plants (e.g. cloudberry, cranberry, 
crowberry, red whortleberry), berried elder (Sambucus racemosa), 
wild raspberry and Spiraea. Bears, foxes, otters and sables are 
numerous, as also the reindeer in the north, and the musk deer, 
hares, squirrels, rats and mice everywhere. The avi-fauna is the 
common Siberian, and the rivers swarm with fish, especially species 
of salmon (Oncorhynchus). Numerous whales visit the sea-coast. 
Sea-lions, seals and dolphins are a source of profit. 

Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic Stone Age. Flint 
implements, exactly like those of Siberia and Russia, have been 
found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished 
stone hatchets, like the European ones, primitive pottery with 
decorations like those of Olonets and stone weights for nets. 
Afterwards a population to whom bronze was known left traces 
in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on the Bay of Aniva. 
The native inhabitants consist of some 2000 Gilyaks, 1300 Ainus, 
with 750 Orochons, 200 Tunguses and Some Yakuts. The 
Gilyaks in the north support themselves by fishing and hunting. 

The Ainus inhabit the south part of the island. There are also 
32,000 Russians, of whom over 22,150 are convicts. A little 
coal is mined and some rye, wheat, oats, barley and vegetables 
are grown, although the period during which vegetation can 
grow averages less than 100 days. Fishing is actively prosecuted, 
especially by the Japanese in the south. 

History. — Sakhalin, which was under Chinese dominion until 
the 19th century, became known to Europeans from the travels 
of Martin Gerritz de Vries in the 17th century, and still better 
from those of La Perouse (1787) and Krusenstern (1805). Both, 
however, regarded it as a peninsula, and were unaware of the 
existence of the Strait of Tartary, which was discovered in 1809 
by a Japanese, Mamiya Rinzo. The Russian navigator Nevelskoi 
in 1849 definitively established the existence and navigability 
of this strait. The Russians made their first permanent settle- 
ment on Sakhalin in 1857; but the southern part of the island 
was held by the Japanese until 1875, when they ceded it to 
Russia. By the treaty of Portsmouth (U.S.A.) of 1905 the 
southern part of the island below 50 N. was re-ceded to Japan, 
the Russians retaining the other three-fifths of the area. 

See C. H. Hawes, In the Uttermost East (London, 1903). 

(PA. K.; J. T. Be.) 

SAKI, the native name of a group of tropical American 
monkeys nearly allied to those known as uakaris (see Uakari), 
with which they agree in the forward inclination of the lower 
incisor teeth, the depth of the hinder part of the lower jaw, and 
the non-prehensile tail. The sakis, which form the genus 
Pithecia, are specially characterized by their long and generally 
bushy tails, distinct whiskers and beard, and the usually elon- 
gated hair on the crown of the head, which may either radiate 
from a point in the centre, or be divided by a median parting. 
They are very delicate animals, difficult to keep in confinement, 
and in that state exhibiting a gentle disposition, and being 
normally silent (see Primates). 

SAKURA-JIMA, a Japanese island, oval in shape and measur- 
ing 7 5 m., lying in the northern part of the Bay of Kagoshima 
(31 40' N., 130° 35' E.). It has a volcano 3743 ft. high (of which 
an eruption was recorded in 1779), and is celebrated for its hot 
springs, its oranges and its giant radishes (daikon), which some- 
times weigh as much as 70 lb. 

SALA, GEORGE AUGUSTUS HENRY (1828-1895), English 
journalist, was born in London, on the 24th of November 1828. 
His father, Augustus John James Sala (1792-1828), was the son 
of Claudio Sebastiano Sala, an Italian, who came to London to 
arrange ballets at the theatres; his mother, Henrietta Simon 
(1789-1860), was an actress and teacher of singing. Sala was 
at school in Paris and studied drawing in London. In his earlier 
years he did odd jobs in scene-painting and book illustration. 
He wrote a tragedy in French, Fredigonde, before he was ten 
years old, and in 1851 attracted the attention of Charles Dickens, 
who published articles and stories by him in Household Words 
and All the Year Round, and in 1856 sent him to Russia as a 
special correspondent. About the same time he got to know 
Edmund Yates, with whom, in his earlier years, he was constantly 
connected in his journalistic ventures. From i860 to 1886, 
over his own initials, he wrote " Echoes of the Week " for the 
Illustrated London News. Afterwards they were continued in a 
syndicate of weekly newspapers almost to his death. Thackeray, 
when editor of the Cornhill, published articles by him 
on Hogarth in i860, which were issued in volume form in 
1866. In i860 he started Temple Bar, which he edited till 1866 
when the magazine was taken over by Messrs Bentley. Mean- 
while he had become in 1857 a contributor to the London Daily 
Telegraph, and it was in this capacity that he did his most, 
characteristic work, whether as a foreign correspondent in all 
parts of the world, or as a writer of leaders or special articles. 
His literary style was highly coloured, bombastic, egotistic 
and full of turgid periphrases, but his articles were invariably 
full of interesting matter and helped to make the reputation of 
the paper. He collected a large library and had an elaborate 
system of commonplace-books, so that he could bring into his 
articles enough show or reality of special information to make 



excellent reading for a not very critical public; he had an 
extraordinary faculty for never saying the same thing twice 
in the same way. He earned a large income from the Telegraph 
and other sources, but he never could keep his money. In 1863 
he started on his first tour as special foreign correspondent to 
his paper. He spent the year 1864 in America and published 
a Diary of the war. Expeditions to Algiers, to Italy during 
Garibaldi's 1866 campaign, to Metz during the Franco-German 
war, to Spain in 1875 at the end of the Carlist war, were among 
his early journalistic enterprises, the long list of which closed 
with his journey through America and Australia in 1885. In 
1892, when his reputation was at its height, he started a weekly 
paper called Sala's Journal, but it was a disastrous failure; 
and in 1895 he had to sell his library of 13,000 volumes. Lord 
Rosebery gave him a civil list pension of £100 a year, but he 
was a broken-down man, and he died at Brighton on the 8th 
of December 1895. Sala published many volumes of fiction, 
travels and essays, and edited various other works, but his 
metier was that of ephemeral journalism. 

See The Life and Adventures of George Augustus Sala, written by 
himself (2 vols., 1895). 

SALAAM (Arab, salam, "peace"), the Oriental term for a 
salutation. The word is used for any act of salutation, as of an 
ambassador to a monarch, and so in a secondary sense of a 
compliment. Properly it is the oral salutation of Mahommedans 
to each other; but it has acquired the special meaning of an 
act of obeisance. 

SALAD (Med. Lat. salata, salted, pickled, salare, to sprinkle 
with salt), a dish, originally dressed with salt, of green uncooked 
herbs, such as lettuce, endive, mustard, cress, &c, usually served 
with a flavouring of onion, garlic or leeks, and with a dressing of 
vinegar, oil, mustard, pepper and salt, or with a cream, for 
which there are many receipts; hard-boiled eggs, radishes and 
cucumber are also added. 

SALADE, Sallet or Salet, a head-piece introduced in the 
early 15th century replacing the heavy helmet. Its essential 
features are its smooth rounded surface, like an inverted bowl, 
and its long projecting neck guard. Usually there was no movable 
vizor, but the front fixed part covered most of the face, a slit 
being left for the eyes. The word is said to come through 
the Old Fr. from the Span, celada, Ital. celata, Lat. caelata, 
sc. cassis, engraved helmet, caelare, to engrave, chase (see 

SALADIN (Arab. Sala-ud-din, " Honouring the Faith") (1138- 
1193), first Ayyubite sultan of Egypt, was born at Tekrit in 
1 138. The brilliance of his career was only made possible 
by the condition of the East in the 1 2th century. Such authority 
as remained to the orthodox caliph of Bagdad (see Caliphate) 
or the heretical Fatimites (q.v.) of Cairo was exercised by their 
viziers. The Seljukian empire had, after 1076, been divided 
and subdivided among Turkish atabegs. The Latin kingdom 
of Jerusalem had existed since 1089 only because it was a 
united force in the midst of disintegration. Gradually, however, 
Christian enthusiasm had aroused a counter enthusiasm among 
the Moslems. Zengi, atabeg of Mosul, had inaugurated the 
sacred war by his campaigns in Syria (1137-1146). Nur-ed-din, 
his son, had continued his work by further conquests in Syria 
and Damascus, by the organization of his conquered lands, 
and, in 1157, by " publishing everywhere the Holy War." The 
opportunity of Saladin lay therefore in the fact that his lifetime 
covers the period when there was a conscious demand for political 
union in the defence of the Mahommedan faith. By race 
Saladin was a Kurd of Armenia. His father, Ayyub (Job), and 
his uncle Shirkuh, sons of a certain Shadhy of Ajdanakan near 
Dawin, were both generals in Zengi's army. In 1139 Ayyub 
received Baalbek from Zengi, in 1146 he moved, on Zengi's 
death, to the court of Damascus. In 1154 his influence secured 
Damascus to Nur-ed-din and he was made governor. Saladin 
was therefore educated in the most famous centre of Moslem 
learning, and represented the best traditions of Moslem culture. 

His career falls into three parts, his conquests in Egypt 1164- 
1174, the annexation of Syria 1174-1187, and lastly the destruc- 

tion of the Latin kingdom and subsequent campaigns against 
the Christians, 1187-1192. The conquest of Egypt was essential 
to Nur-ed-din. It was a menace to his empire on the south, the 
occasional ally of the Franks and the home of the unorthodox 
caliphs. His pretext was the plea of an exiled vizier, and 
Shirkuh was ordered to Egypt in n 64, taking Saladin as his 
lieutenant. The Christians under Count Amalric immediately 
intervened and the four expeditions which ensued in 1164, 1167, 
1 168 and 1 169 were duels between Christians and Saracens. 
They resulted in heavy Christian losses, the death of Shirkuh and 
the appointment of Saladin as vizir. His relations towards the 
unorthodox caliph Nur-ed-din were marked by extraordinary 
tact. In 1 171 on the death of the Fatimite caliph he was 
powerful enough to substitute the name of the orthodox caliph 
in all Egyptian mosques. The Mahommedan religion was 
thus united against Christianity. To Nur-ed-din he was invari- 
ably submissive, but from the vigour which he employed in 
adding to the fortifications of Cairo and the haste with which he 
retreated from an attack on Montreal (n 71) and Kerak (n 73) 
it is clear that he feared his lord's jealousy. 

In 1 1 74 Nur-ed-din died, and the period of Saladin 's conquests 
in Syria begins. Nur-ed-din's vassals rebelled against his 
youthful heir, es-Salih, and Saladin came north, nominally to his 
assistance. In n 74 he entered Damascus, Emesa and Hamah; 
in 1175 Baalbek and the towns round Aleppo. The next step 
was political independence. He suppressed the name of es-Salih 
in prayers and on the coinage, and was formally declared sultan 
by the caliph 1175. In n 76 he conquered Saif-ud-din of Mosul 
beyond the Euphrates and was recognized as sovereign by the 
princes of northern Syria". In n 77 he returned by Damascus 
to Cairo, which he enriched with colleges, a citadel and an 
aqueduct. From n 77 to 1180 he made war on the Christians 
from Egypt, and in 1180 reduced the sultan of Konia to sub- 
mission. From 1 181-1 183 he was chiefly occupied in Syria. In 
1 183 he induced the atabeg Imad-ud-din to exchange Aleppo for 
the insignificant Sinjar and in 1186 received the homage of the 
atabeg of Mosul. The last independent vassal was thus subdued 
and the Latin kingdom enclosed on every side by a hostile 

In 1 187 a four years' truce was broken by the brilliant brigand 
Renaud de Chatillon and thus began Saladin's third period of 
conquest. In May he cut to pieces a small body of Templars 
and Hospitallers at Tiberias, and, on July 4th, inflicted a 
crushing defeat upon the united Christian army at Hittin. He 
then overran Palestine, on September 20th besieged Jerusalem 
and on October 2nd, after chivalrous clemency to the Christian 
inhabitants, crowned his victories by entering and purifying the 
Holy City. In the kingdom only Tyre was left to the Christians. 
Probably Saladin made his worst strategical error in neglect- 
ing to conquer it before winter. The Christians had thus a 
stronghold whence their remnant marched to attack Acre in 
June 1 189. Saladin immediately surrounded the Christian army 
and thus began the famous two years' siege. 

Saladin's lack of a fleet enabled the Christians to receive 
reinforcements and thus recover from their defeats by land. 
On the 8th of June 1191 Richard of England arrived, and on the 
1 2th of July Acre capitulated without Saladin's permission. 
Richard followed up his victory by an admirably ordered march 
down the coast to Jaffa and a great victory at Arsuf. During 
1 191 and 1 192 there were four small campaigns in southern 
Palestine when Richard circled round Beitnuba and Ascalon 
with Jerusalem as objective. In January 1 192 he acknowledged 
his impotence by renouncing Jerusalem to fortify Ascalon. 
Negotiations for peace accompanied these demonstrations, which 
showed that Saladin was master of the situation. Though in 
July Richard secured two brilliant victories at Jaffa, the treaty 
made on the 2nd of September was a triumph for Saladin. Only 
the coast line was left to the Latin kingdom, with a free passage 
to Jerusalem; and Ascalon was demolished. The union of the 
Mahommedan East had beyond question dealt the death-blow 
to the Latin kingdom. Richard returned to Europe, and 
Saladin returned to Damascus, where on the 4th of March 1193, 



after a few days' illness, he died. He was buried in Damascus 
and mourned by the whole East. 

The character of Saladin and of his work is singularly vivid. In 
many ways he was a typical Mahommedan, fiercely hostile towards 
unbelievers — " Let us purge the air of the air they breathe " was his 
aim for the demons cf the Cross, — intensely devout and regular in 
prayers and fasting. He showed the pride of race in the declaration 
that ' ' God reserved this triumph for the Ayyubites before all others. ' ' 
His generosity and hospitality were proved in his gifts to Richard 
and his treatment of captives. He had the Oriental's power of 
endurance, alternating with violent and emotional courage. Other 
virtues were all his own, his extreme gentleness, his love for children, 
his flawless honesty, his invariable kindliness, his chivalry to women 
and the weak. Above all he typifies the Mahommedan's utter self- 
surrender to a sacred cause. His achievements were the inevitable 
expression of his character. He was not a statesman, for he left no 
constitution or code to the East; his empire was divided among his 
relatives on his death. As a strategist, though of great ability, he 
cannot be compared to Richard. As a general, he never organized 
an army. " My troops will do nothing," he confessed, " save when I 
ride at their head and review them. ' His fame lives in Eastern 
history as the conqueror who stemmed the tide of Western conquest 
on the East, and turned it definitely from East to West, as the hero 
who momentarily united the unruly East, and as the saint who 
realized in his personality the highest virtues and ideals of 

Authorities. — The contemporary Arabian authorities are to be 
found in Michaud's Recueil des historiens des Croisades (Paris. 1876). 
This contains the work of Baha-ud-din (1 145-1234), diplomatist, 
and secretary of Saladin, the general history of Ibn-Athir (1160- 
1233), the eulogist of the atabegs of Mosul but the unwilling admirer 
of Saladin, and parts of the general history of Abulfeda. The 
biography of the poet Osema ibn Murkidh (1095-1188), edited by 
Derenbourg (Paris, 1886), gives an invaluable picture of Eastern life. 
Later Arabian authorities are Ibn Khallikan (1211-1282) and Abu- 
Shama (born 1267). Of Christian authorities the following are 
important, the history of William of Tyre (1137-1185), the Itiner- 
arium peregrinorum, probably the Latin version of the Carmen 
Ambrosii (ed. by Stubbs, " Rolls " series, London, 1864), and the 
Chronique d'outremer, or the French translation of William of Tyre's 
history and its continuation by Ernoul, the squire of Balian, seigneur 
of Ibelin, 1228. The best modern authority is Stanley Lane-Poole's 
Saladin (" Heroes of the Nations " series, London, 1903). See also the 
bibliography to Crusades. (W. F. K.) 

SALAMANCA, a frontier province of eastern Spain, formed 
in 1833 out of the southern part of the ancient kingdom of Leon, 
and bounded on the N. by Zamora and Valladolid, E. by Avila, 
S. by Caceres and W. by Portugal. Pop. (1900) 320,765; area, 
4829 sq. m. Salamanca belongs almost entirely to the basin of 
the Duero (Portuguese Douro, q.v.), its principal rivers being the 
Tormes, which follows the general slope of the province towards 
the north-west, and after a course of 135 m. flows into the Duero, 
which forms part of the north-west boundary; the Yeltes and 
the Agueda, also tributaries of the Duero; and the Alagon, an 
affluent of the Tagus. The northern part of the province is 
flat, and at its lowest point (on the Duero) is 488 ft. above sea- 
level. The southern border is partly defined along the crests of 
the Credos and Gata ranges, but the highest point is La Alberca 
(5692 ft.) in the Sierra de Pena Francia, which rises a little farther 
north. The rainfall is irregular; but where it is plentiful the 
soil is productive and there are good harvests of wine, oil, hemp, 
and cereals of all kinds. Forests of oak, pine, beech and 
chestnut cover a wide area in the south and south-west; and 
timber is sent in large quantities to other parts of Spain. Sheep 
and cattle also find good pasturage, and out of the forty-nine 
Spanish provinces only Badajoz, Caceres and Teruel have a 
larger number of live stock. Gold is found in the streams, and 
iron, lead, copper, zinc, coal and rock crystal in the hills, but the 
mines are only partially developed, and it is doubtful if the 
deposits would repay exploitation on a larger scale. The manu- 
factures of the province are few and mostly of a low class, in- 
tended for home consumption, such as frieze, coarse cloth, hats 
and pottery. The capital, Salamanca (pop. 1900, 25,690), and 
the town of Ciudad Rodrigo (8930) are described in separate 
articles. Bejar (9488) is the only other town of more than 5000 
inhabitants. The railways from Zamora, Medina, Plasencia and 
Penaranda converge upon the capital, whence two lines go west- 
ward into Portugal — one via Barca d'Alva to Oporto, the other 
via Villar Formoso to Guarda. Few Spanish provinces lose so 

small a number of emigrants, and the population tends gradually 
to increase. See also Leon. 

SALAMANCA (anc. Salmantica or Elmantica) , the capital of 
the Spanish province of Salamanca, on the right bank of the 
river Tormes, 2648 ft. above sea-level and 172 m. by rail N.W. 
of Madrid. Pop. (1000) 25,690. Salamanca is the centre of a 
network of railways which radiate N. to Zamora, N.E. to Medina, 
E. to Penaranda, S. to Plasencia, W.S.W. to Guarda in Portugal, 
and W. to Oporto in Portugal. The river is here crossed by a 
bridge 500 ft. long built on twenty-six arches, fifteen of which are 
of Roman origin, while the remainder date from the 16th century. 
The city is still much the same in outward appearance as when 
its tortuous streets were thronged with students. The university 
was naturally the chief source of wealth to the town, the popula- 
tion of which in the 16th century numbered 50,000, 10,000 of 
whom were students. Its decay of course reacted on the towns- 
folk, but it fortunately also arrested the process of modernization. 
The ravages of war alone have wrought serious damage, for the 
French in their defensive operations in 1811-1812 almost 
destroyed the western quarter. The ruins still remain, and give 
an air of desolation which is not borne out by the real condition 
of the inhabitants, however poverty-stricken they may appear. 
Side by side with the remains of a great past are the modern 
buildings: two theatres, a casino, bull-ring, town hall and 
electric light factory. The magnificent Plaza Mayor, built by 
Andres Garcia de Quifiones at the beginning of the 18th century, 
and capable of holding 20,000 people to witness a bull-fight, is 
one of the finest squares in Europe. It is surrounded by an 
arcade of ninety arches on Corinthian columns, one side of the 
square being occupied by the municipal buildings. The decora- 
tions of the facades are in the Renaissance style, and the plaza 
as a whole is a fine sample of Plateresque architecture. 

The University. — Salamanca is still rich in educational estab- 
lishments. It still keeps up its university, with the separate 
faculties of letters, philosophy, sciences, law and medicine; 
its university and provincial public library, with 80,000 volumes 
and 1000 MSS.; its Irish college, provincial institute, superior 
normal school, ecclesiastical seminary (founded in 1 7 78) , economic 
and other learned societies, and very many charitable founda- 
tions. The city has still its 25 parishes, 25 colleges, and as many 
more or less ruinous converits, and 10 yet flourishing religious 
houses. The university, the oldest in the Peninsula, was founded 
about 1230 by Alphonso IX. of Leon, and refounded in 1242 
by St Ferdinand of Castile. Under the patronage of the learned 
Alphonso X. its wealth and reputation greatly increased (1252- 
1282), and its schools of canon law and civil law attracted students 
even from Paris and Bologna. In the 15th and 16th centuries 
it was renowned throughout Europe. Here Columbus, to whom 
a statue was erected in 1891, lectured on his discoveries, and 
here the Copernican system was taught long before it had won 
general acceptance. But soon after 1550 a period of decline 
set in. The university statutes were remodelled in 1757, but 
financial troubles and the incessant wars which checked almost 
every reform in Spain prevented any recovery up to 1857, when a 
fresh reorganization was effected. At the beginning of the 20th 
century the number of students was about 1200, and the number 
of professors 19 — fewer than in any other Spanish university. 

Principal Buildings. — The chief objects of interest in the city are 
the old and new cathedrals. The old cathedral is a cruciform 
building of the 12th century, begun by Bishop Jeronimo, the con- 
fessor of the Cid (q.v.). Its style of architecture is that Late Roman- 
esque which prevailed in the south of France, but the builder showed 
much originality in the construction of the dome, which covers the 
crossing of the nave and transepts. The inner dome is made to spring, 
not from immediately above the arches, but from a higher stage of a 
double arcade pierced with windows. The thrust of the vaulting is 
borne by four massive pinnacles, and over the inner dome is an outer 
pointed one covered with tiles. The whole forms a most effective 
and graceful group. On the vault of the apse is a fresco of Our Lord 
in Judgment by the Italian painter Nicolas Florentino (15th 
century). The reredos, which has the peculiarity of fitting the curve 
of the apse, contains fifty-five panels with paintings mostly by the 
same artist. There are many fine monuments in the south transept 
and cloister chapels. An adjoining building, the Capilla de Talavera, 
is used as a chapel for service according to the Mozarabic rite, which 



is celebrated there six times a year. On the north of and adjoining 
the old church stands the new cathedral, built from designs by Juan 
Gil de Ontafion. Though begun in 1509 the work of construction 
made little progress until 1513, when it was entrusted to Ontafion 
under Bishop Francisco de Bobadilla; though not finished till 
1734, it is a notable example of the late Gothic and Plateresque 
styles. Its length is 340 ft. and its breadth 160 ft. The interior is 
fairly Gothic in character, but on the outside the Renaissance spirit 
shows itself more clearly, and is fully developed in the dome. Every- 
where the attempt at mere novelty or richness results in feebleness. 
The main arch of the great portal consists of a simple trefoil, but the 
label above takes an ogee line, and the inner arches are elliptical. 
Above the doors are bas-reliefs, foliage, &c, which in exuberance of 
design and quality of workmanship are good examples of the latest 
efforts of Spanish Gothic. The church contains paintings by J. F. de 
Navarrete (1526-1579) and L. de Morales (c, 1509-1586), and some 
overrated statues by Juan de Juni (16th cent jry). The treasury is 
very rich, .nd amongst other articles possesses a custodia which is a 
masterpiece of goldsmith's work, and a bronze crucifix of undoubted 
jiuthenticity, which was borne before the Cid in battle. The great 
bell weighs over 23 tons. Of the university buildings the facade of 
the library is a peculiarly rich example of late 15th-century Gothic. 
The cloisters are light and elegant; the grand staircase ascending 
from them has a fine balustrade of foliage andfigures. The Colegio 
de Nobles Irlandeses, formerly Colegio de Santiago Apostol, was built 
in 1521 from designs by Pedro de Ibarra. The double arcaded cloister 
is a fine piece of work of the best period of the Renaissance. The 
Jesuit College is an immense and ugly Renaissance building begun in 
1614 by Juan Gomez de Mora.. The Colegio Viejo, also called San 
Bartolome, was rebuilt in the 18th century, and now serves as the 
governor's palace. The convent of Santo Domingo, sometimes called 
San Esteban, shows a mixture of styles from the 13th century 
onwards. The church is Gothic with a Plateresque facade of great 
lightness and delicacy. It is of purer design than that of the cathe- 
dral ; nevertheless it shows the tendency of the period. The reredos, 
one of the finest Renaissance works in Spain, contains statues by 
Salvador Carmona, and a curious bronze statuette of the Virgin and 
Child on a throne of champleve enamel of the 12th century. The 
chapter-house, built by Juan Moreno in 1637, and the staircase and 
sacristy are good examples of later work. The convent of the 
Augustinas Recoletas, begun by Fontana in 1616, is in better taste 
than any other Renaissance building in the city. The church is rich 
in marble fittings and contains several fine pictures of the Neapolitan 
school, especially the Conception by J. Ribera (1588-1656) over the 
altar. The convent of the Espirita Santo has a good door by A. 
Berruguete (c. 1480-1561). There is also a rather effective portal to 
the convent of Las Duefias. The church of S. Marcos is a curious 
circular building with three eastern apses; and the churches of S. 
Martin and S. Matteo have good early doorways. Many of the 
private houses are untouched examples of the domestic architecture of 
the prosperous times in which they were built. Such are the Casa de 
las Conchas, the finest example of its period in Spain; the Casa de 
la Sal, with a magnificent courtyard and sculptured gallery; and 
the palaces of Maldonado, Monterey and Espinosa. 

In the middle ages the trade of Salamanca was not insignificant, 
and the stamped leather-work produced there is still sought after. 
Its manufactures are now of little consequence, and consist of china, 
cloth and leather. The transport trade is, however, of more import- 
ance, and shows signs of increasing, as a result of the extension of 
railway communication between 1875 and 1900. During this period 
the population increased by nearly 7000. 

History. — The town was of importance as early as 222 B.C., 
when it was captured by Hannibal from the Vettones; and it 
afterwards became under the Romans the ninth station on the 
Via Lata from Merida to Saragossa. It passed successively 
under the rule of the Goths and the Moors, till the latter were 
finally driven out about 1055. About 1100 many foreign settlers 
were induced by Alphonso VI. to establish themselves in the 
district, and the city was enlarged and adorned by Count Ray- 
mond of Burgundy and his wife, the Princess Urraca. The 
Fuero de Salamanca, a celebrated code of civil law, probably 
dates from about 1200. Thenceforward, until the second half 
of the 1 6th century, the prosperity of the university rendered 
the city one of the most important in Spain. But in 1593 the 
establishment of an independent bishopric at Valladolid (then 
the seat of the court), which had previously been subject to the 
see of Salamanca, dealt a serious blow to the prestige of the city; 
and its commerce was shattered by the expulsion of the Moriscos 
in 1610 and the wars of the 18th and 19th centuries. 

See Villar y Macias, Historia de Salamanca (3 vols., Salamanca, 
1887) ; H. Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, vol. ii. 
pt. 1. (London, 1895); Lapunya, La Universidad de Salamanca y la 
cidlura espanola en el siglo XII J. (Paris, 1900). (K. G. J.) 

Battle of Salamanca, 1812. (For the operations which preceded 
this battle see Peninsular War.) On the 22nd of July 1812 the 

Allied army under Wellington (about 46,000 with 60 guns) was drawn 
up south of Salamanca, the left resting on the river Tormes at Santa 
Marta, with a division under Pakenham and some cavalry on the 
north bank at Cabrerizos ; the right near the village of Arapiles and 
two hills of that name. Wellington's object was to cover Salamanca 
and guard his communications through Ciudad Rodrigo with 
Portugal. The French under Marshal Marmont (about 42,000 with 
70 guns) were collecting towards Wellington's right, stretching 
southwards from Calvariza de Ariba. The country generally is 
undulating, but crossed by some marked ridges and streams. 

Until the morning of the battle it had been uncertain whether 
Marmont wished to reach Salamanca by the right or left bank of the 
Tormes, or to gain the Ciudad Rodrigo road, but Wellington now 
felt that the latter was his real objective. At daylight there was a 
rush by both armies for the two commanding hills of the Arapiles; 
the Allies gained the northern (since termed the " English "), and 
the French the southern (since termed the " French ") Arapiles. 
While Marmont was closing up his forces, a complete change of 
position was carried out by Wellington. Pakenham was directed 
to march through Salamanca, crossing the Tormes, and move under 
cover to a wood near Aldea Tejada, while Wellington, holding the 
village of Arapiles and the northern hill, took up a line with four 
infantry divisions, a Portuguese brigade (Bradford), a strong force 
of cavalry, and Don Carlos's Spanish brigade, under cover of a ridge 
between Arapiles and Aldea Tejada. By noon his old right had 
become his left, and he was nearer to the Ciudad Rodrigo road, 
flanking Marmont should he move towards it. 


Battle of 

July xznd, 18x2 

English Miles 

- a 1 




French r*ff 

Aldea Lcnguk^ 

Emery Walker sc. 

Redrawn from Maj.-Gen. C. W. Robinson's Wellington's Campaigns, 
by permission of Hugh Rees, Ltd. 

It was not Wellington's wish {Despatches, July 21, 1812) to fight 
a battle " unless under very advantageous circumstances." He knew 
that large reinforcements were nearing the French, and, having 
determined to fall back towards Portugal, he began to pass his 
baggage along the Ciudad Rodrigo road. Marmont, about 2 p.m., 
seeing the dust of his baggage column, ignorant of his true position, 
and anxious to intercept his retreat, ordered two divisions under 
Maucune, the leading one of which became afterwards Thomieres', 1 
to push westward, while he himself attacked Arapiles. Maucune 
moved off, flanked by some cavalry and fifty guns, leaving a gap 
between him and the rest of the French. Wellington instantly took 
advantage of this. Directing Pakenham to attack the head of the 
leading French division, and a Portuguese brigade (Pack) to occupy 
the enemy by assaulting the south (or French) Arapiles, he prepared 
to bear down in strength upon Maucune's right flank. The French 
attack upon Arapiles was after hard fighting repulsed ; and, at about 
5 p.m., Maucune's fori a, when in confusion from the fierce attack of 
Pakenham and Wellington in front and flank and suffering severely, 
was suddenly trampled down " with a terrible clamour and dis- 
turbance " (Napier) by an irresistible charge of LeMarchant's and 
Anson's cavalry under Sir Stapleton Cotton. This counterstroke 
decided the battle, Marmont's left wing being completely broken. 
The French made a gallant but fruitless effort to retrieve the day, 
and repulsed Pack's attack upon the French Arapiles; but, as the 
light waned, Clausel, Marmont being wounded, drew off the French 
army towards Alba de Tormes and retired to Valladolid. Bot> 
armies lost heavily, the Allies about 6000, the French some 15,000 
men, 12 guns 2 eagles and several standards. The rout would have 
been even more thorough had not the castle and ford at Alba de 

1 Some authorities differ as to this (see The Salamanca Campaign, 
by Captain A. H. Marindin, 1906, appendix, pp. 51-59). 



Torrnes been evacuated by its Spanish garrison without Wellington's 

Salamanca was a brilliant victory, and followed as it was by the 
capture of Madrid, it severely shook the French domination in 
Spain. (C. W. R.) 

SALAMANCA, a village in Cattaraugus county, New York, 
U.S.A., in the township of Salamanca, about 52 m. S. by E. 
of Buffalo. Pop. (1900), 4251, of whom 789 were foreign- 
born; (1910, census), 5792. Salamanca is served by the Erie, 
the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg and the Pennsylvania 
railways, and by interurban electric lines connecting with Olean, 
N. Y., Bradford, Pennsylvania, and Little Valley (pop in 1910, 
1368), the county-seat, about 8 m. N. The village is built on 
both sides of the Allegany river. The agricultural and industrial 
development of the region has been retarded by its being within 
the Allegany Indian Reservation (allotted originally to the 
Seneca Indians by the Big Tree Treaty of 1 798 and still including 
the valley of the Allegany river for several miles above and 
below Salamanca) ; but land is now held under a 99 year lease 
authorized by Congress in 1892. The village is a railway centre 
and division terminal, and has repair shops of the Erie and the 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg railways. The first settlement 
in the district (which was included within the " Holland 
Purchase" of 1792-1793) was made in 1815 near the site of 
West Salamanca (pop. in 1910, 530), i§ m. W. of Salamanca, 
and in the same township. Salamanca (until 1873 known as 
East Salamanca) was incorporated in 1879, taking its name 
from the township, which was erected in 1854 as Buck Tooth 
Township and in 1862 was renamed in honour of a Spanish 
banker who was a large stockholder of the Atlantic & Great 
Western railway, built through the township this year, and later 
merged with the Erie railway. 

See History of Cattaraugus County, New York (Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1879). 

SALAMANDER. Salamanders in the restricted sense (genus 
Salamandra of N. Laurenti) are close allies of the newts, but of 
exclusively terrestrial habits, indicated by the shape of the tail, 
which is not distinctly compressed. The genus is restricted in 
its habitat to the western parts of the Palaearctic region and 
represented by four species only: the spotted salamander, 
5. maculosa, the well-known black and yellow creature inhabiting 
Central and Southern Europe, North-West Africa and South- 
western Asia; the black salamander, S. atra, restricted to the 
Alps; 5. caucasica from the Caucasus, and 5. luschani from 
Asia Minor. Salamanders, far from being able to withstand the 
action of fire, as was believed by the ancients, are only found 
in damp places, and emerge in misty weather only or after 
thunderstorms, when they may appear in enormous numbers 
in localities where at other times their presence would not be 
suspected. They are usually much dreaded by country people, 
and Although they are quite harmless to man, the large glands 
which are disposed very regularly on their smooth, shiny bodies, 
secrete a very active, milky poison which protects them from 
the attacks of many enemies. 

The breeding habits of the two well-known European species are 
highly interesting. They pair on land, the male clasping the female 
at the arms, and the impregnation is internal. Long after pairing 
the female gives birth to living young. 5. maculosa, which fives in 
plains or at low altitudes (up to 3000 ft.), deposits her young, ten to 
fifty in number, in the water, in springs or cool rivulets, and these 
young at birth are of small size, provided with external gills and four 
limbs, in every way similar to advanced newt larvae. S. atra, on 
the other hand, inhabits the Alps between 2000 and 9000 ft. altitude. 
Localities at such altitudes not being, as a rule, suitable for larval 
life in the water, the young are retained in the uterus, until the 
completion of the metamorphosis. Only two young, rarely three or 
four, are born, and they may measure as much as 50 mm. at birth, 
the mother measuring only 120. The uterine eggs are large and 
numerous, as in S. maculosa, but as a rule only one fully develops in 
each uterus, the embryo being nourished on the yolk of the other 
eggs, which more or less dissolve to form a large mass of nutrient 
matter. The embryo passes through three stages — (1) still en- 
closed within the egg and living on its own yolk; (2) free, within the 
vitelline mass, which is directly swallowed by the mouth; (3) there 
is no more vitelline mass, but the embryo is possessed of long ex- 
ternal gills, which serve for an exchange of nutritive fluid through 
the maternal uterus, these gills functioning in the same way as the 
chorionic villi of the mammalian egg. Embryos in the second stage, 

if artificially released from the uterus, are able to live in water, in 
the same way as similarly developed larvae of S. maculosa. But 
the uterine gills soon wither and are shed, and are replaced by other 
gills differing in no respect from those of its congener. 

Authorities. — -Marie von Chauvin, Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool. xxix. 
(1877), P- 3 2 4> P- Kammerer, Arch. f. Entwickel. xvii. (1904), 
p. 1 ; Mme. Phisalix-Picot, Recherches embryologiques, 
et physiologiques sur les glandes & venin de la salamandre terrestre 
(Paris, 1900, 8vo). 

SALAMIS, an island of Greece in the Saronic Gulf of the 
Aegean Sea, extending along the coasts of Attica and Megaris, 
and enclosing the Bay of Eleusis between two narrow straits 
on the W. and S. Its area is 36 sq. m., its greatest length in 
any direction 10 m.; its extremely irregular shape gives rise 
to the modern popular name KouXXoDpi, i.e. baker's crescent. 
In Homer Salamis was the home of the Aeginetan prince Telamon 
and his sons Ajax and Teucer, and this tradition is confirmed 
by the position of the ancient capital of the island opposite 
Aegina. It subsequently passed into the hands of the Megarians, 
but was wrested from them about 600 B.C. by the Athenians 
under Solon (q.v.) and definitely awarded to Athens by Sparta's 
arbitration. Though Attic tradition claimed Salamis as an ancient 
possession the island was not strictly Athenian territory; a 
6th-century inscription shows that it was treated either as a 
cleruchy or as a privileged foreign dependency. The town of 
Salamis was removed to an inlet of the E. coast opposite Attica. 
In 480 Salamis became the base of the allied Greek fleet after 
the retreat from Artemisium, while the Persians took their 
station along the Attic coast off Phalerum. Through the stratagem 
of the Athenian Themistocles the Greeks were enclosed in the 
straits by the enemy, who had wheeled by night across the 
entrance of the E. channel and detached a squadron to block 
the W. outlet. The Greeks had thus no resource but to fight, 
while the Persians could not utilize their superior numbers, and 
as they advanced into the narrow neck of the east strait were 
thrown into confusion. The allies, among whom the Athenians 
and Aeginetans were conspicuous, seized this opportunity to 
make a vigorous attack which probably broke the enemy's 
line. After waging a losing fight for several hours the Persians 
retreated with the loss of 200 sail and of an entire corps landed 
on the islet of Psyttaleia in the channel; the Greeks lost only 
40 ships out of more than 300. During the Peloponnesian War 
Salamis served as a repository for the country stock of Attica. 
About 350 Salamis obtained the right of issuing copper coins. 
In 318 Cassander placed in it a Macedonian garrison which was 
finally withdrawn through the advocacy of the Achaean states- 
man Aratus (232). The Athenians thereupon supplanted 
the inhabitants by a cleruchy of their own citizens. By the 
2nd century a.d. the settlement had fallen into decay. In 
modern times Salamis, which is chiefly peopled by Albanians, 
has regained importance through the transference of the 
naval arsenal to Ambelaki near the site of the ancient capital. 
Excavations in this region have revealed large numbers of 
late Mycenaean tombs. 

Authorities. — Strabo pp. 383, 393-394; Pausanias i. 35-36; 
Plutarch, Solon, 8-10; Aeschylus, Persae, 337-471; Herodotus viiL 
40-95; Diodorus xi. 15-19; Plutarch, Themistocles, 11-15; W. 
Goodwin, Papers of the American School of Classical Studies ap 
Athens, I. p. 237 ff. (Boston, 1885); G. B. Grundy, Great Persian 
War (London, 1901), ch. ix. ; B. V. Head, Historia numorum 
(Oxford, 1887), pp. 328-329; A. Wilhelm in Athenische Mitteilungen 
(1898), pp. 466-486; W. Judeich, ibid.(l8gg), pp. 321-338; C. Horner, 
Quaestiones Salaminiae (Basle, 1901); H. Raase, Die Schlacht bei 
Salamis (Rostock, 1904) ; R. W. Macan, Appendix to Herodotus 
vii.-ix. (London, 1908) ; J. Beloch in Klio (1908). (M. O. B. C.) 

SALAMIS, the principal city of ancient Cyprus, situated on 
the east coast a little north of the river Pedias (Pediaeus). It 
had a good harbour, well situated for commerce with Phoenicia, 
Egypt and Cilicia, which was replaced in medieval times by 
Famagusta (Ammochostos), and is wholly silted now. Its trade 
was mainly in corn, wine and oil from the midland plain 
(Mesaoria) , and in salt from the neighbouring lagoons. Tradition- 
ally, Salamis was founded after the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.) 
by Teucer from Salamis, the island off Attica, but there was an 
important Mycenaean colony somewhat earlier. The spoils 
of its tombs excavated in 1896 are in the British Museum. 



A king Kisu of Silna (Salamis) is mentioned in a list of tributaries 
of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C., and Assyrian influence is 
marked in the fine terra-cotta figures from a shrine at Toumba 
excavated in 1890-189 1. The revolts of Greek Cyprus against 
Persia in 500 B.C., 386-380 B.C. and 352 B.C. were led respectively 
by kings Onesilaus, Evagoras (q.v.) and Pnytagoras, who seem to 
have been the principal Hellenic power in the island. In 306 
Demetrius Poliorcetes won a great naval victory here over Ptolemy I. 
of Egypt. Under Egyptian and Roman administration Salamis 
flourished greatly, though under the Ptolemaic priest-kings and under 
Rome the seat of government was at New Paphos (see Paphos). 
But it was greatly damaged in the Jewish revolt of A.D. 116-117; it 
also suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, and was wholly rebuilt 
by Constantius II. under the name Constantia. There was a large 
Jewish colony in Ptolemaic and early Roman times, and a Christian 
community founded by Paul and Barnabas in A.D. 45-46. Barnabas 
was himself a Cypriote, and his reputed tomb, discovered in A.D. 477, 
is still shown, a little inland, near the monastery of Ai Barnaba. 
St Epiphanius was archbishop a.d. 367-402. The Greek city was 
destroyed by the Arabs under the Caliph Moawiya in 647, and does 
not seem to have revived. In later times the site was plundered for 
the building of Famagusta; it is now covered by sandhills, and its 
plan is imperfectly known. The market-place and a few public 
buildings were excavated in 1890-1891, but nothing of importance 
was found. 

See W. H. Engel, Kypros (Berlin, 1841 ; classical allusions) ; J. A. R. 
Munro and H. A. Tubbs, Journ. Hellenic Studies, xii. 59 ff., 298 ff. 
(site and monuments) ; British Museum, Excavations in Cyprus 
(London, 1900; Mycenaean tombs); G. F. Hill, Brit. Mus. Cat. 
Coins of Cyprus (London, 1904; coins). (J. L. M.) 

SAL AMMONIAC, 1 or Ammonium Chloride, NH4CI, the 
earliest known salt of ammonia (q.v.), was formerly much used 
in dyeing and metallurgic operations. 

The name Hammoniacus sal occurs in Pliny (Nat. Hist. xxxi. 39), 
who relates that it was applied to a kind of fossil salt found below the 
sand, in a district of Cyrenaica. The general opinion is, that the sal 
ammoniac of the ancients was the same as that of the moderns ; but 
the imperfect description of Pliny is far from being conclusive. 
The native sal ammoniac of Bucharia, described by Model and 
Karsten, and analysed by M. H. Klaproth, has no resemblance to the 
salt described by Pliny. The same remark applies to the sal ammoniac 
of volcanoes. Dioscorides (v. 126), in mentioning sal ammoniac, 
makes use of a phrase quite irreconcilable with the description of 
Pliny, and rather applicable to rock-salt than to our sal ammoniac. 
Sal ammoniac, he says, is peculiarly prized if it can be easily split into 
rectangular fragments. Finally, we have no proof whatever that 
sal ammoniac occurs at present, either near the temple ot Jupiter 
Ammon, or in any part of Cyrenaica. Hence we conclude that the 
term sal ammoniac was applied as indefinitely by the ancients as 
most of their other chemical terms. It may have been given to the 
same salt which is known to the moderns by that appellation, but 
was not confined to it. 

In any case there can be no doubt that it was well known to the 
alchemists as early as the 13th century. Albertus Magnus, in his 
treatise De alchy-mia, informs us that there were two kinds of sal 
ammoniac, a natural and an artificial. The natural was sometimes 
white, and sometimes red; the artificial was more useful to the 
chemist. He does not tell us how it was prepared, but he describes 
the method of subliming it, which can leave no doubt that it was real 
sal ammoniac. In the Opera mineralia of Isaac Hollandus the elder, 
there is likewise a description of the mode of subliming sal ammoniac. 
Basil Valentine, in his Currus triumphalis antimonii, describes some 
of the peculiar properties of sal ammoniac in, if possible, a still less 
equivocal manner. 

Egypt is the country where sal ammoniac was first manu- 
factured, and from which Europe for many years was supplied 
with it. This commerce was first carried on by the Venetians, 
and afterwards by the Dutch. Nothing was known about the 
method employed by the Egyptians till the year 1719. In 1716 
C. J. Geoffroy read a paper to the French Academy, showing 
that sal ammoniac must be formed by sublimation; but his 
opinion was opposed so violently by W. Homberg and N. 
Lemery, that the paper was not printed. In 1719 D. Lemaire, 
the French consul at Cairo, sent the Academy an account of 
the mode of manufacturing sal ammoniac in Egypt. The salt, 
it appeared, was obtained by simple sublimation from soot. 
In the year 1760 Linnaeus communicated to the Royal Society 
a correct detail of the whole process, which he had received from 
Dr F. Hasselquist, who had travelled in that country as a 

1 Some derive the name sal ammoniac from Jupiter Ammon, near 
whose temple it is alleged to have been found; others, from a 
district of Cyrenaica called Ammonia. Pliny's derivation is from 
the sand (S/u/ttos) in which it occurred. 

naturalist {Phil. Trans., 1760, p. 504). The dung of black cattle, 
horses, sheep, goats, &c, which contains sal ammoniac ready 
formed, is collected during the first four months of the year, 
when the animals feed on the spring grass, a kind of clover. 
It is dried, and sold to the common people as fuel. The soot 
from this fuel is carefully collected and sold to the sal ammoniac 
makers, who work only during the months of March and April, 
for it is only at that season of the year that the dung is fit for 
their purpose. 

The composition of this salt seems to have been first discovered 
by J. P. Tournefort in 1700. The experiments of C. J. Geoffroy 
in 1716 and 1723 were still more decisive, and those of H. L. 
Duhamel de Monceau, in 1735, left no doubt upon the subject. 
Dr Thomson first pointed out a process by synthesis, which has 
the advantage of being very simple, and at the same time rigidly 
accurate, resulting from his observation that when hydrochloric 
acid gas and ammonia gas are brought in contact with each 
other, they always combine in equal volumes. 

The first attempt to manufacture sal ammoniac in Europe 
was made, about the beginning of the 18th century, by Mr 
Goodwin, a chemist of London, who appears to have used the 
mother ley of common salt and putrid urine as ingredients. 
The first successful manufacture of sal ammoniac in Great 
Britain was established in Edinburgh about the year 1760. 
It was first manufactured in France about the same time by 
A. Baume. Manufactories of it were afterwards established in 
Germany, Holland and Flanders. 

It is now obtained from the ammoniacal liquor of gas works by 
distilling the liquor with milk of lime and passing the ammonia so 
obtained into hydrochloric acid. The solution of ammonium 
chloride so obtained is evaporated and the crude ammonium chloride 
purified by sublimation. The subliming apparatus consists of two 
parts: (1) a hemispherical stoneware basin placed within a close- 
fitting iron one, or an enamelled iron basin, and (2) a hemispherical 
lead or stoneware lid, or dome, cemented on the top of the basin to 
prevent leakage. The dome has a small aperture in the top which 
remains open to preclude accumulation of pressure. The carefully 
dried crystallized salt is pressed into the basin, and, after the lid, 
has been fitted on, is exposed to a long-lasting moderate heat. 
The salt volatilizes (mostly in the form of a mixed vapour of 
the two components, which reunite on cooling), and condenses in 
the dome in the form of a characteristically fibrous and tough 

The pure salt has a sharp saline taste and is readily soluble 
in water. It readily volatilizes, and if moisture be rigorously 
excluded, it does not dissociate, but in the presence of mere 
traces of water it dissociates into ammonia and hydrochloric 
acid (H. B. Baker, Journ. Chent. Soc, 1895, 65, p. 612). ' 

Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride, British and United States 
pharmacopoeiae) as used in medicine is a white crystalline odourless 
powder having a saline taste. It is soluble in I in 3 of cold water and 
in I in 50 of 90 % alcohol. It is incompatible with carbonates of the 
alkalis. The dose is 5 to 20 grs. Ammonium chloride has a different 
action and therapeutic use from the rest of the ammonium salts. 
It possesses only slight influence over the heart and respiration, but 
it has a specific effect on mucous membranes as the elimination of 
the drug takes place largely through the lungs, where it aids in 
loosening bronchial secretions. This action renders it of the utmost 
value in bronchitis and pneumonia with associated bronchitis. 
The drug may be given in a mixture with glycerine or liquorice to 
cover the disagreeable taste or it may be used in a spray by means of 
an atomizer. The inhalation of the fumes of nascent ammonium 
chloride by filling the room with the gas has been recommended in 
foetid bronchitis. Though ammonium chloride has certain irritant 
properties which may disorder the stomach, yet if its mucous mem- 
brane be depressed and atonic the drug may improve its condition, 
and it has been used with success in gastric and intestinal catarrhs 
of a subacute type and is given in doses of 10 grains half an hour 
before meals in painful dyspepsia due to hyperacidity. It is also an 
intestinal and hepatic stimulant and a feeble diuretic and dia- 
phoretic, and has been considered a specific in some forms of 

SALARIA, VIA, an ancient highroad of Italy, which ran from 
Rome by Reate and Asculum to Castrum Truentinum (Porto 
d'Ascoli) on the Adriatic coast, a distance of 151 m. Its first 
portion must be of early origin, and was the route by which the 
Sabines came ;to fetch salt from the marshes at the mouth of 
the Tiber. Of its course through the Apennines considerable 
remains exist. 



See T. Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, iii. 3-38 ; 
N. Persichetti, Viaggio archeologico sulla Via Sal-aria net Circondario 
di Cittaducale (Rome, 1893) ; and in Romische Mitteilungen (1903), 
276 seq. 

SALAR JUNG, SIR (1829-1883), Indian statesman of 
Hyderabad, born in 1829, descendant of a family which had held 
various appointments, first under the Adil Shahi kings of Bijapur, 
then under the Delhi emperors and lastly under the Nizams. 
While he was known to the British as Sir Salar Jung, his personal 
name was Mir Turab Ali, he was styled by native officials of 
Hyderabad the Mukhtaru '1-Mulk, and was referred to by the 
general public as the Nawab Sahib. He succeeded his uncle 
Suraju '1-Mulk as prime minister in 1853. The condition of the 
Hyderabad state was at that time a scandal to the rest of India. 
Salar Jung began by infusing a measure of discipline into the 
Arab mercenaries, the more valuable part of the Nizam's army, 
and employing them against the rapacious nobles and bands of 
robbers who had annihilated the trade of the country. He then 
constituted courts of justice at Hyderabad, organized the police 
force, constructed and repaired irrigation works, and established 
schools. On the outbreak of the Mutiny he supported the British, 
and although unable to hinder an attack on the residency, he 
warned the British minister that it was in comtemplation. The 
attack was repulsed; the Hyderabad contingent remained loyal, 
and their loyalty served to ensure the tranquillity of the Deccan. 
Salar Jung took advantage of the preoccupation of the British 
government with the Mutiny to push his reforms more boldly, 
and when the Calcutta authorities were again atliberty to consider 
the condition of affairs his work had been carried far towards 
completion. During the lifetime of the Nizam Afzulu'd-dowla, 
Salar Jung was considerably hampered by his master's jealous 
supervision. When Mir Mahbub Ali, however, succeeded his 
father in 1869, Salar Jung, at the instance of the British govern- 
ment, was associated in the regency with the principal noble of 
the state, the Shamsu '1-Umara or Amir Kabir, and enjoyed an 
increased authority. In 1876 he visited England with the object 
of obtaining the restoration of Berar. Although he was un- 
successful, his personal merits met with full recognition. He died 
of cholera at Hyderabad on the 8th of February 1883. He was 
created G. C.S.I, on the 28th of May 1870, and received the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. from the University of Oxford on the 
21st of June 1876. His grandson enjoyed an estate of i486 
sq. m., yielding an income of nearly £60,000. 

See Memoirs of Sir Salar Jung, by his private secretary, Syed 
Hossain Bilgrami, 1883. 

SALARY, a payment for services rendered, usually a stipulated 
sum paid monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or yearly, and for a 
permanent or lengthy term of employment. It is generally 
contrasted with " wages," a term applied to weekly or daily 
payment for manual services. As laid down by Bowen, L. J., In 
re Shine (1892)) 1 Q.B. 529, " Salary means a definite payment for 
personal services under some contract and computed by time." 
The Latin salarium meant originally salt money (Lat. sal, salt), 
i.e. the sum paid to soldiers for salt. In post-Augustan Latin 
the word was applied to any allowance, pension or stipend. 

SALAS, or San Martin de Salas, a town of southern Spain, 
in the province of Oviedo; on the road from Tineo to Grado, 
and on a small sub-tributary of the river Narcea. Pop. (1900), 
17,147. The official total of the inhabitants includes not only 
the actual residents in the town, but also the population of the 
district of Salas, a mountainous region in which coal-mining and 
agriculture are the principal industries. The products of this 
region are sent for export to Cudillero, a small harbour on the 
Bay of Biscay. 

1635), Spanish novelist and playwright, born at Madrid about 
1580, and educated at Alcala de Henares and Valladolid. His 
first work, La Patrona de Madrid restituida (1609), is a dull 
devout poem, which forms a strange prelude to La Hija de 
Celestina (161 2), a malicious transcription of picaresque scenes 
reprinted under the title of La Ingeniosa Elena. This was 
followed by a series of similar tales and plays, the best of which 
are El Cavallero puntual (1614), La Casa de placer honesto (1620), 

Don Diego de Noche (1623) and a most sparkling satirical volume 
of character-sketches, El Curioso y iabio Alexandro (1634). He 
died in poverty at Madrid on the 10th of July 1635. Some oi 
his works were translated into English and French, and Scarron's 
Hypocrites is based on La Ingeniosa Elena; he deserved the 
vogue which he enjoyed till late in the 17th century, for his 
satirical humour, versatile invention and pointed style are an 
effective combination. 

SALDANHA BAY, an inlet on the south-western coast of 
South Africa, 63 m. by sea N. by W. of Cape Town, forming a 
land-locked harbour. The northern part of the inlet is known as 
Hoetjes Bay. It has accommodation for a large fleet with deep 
water close inshore, but the arid nature of the country caused 
it to be neglected by the early navigators, and with the growth 
of Cape Town Saldanha Bay was rarely visited. Considerable 
deposits of freestone in the neighbourhood attracted attention 
during the later 19th century. • Proposals were also made to 
create a port which could be supplied by water from the Berg 
river, 20 m. distant. From Kalabas Kraal on the Cape Town- 
Clanwilliam railway, a narrow gauge line runs via Hopefield to 
Hoetjes Bay — 126 m. from Cape Town. 

Saldanha Bay is so named after Antonio de Saldanha, captain of 
a vessel in Albuquerque's fleet which visited South Africa in 1503. 
The name was first given to Table Bay, where Saldanha's ship cast 
anchor. On Table Bay being given its present name (1601) the older 
appellation was transferred to the bay now called after Saldanha. 
In 1 781 a British squadron under Commodore George Johnstone 
I 73 I ~ l 7^7) seized six Dutch East Indiamen, which, fearing an 
attack on Cape Town, had taken refuge in Saldanha Bay. This was 
the only achievement, so far as South Africa was concerned, of the 
expedition despatched to seize Cape Town during the war of 1781- 

Prussian soldier and military writer, entered the army in 1735, 
and (on account of his great stature) was transferred to the 
Guards in 1739. As one of Frederick's aides-de : camp he was 
the first to discover the approach of Neipperg's Austrians at 
Mollwitz. He commanded a guard battalion at Leuthen, again 
distinguished himself at Hochkirch and was promoted major- 
general. In 1760 at Liegnitz Frederick gave him four hours in 
which to collect, arrange and despatch the spoils of the battle, 
6000 prisoners, 100 wagons, 82 guns and 5000 muskets. His 
complete success made him a marked man even in Frederick's 
army. At Torgau, Saldern and Mollendorf (q.v.) with their 
brigades converted a lost battle into a great victory by their 
desperate assault on the Siptitz Heights. The manoeuvring 
skill, as well as the iron resolution, of the attack, has excited the 
wonder of modern critics, and after Torgau Saldern was accounted 
the " completest general of infantry alive " (Carlyle). In the 
following winter, however, being ordered by Frederick to sack 
Hubertusburg, Saldern refused on the ground of conscience. 
Nothing was left for him but to retire, but Frederick was well 
aware that he needed Saldern's experience and organizing 
ability, and after the peace the general was at once made inspector 
of the troops at Magdeburg. In 1766 he became lieutenant- 
general. The remainder of his life was spent in the study of 
military sciences in which he became a pedant of the most 
pronounced type. In one of his works he discussed at great 
length the question between 76 and 75 paces to the minute as the 
proper cadence of infantry. There can be no question that 
" Saldern-tactics " were the most extreme form of pedantry to 
which troops were ever subjected, and contributed powerfully 
to the disaster of Jena in 1806. His works included Taktik der 
Infanterie (Dresden, 1784) and Taktische Grundsatze (Dresden, 
1786), and were the basis of the British " Dundas " drill-book. 

See Kuster, Charakterzilge des Generalleutenants von Saldern 
(Berlin, 1792). 

SALE, GEORGE (c. 1697-1736), English orientalist, was the 
son of a London merchant. In 1720 he was admitted a student 
of the Inner Temple, but subsequently practised as a solicitor. 
Having studied Arabic for some time in England, he became, 
in 1726, one of the correctors of the Arabic version of the New 
Testament, begun in 1720 by the Society for Promoting Christian 
.Knowledge, and subsequently took the principal part in the 


6 1 

work. He made an extremely paraphrastic, but, for his time, 
admirable English translation of the Koran (1734 and often 
reprinted), and had a European reputation as an orientalist. 
He died on the 13th of November 1736. His collection of oriental 
manuscripts is now in the Bodleian library, Oxford. 

SALE, SIR ROBERT HENRY (1782-1845), British soldier, 
entered the 36th Foot in 1795, and went to India in 1798, as a 
lieutenant of the 12th Foot. His regiment formed part of Baird's 
brigade of Harris's army operating against Tippoo Sahib, and 
Sale was present at Mallavelly (Mallawalli) and Seringapatam, 
subsequently serving under Colonel Arthur Wellesley in the 
campaign against Dhundia. A little later the 1 2th was employed 
in the difficult and laborious attack on Paichi Raja. Promoted 
captain in 1806, Sale was engaged in 1808-1809 against the 
Raja of Travancore, and was at the two actions of Quilon, the 
storm of Travancore lines and the battle of Killianore. In 1810 
he accompanied the expedition to Mauritius, and in 1813 
obtained his majority. After some years he became major in 
the 13th, with which regiment he was for the rest of his life 
associated. In the Burmese War he led the 13th in all the actions 
up to the capture of Rangoon, in one of which he killed the 
enemy's leader in single combat. In the concluding operations of 
the war, being now lieutenant-colonel, he commanded a brigade, 
and at Malown (1826) he was severely wounded. For these 
services he received the C.B. In 1838, on the outbreak of the 
Afghan War, Brevet-Colonel Sale was assigned to the command 
of the 1 st Bengal brigade of the army assembling on the Indus. 
His column arrived at Kandahar in April 1839, and in May it 
occupied the Herat plain. The Kandahar force next set out on 
its march to Kabul, and a month later Ghazni was stormed, 
Sale in person leading the storming column and distinguishing 
himself in single combat. The place was well provisioned, and 
on its supplies the army finished its march to Kabul easily. For 
his services Sale was made K.C.B. and received the local rank 
of major-general, as well as the Shah's order of the Duranee 
Empire. He was left, as second-in-command, with the army of 
occupation, and in the interval between the two wars conducted 
several small campaigns ending with the action of Parwan 
which led directly to the surrender of Dost Mahommed. By 
this time the army had settled down to the quiet life of canton- 
ments, and Lady Sale and her daughter came to Kabul. But 
the policy of the Indian government in stopping the subsidy to 
the frontier tribes roused them into hostility, and Sale's brigade 
received orders to clear the line of communication to Peshawar. 
After severe fighting Sale entered Jalalabad on the 12th of 
November 1841. Ten days previously he had received news of 
the murder of Sir Alexander Burnes, along with orders to return 
with all speed to Kabul. These orders he, for various reasons, 
decided to ignore; suppressing his personal desire to return 
to protect his wife and family, he gave orders to push on, and on 
occupying Jalalabad at once set about making the old and half- 
ruined fortress fit to stand a siege. There followed a close and 
severe investment rather than a siege, and the garrison's sorties 
were made usually with the object of obtaining supplies. At 
last Pollock and the relieving army appeared, only to find that 
the garrison had on the 7th of April 1842 relieved itself by a 
brilliant and completely successful attack on Akbar's lines. 
Sir Robert Sale received the G.C.B.; a medal was struck for 
all ranks of defenders, and salutes fired at every large canton- 
ment in India. Pollock and Sale after a time took the offensive, 
and after the victory of Haft Kotal, Sale's division encamped 
at Kabul again. At the end of the war Sale received the thanks 
of parliament. In 1845, as quartermaster-general to Sir H. 
Gough's army, Sale again took the field. At Moodkee (Mudki) 
he was mortally wounded, and he died on the 21st of December 
1845. His wife, who shared with him the dangers and hardships 
of the Afghan war, was amongst Akbar's captives. Amongst 
the few possessions she was able to keep from Afghan plunderers 
was her diary (Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan, London, 

See Gleig, Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan (London, 1846); Kaye, 
Lives of Indian O/fcers (London, 1867); W. Sale, Defence of Jellalabad 
(London, 1846) ; Regimental History of the 13th Light Infantrv. 

SALE, a town of Tanjil county, Victoria, Australia, the 
principal centre in the agricultural Gippsland district, on the 
river Thomson, 127^ m. by rail E.S.E. of Melbourne. Pop. 
(i90i),3462. It is the seat of the Anglican bishop of Gippsland, 
and contains the cathedral of the Roman Catholic bishop of 
Sale. Attached to its mechanics' institute are schools of mines, 
art and technology, and a fine free library. The finest buildings, 
excluding a number of handsome churches, are the Victoria 
Hall and the convent of Notre Dame de Sion. The Agricultural 
Society has excellent show grounds, in which meetings are 
annually held. Sale is the head of the Gippsland lakes naviga- 
tion, the shipping being brought from the lakes to the town 
by canal. Daily communication is maintained with Cunningham 
at the lakes' entrance, and ocean-going steamers ply frequently 
between Sale and Melbourne. 

SALE, an urban district in the Altrincham parliamentary 
division of Cheshire, England, 5 m. S.W. of Manchester. Pop. 
(1901), 12,088. It is served by the Manchester, South Junction & 
Altrincham and the London & North-Western railways, and 
the Cheshire Lines, and has become a large residential suburb 
of Manchester. At the beginning of the 19th century the greater 
part of the township was still waste and unenclosed. There are 
numerous handsome villas. Market gardening is carried on in 
the neighbourhood ; and there are large botanical gardens. 

SALEM, a city and district of British India, in the Madras 
presidency. The city is on both banks of the river Tirumani- 
muttar, 3 m. from a station on the Madras railway, 206 m. S.W. 
of Madras city. Pop. (1901), 70,621. There is a considerable 
weaving industry and some manufacture of cutlery. Its situa- 
tion in a green valley between the Shevaroy and Jarugumalai 
hills is picturesque. 

The District of Salem has an area of 7530 sq. m. Except 
towards the south it is hilly, with extensive plains- lying between 
the several ranges. It consists of three distinct tracts, formerly 
known as the Talaghat, the Baramahal and the Balaghat. 
The Talaghat is situated below the Eastern Ghats on the level 
of the Carnatic generally; the Baramahal includes the whole 
face of the Ghats and a wide piece of country at their 
base; and the Balaghat is situated above the Ghats on the 
tableland of Mysore. 

The western part of the district is mountainous. Amongst the 
chief ranges (5000-6000 ft.) are the Shevaroys, the Kalrayans, the 
Melagiris, the Kollimalais, the Pachamalais and the Yelagiris. The 
chief rivers are the Cauvery with its numerous tributaries, and the 
Ponniar and Palar; the last, however, only flows through a few 
miles of the north-western corner of the district. The forests are of 
considerable value. The geological structure of the district is mostly 
gneissic, with a few irruptive rocks in the form of trap dikes and 
granite veins. Magnetic iron ore is common in the hill regions, and 
corundum and chromate of iron are also obtainable. The qualities 
of the soil differ very much ; in the country immediately surrounding 
the town of Salem a thin layer of calcareous and red loam generally 
prevails, through which quartz rocks appear on the surface in many 
places. The climate, owing to the great difference of elevation, varies 
considerably ; on the hills it is cool and bracing, and for a great part 
of the year very salubrious; the annual rainfall averages about 
32 in. 

The population in 1901 was 2,204,974, showing an increase of 
1 2 % in the decade. The principal crops are millets,, rice, other 
food grains and oil-seeds, with a little cotton, indigo and tobacco. 
Coffee is grown on the Shevaroy hills. The chief irrigation work 
is the Barur tank system. Salem suffered severely from the 
famine of 1877-1878. The Madras railway runs through the 
district, with two narrow-gauge branches. The chief industry 
is cotton-weaving, and there is some manufacture of steel from 
magnetic iron ore. There are many saltpetre refineries, but no 
large industries. The district was acquired partly by the treaty 
of peace with Tippoo Sultan in 1792 and partly by the partition 
treaty of Mysore in 1799. By the former the Talaghat and 
Baramahal were ceded, and by the latter the Balaghat or what 
is now the Hosur taluk. 

SALEM, a city and one of the county-seats (Lawrence is the 
other) of Essex county, Massachusetts, about 15 m. N.E. of 
Boston. Pop. (1900), 35,956, of whom 10,902 were foreign-born 
(including 4003 French Canadians, 3476 Irish, and 1585 English 



Canadians), 23,038 were of foreign parentage (one or the other 
parent foreign-born) and 156 were negroes; (1910), 43,697. 
Area, 8-2 sq. m. Salem is served by the Boston & Maine 
and by interurban electric railways westward to Peabody, 
Danvers and Lawrence, eastward to Beverly, and southward 
to Marblehead, Swampscott, Lynn and Boston. It occupies 
a peninsula projecting toward the north-east, a small island 
(Winter Island) connected with the neck of the peninsula (Salem 
Neck) by a causeway, and some land on the mainland. Salem 
has many historical and literary landmarks. There are three 
court-houses, one of granite (1839-1841) with great monolithic 
Corinthian pillars, another (1862), adjoining it, of brick, and a 
third (1908-1909) of granite, for the probate court. The City 
Hall was built in 1837, and enlarged in 1876. The Custom House 
(1818-1819) is described in the introduction to Hawthorne's 
Scarlet Letter, and in it Hawthorne worked as surveyor of the port 
in 1845-1849. The public library building (1888) was given 
to the city by the heirs of Captain John Bertram. 

The Essex Institute (1848) is housed in a brick building (1851) 
with freestone trimmings and in old Plummer Hall (1857); its 
museum contains some old furniture and a collection of portraits ; it 
has an excellent library and publishes quarterly (1859 sqq.) Historical 
Collections. The Peabody Academy of Science, founded by the gift in 
1867 of $140,000 from George Peabody and incorporated in 1868, is 
established in the East India Marine Hall (1824), bought for this 

Eurpose from the Salem East India Marine Society. The Marine 
ociety was organized in 1799, its membership being limited to 
" persons who have actually navigated the seas beyond the Cape of 
Good Hope or Cape Horn, as masters or supercargoes of vessels 
belonging to Salem " ; it assists the widows and children of members. 
Its museum, like the ethnological and natural history collection of the 
Essex Institute, was bought by the Peabody Academy of Science, 
whose museum now includes Essex county collections (natural 
history, mineralogy, botany, prehistoric relics, &c), type collections 
of minerals and fossils; implements, dress, &c. of primitive peoples, 
especially rich in objects from Malaysia, Japan and the South Seas; 
and portraits and relics of famous Salem merchants, with models 
and pictures of Salem merchant vessels. The Salem Athenaeum 
(1810), the successor of a Social Library (1760) and a Philosophical 
Library (1781) is housed in Plummer Hall (1908), a building in the 
southern Colonial style, named in honour of a benefactor of the 
Athenaeum, Caroline Plummer (d. 1855), who endowed the Plummer 
Professorship of Christian Morals at Harvard. Some of the old 
houses were built by ship-owners before the War of Independence, 
and more were built during the first years of the 19th century when 
Salem privateersmen made so many fortunes. Many of the finest 
old houses are of the gambrel type ; and there are many beautiful 
doorways, doorheads and other details. Nathaniel Hawthorne's 
birthplace was built before 1692; another house — now recon- 
structed and used as a social settlement — is pointed out as the 
original " house of seven gables." The Corwin or "Witch" house, 
so called from a tradition that Jonathan Corwin, one of the judges in 
the witchcraft trials, held preliminary examinations of witches here, 
is said to have been the property of Roger Williams. The Pickering 
house, built before 1660, was the homestead of Timothy Pickering 
and of other members of that family. Among the other buildings and 
institutions are Hamilton Hall (1805); the Franklin Building (1861) 
of the Salem Marine Society; a large armoury; a state normal school 
(1854); an orphan asylum (1871), under the Sisters of the Grey 
Nuns ; the Association for the Relief of Aged and Destitute Women 
(i860), occupying a fine old brick house formerly the home of 
Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1772-1851), a member of the national 
House of Representatives in 1824-1831 and Secretary of the Navy 
in 1814; the Bertram Home for Aged Men (1877) in a house built in 
1806-1807; the Plummer Farm School for Boys (incorporated 1855, 
opened 1870), another charity of Caroline Plummer, on Winter 
Island; the City Almshouse (1816) and the City Insane Asylum 
(1884) on Salem Neck; a home for girls (1876); the Fraternity 
(1869), a club-house for boys; the Marine Society Bethel and the 
Salem Seamen's Betlrel; the Seamen's Orphan and Children's 
Friend Society (1839); an Associated Charities (1901), and the 
Salem Hospital (1873). 

Among the Church organizations are: the First (Unitarian; 
originally Trinitarian Congregational), which dates from 1629 and 
was the first Congregational church organized in America ; the 
Second or East Church (Unitarian) organized in 1718; the North 
Church (Unitarian), which separated from the First in 1772; the 
Third or Tabernacle (Congregational), organized in 1735 from the 
First Church; the South (Congregational), which separated from 
the Third in 1774; several Baptist churches; a Quaker society, with 
a brick_ meeting-house (1832); St Peter's, the oldest Episcopalian 
church in Salem, with a building of English Gothic erected in 1833, 
and Grace Church (1858). 

Washington Square or the Common (8 acres) is in the centre of the 
city. The Willows is a 30-acre park on the Neck shore, and in North 

Salem is Liberty Hill, another park. On a bluff projecting into 
South river is the old " Burying Point," set apart in 1637, and the 
oldest cemetery in the city; its oldest stone is dated 1673; here are 
buried Governor Simon Bradstreet, Chief-Justice Benjamin Lynde 
(1666-1745) and Judge John Hathorne (1641-1717) of the witch- 
craft court. The Broad Street Burial Ground was laid out in 1655. 
On Salem Neck is Fort Lee and on Winter Island is Fort Pickering 
(on the site of a fort built in 1643), near which is the Winter Island 

The main trade of Salem is along the coast, principally in the 
transhipment of coal; and the historic Crowninshield's or India 
wharf is now a great coal pocket. The harbour is not deep enough 
for ocean-going vessels, and manufacturing is the most important 
industry. In 1905 the total value of the factory products Was 
$12,202,217 (13.9% more than in 1900), and the principal manu- 
factures were boots and shoes and leather. The largest single 
establishment is the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company, which has 
2800 looms and about 1500 mill-hands. Another large factory is 
that of the silversmiths, Daniel Low & Co. 

History. — Salem was settled in 1626 by Roger Conant (1593- 
1679) and a company of " planters," who in 1624 (under the 
Sheffield patent of 1623 for a settlement on the north shore of 
Massachusetts Bay) had attempted a plantation at Cape Ann, 
whither John Lyford and others had previously come from 
Plymouth through " dissatisfaction with the extreme separation 
from the English church." Conant was not a separatist, and 
the Salem settlement was a commercial venture, partly agri- 
cultural and partly to provide a wintering place for Banks 
fishermen so that they might more quickly make their spring 
catch. Cape Ann was too bleak, but Naumkeag was a " pleasant 
and fruitful neck of land," which they named Salem in June 1629, 
probably in allusion to Psalm lxxvi. 2. In 1628 a patent for 
the territory was granted by the New England Council to the 
Dorchester Company, in which the Rev. John White of Dor- 
chester, England, was conspicuous, and which in the same year 
sent out a small company under John Endecott as governor. 
Under the charter for the Colony of Massachusetts Bay (1629), 
which superseded the Dorchester Company patent, Endecott 
continued as governor until the arrival in 1630 of John 
Winthrop, who soon removed the seat of government from 
Salem first to Charlestown and then to Boston. In July or 
August 1629 the first Congregational Church (see Congrega- 
tionalism, § American) in America was organized here; its 
"teacher" in 1631 and 1633 and its pastor in 1634-1635 was 
Roger Williams, a close friend of Governor Endecott and always 
popular in Salem, who in 1635 Aed thence to Rhode Island to 
escape arrest by the officials of Massachusetts Bay. In 1686, 
fearing that they might be dispossessed by a new charter, the 
people of Salem for £20 secured a deed from the Indians to the 
land they then held. Although not strictly Puritan the character 
of Salem was not essentially different from that of the other 
Massachusetts towns. The witchcraft delusion of 1692 centred 
about Salem Village, now in the township of Danvers, but then 
a part of Salem. Ten girls, aged nine to seventeen years, two 
of them house servants, met during the winter of 1691-1692 
in the home of Samuel Parris, pastor of the Salem Village church, 
and after learning palmistry and various " magic " tricks from 
Parris's West Indian slave, Tituba, and influenced doubtless 
by current talk about witches, accused Tituba and two old 
women of bewitching them. The excitement spread rapidly, 
many more were accused, and, within four months, hundreds 
were arrested, and many were tried before commissioners of 
oyer and terminer (appointed On the 27th of May 1692, including 
Samuel Sewall, q.v., of Boston, and three inhabitants of Salem, 
one being Jonathan Corwin); nineteen were hanged, 1 and one 
was pressed to death in September for refusing to plead when 
he was accused. All these trials were conducted in accordance 
with the English law of the time; there had been an execution 
for witchcraft at Charlestown in 1648; there was a case in Boston 
in 1655; in J 68o a woman of Newbury was condemned to death 
for witchcraft but was reprieved by Governor Simon Bradstreet; 
in England and Scotland there were many executions long 
after the Salem delusion died out. The reaction came suddenly 
in Salem, and in May 1693 Governor William Phips ordered 

1 There is nothing but tradition to identify the place of execution 
with what is now called Gallows Hill, between Salem and Peabody. 



:he release from prison of all then held on the charge of 

Salem was an important port after 1670, especially in the 
India trade, and Salem privateers did great damage in the Seven 
Years' War, in the War of Independence (when 158 Salem 
privateers took 445 prizes), and in the War of 1812. On this 
foreign trade and these rich periods of privateering the prosperity 
of the place up to the middle of the 19th century was built. 

The First Provincial Assembly of Massachusetts met in Salem 
in 1774. On the 20th of February 1775 at the North Bridge 
(between the present Salem and Danvers) the first armed resist- 
ance was offered to the royal troops, when Colonel Leslie with the 
64th regiment, sent to find cannon hidden in the Salem " North 
Fields," was held in check by the townspeople. Salem was the 
birthplace of Nathaniel Hawthorne, W. H. Prescott, Nathaniel 
Bowditch, Jones Very and W. W. Story. 

Marblehead was separated from Salem township in 1040-, 
Beverly in 1668, a part of Middleton in '1728, and the district 
of Danvers in 1752. Salem was chartered as a city in 1836. 

See Charles S. Osgood and Henry M . Batchelder, Historical Sketch of 
Salem, 1626-187Q (Salem, 1879); Joseph B. Felt, Annals of Salem 
(ibid., 1827; 2nd ed., 2 vols., 1845-1849); Charles W. Upham, 
Salem Witchcraft (2 vols., Boston, 1867); H. B. Adams, Village 
Communities of Cape Ann and Salem (Baltimore, 1883); Eleanor 
Putnam (the pen-name of Mrs Arlo Bates), OldSalem (Boston, 1886); 
C. H. Webber and W. S. Nevins, Old Naumkeag (Salem, 1877) ; R. D. 
Paine, Ships and Sailors of Old Salem (New York, 1909) , and Visitor's 
Guide to Salem (Salem, 1902) published by the Essex Institute. 

SALEM, a city and the county-seat of Salem county, New 
Jersey, U.S.A., in the S.W. part of the state, on Salem Creek, 
about 38 m. S.W. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1900), 581 1, of whom 
263 were foreign-born and 809 were negroes; (1910 U.S. census), 
6614. It is served by the West Jersey & Seashore railroad, 
and has steamer connexion with Philadelphia. Among its 
institutions is the John Tyler Library, established as Salem 
Library in 1804 and said to be the third oldest public library 
in the state. In Finn's Point National Cemetery, about 4 m. 
N. of Salem, there are buried some 2460 Confederate soldiers, 
who died during the Civil War while prisoners of war at Fort 
Delaware, on an island in Delaware river nearly opposite the 
mouth of Salem Creek. Salem lies in a rich agricultural region. 
Among the city's manufactures are canned fruits and vegetables, 
condiments, glass-ware, brass and iron-work, hosiery, linoleum 
and oil-cloth. Near the present site in 1643 colonists from 
Sweden built Fort Elfsborg; but the Swedish settlers in 1655 
submitted to the Dutch at New Amsterdam, and the latter in 
turn surrendered to the English in 1664. In 1675 John Fenwicke, 
an English Quaker, entered the Delaware river and founded 
the first permanent English settlement on the Delaware (which 
he called Salem). After purchasing lands from the Indians, 
Fenwicke attempted to maintain an independent government, 
but in 1682 he submitted to the authority of the proprietors 
of West Jersey. During the War of Independence Salem was 
plundered on the 17th of March 1778 by British troops under 
Colonel Charles Mawhood, and on the following day a portion 
of these troops fought a sharp but indecisive engagement at 
Quinton's Bridge, 3 m. S. of the town, with American militia 
under Colonel Benjamin Holmes. Salem was incorporated as a 
town in 1695, and was chartered as a city in 1858. 

SALEM, a city of Columbiana county, Ohio, U.S.A., 67 m. 
N.W. of Pittsburg and about the same distance S.E. of Cleveland. 
Pop. (1900), 7582, including 667 foreign-born and 227 negroes; 
( 1 9 1 o) 8943 . Salem is served by the Pennsylvania (the Pittsburg, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago division) and the Youngstown & Ohio 
River railways, and by an interurban electric line to Canton. 
The city has a Carnegie library (1896), two beautiful cemeteries, 
a park, and a Home for Aged Women. It is situated in a fine 
agricultural region; coal is mined in the vicinity; natural gas 
is obtained in abundance; and the city has various manu- 
factures. It was settled by Friends in 1806, incorporated as a 
town in 1830 and as a village in 1852, and chartered as a city in 
1887. For several years preceding the Civil War it was a station 
on the " underground railway " and the headquarters of " the 

Western Anti-Slavery Society," which published here the Anti- 
Slavery Bugle. 

SALEM, the capital of Oregon, U.S.A., and the county-seat of 
Marion county, on the east bank of the Willamette river, 52 m. 
S.S.W. of Portland. Pop. (1900), '4258, including 522 foreign- 
born; (1910) 14,094. It is served by the Southern Pacific railway, 
by the Oregon Electric line (to Portland), and by a steamship line 
to Portland. The city is in the centre of the Willamette Valley, 
a rich farming and fruit-growing country. It has wide, well- 
shaded streets, and two public parks. Among the public buildings 
and institutions are the State Capitol, the State Library, a city 
public library, the county court-house, the Federal building, 
the state penitentiary and several charitable institutions. 
Salem is the seat of Willamette University (Methodist Episcopal, 
1844), an outgrowth of the mission work of the Methodist 
Episcopal church begun in 1834 about 10 m. below the site of the 
present city; of the Academy of the Sacred Heart (Roman 
Catholic, i860) and of two business colleges. Immediately 
north of the city at Chemawa is the Salem (non-reservation) 
government school for Indians, with an excellently equipped 
hospital. Water power is derived (in part, by an 18 m. canal) 
from the Santiam, an affluent of the Willamette river. The city 
is a market for the produce of the Willamette Valley. The 
settlement here, gathering about the Methodist mission and 
school, began to grow in the decade 1840-1850. Salem was 
chartered as a city in 1853, and in i860 was made the capital of 
the state. It grew rapidly after 1900, and its territory was 
increased in 1903. 

SALEM, a town and the county-seat (since 1838) of Roanoke 
county, Virginia, U.S.A., on the Roanoke river, about 60 m. 
W. by S. of Lynchburg. Pop. (1900), 3412, including 798 
negroes; (1910) 3849. It is served by the Norfolk & Western and 
the Virginian railways, and has electric railway connexion with 
Roanoke, about 6 m. E. The town is a summer resort about 
1000 ft. above the sea, surrounded by the Alleghany and Blue 
Ridge mountains. There are chalybeate and sulphur springs in 
the vicinity. Salem is the seat of a Lutheran Orphan Home 
(1888), of the Baptist Orphanage of Virginia (1892) and of 
Roanoke College (co-educational; Lutheran; chartered, 1853). 
The town is in a dairying, agricultural and fruit-growing region. 
The Roanoke river provides water-power. The water supply is 
obtained from a spring within the town limits, from which there 
flows about 576,000 gallons a day, and from an artesian well. 
This part of Roanoke county was granted in 1767 to General 
Andrew Lewis, to whom there is a monument in East Hill 
Cemetery, where he is buried. Salem, laid out in 1802, was 
incorporated as a town in 1813. 

SALE OF GOODS. Sale (O.Eng. sola, sellan, syllan, to hand 
over, deliver) is commonly defined as the transfer of property 
from one person to another for a price. This definition requires 
some consideration in order to appreciate its full scope., The law 
of sale is usually treated as a branch of the law of contract, 
because sale is effected by contract. Thus Pothier entitles his 
classical treatise on the subject, Traite du contrat de vente, and 
the Indian Contract Act (ix. of 1872) devotes a chapter to the 
sale of goods. But a completed contract of sale is something 
more. It is a contract plus a transfer of property. An agreement 
to sell or buy a thing, or, as lawyers call it, an executory contract 
of sale, is a contract pure and simple. A purely personal bond 
arises thereby between seller and buyer. But a complete or 
executed contract of sale effects a transfer of ownership with all 
the advantages and risks incident thereto. By an agreement 
to sell a. jus in personam is created; by a sale a, jus in rem is trans- 
ferred. The essence of sale is the transfer of property for a price. 
If there be no agreement for a price, express or implied, the 
transaction is gift, not sale, and is regulated by its own peculiar 
rules and considerations. So, too, if commodity be exchanged for 
commodity, the transaction is called barter and not sale, and the 
rules relating to sales do not apply in their entirety. Again, a 
contract of sale must comtemplate an absolute transier of the 
property in the thing sold or agreed to be sold. A mortgage may 
be in the form of a conditional sale, but English law regards the 

6 4 


The Code 
of 1893. 

substance and not the form of the transaction. If in substance 
the object of the transaction is to secure the repayment of a debt, 
and not to transfer the absolute property in the thing sold, the 
law at once annexes to the transaction the complex consequences 
which attach to a mortgage. So, too, it is not always easy to 
distinguish a contract for the sale of an article from a contract 
for the supply of work and materials. If a man orders a set of 
false teeth from a dentist the contract is one of sale, but if he 
employs a dentist to stop one of his teeth with gold the contract 
is for the supply of work and materials. The distinction is of 
practical importance, because very different rules of law apply 
to the two classes of contract. The property which may be the 
subject of sale may be either movable or immovable, tangible or 
intangible. The present article relates only to the sale of goods 
— that is to say, tangible movable property. By the laws of all 
nations the alienation of land or real property is, on grounds of 
public policy, subject to special regulations. It is obvious that 
the assignment of " things in action," such as debts, contracts 
and negotiable instruments, must be governed by very different 
principles from those which regulate the transfer of goods, when 
the object sold can be transferred into the physical possession of 
the transferee. 

In 1847, when Mr Justice Story wrote his work on the sale of 
personal property, the law of sale was still in process of development. 
Many rules were still unsettled, especially the rules re- 
lating to implied conditions and warranties. But for 
several years the main principles have been well settled. 
In 1891 the subject seemed ripe for codification, and Lord Herschell 
introduced a codifying bill which two years later passed into law as 
the Sale of Goods Act, 1893 (56 & 57 Vict. c. 71). Sale is a consen- 
sual contract. The parties to the contract may supplement it with 
any stipulations or conditions they may see fit to agree to. The code 
in no wise seeks to fetter this discretion. It lays down a few positive 
rules — such, for instance, as that which reproduces the 17th section 
of the Statute of Frauds. But the main object of the act is to provide 
clear rules for those cases where the parties have either formed no 
intention or have failed to express it. When parties enter into a 
contract they contemplate its smooth performance, and they seldom 
provide for contingencies which may interrupt that performance — 
such as the insolvency of the buyer or the destruction of the thing 
sold before it is delivered. It is the province of the code to provide 
for these contingencies, leaving the parties free to modify by express 
stipulation the provisions imported by law. When the code was in 
contemplation the case of Scotland gave rise to difficulty. Scottish 
law varies widely from English. To speak broadly, the Scottish 
law of sale differs from the English by adhering to the rules of Roman 
law, while the English common law has worked out rules of its own. 
Where two countries are so closely connected in business as Scotland 
and England, it is obviously inconvenient that their laws relating to 
commercial matters should differ. The Mercantile Law Commission 
of 1855 reported on this question, and recommended that on certain 
points the Scottish rule should be adopted in England, while on 
other points the English rule should be adopted in Scotland. The 
recommendations of the Commission were partially and rather 
capriciously adopted in the English and Scottish Mercantile Law 
Amendment Acts of 1 856. Certain rules were enacted for England 
which resembled but did not really reproduce the Scottish law, while 
other rules were enacted for Scotland which resembled but did not 
really reproduce the English law. There the matter rested for many 
years. The Codifying Bill of 1891 applied only "to England, but on 
the advice of Lord Watson it was extended to Scotland. As the 
English and Irish laws of sale were the same, the case of Ireland gave 
rise to no difficulty, and the act now applies to the whole of the 
United Kingdom. As regards England and Ireland very little 
change in the law has been effected. As regards Scotland the 
process of assimilation has been carried further, but has not been 
completed. In a few cases the Scottish rule has been saved or re- 
enacted, in a few other cases it has been modified, while on other 
points, where the laws were dissimilar, the English rules have been 

Now that the law has been codified, an analysis of the law resolves 
itself into an epitome of the main provisions of the statute. The act 
is divided into six parts, the first dealing with the formation of the 
contract, the second with the effects of the contract, the third with 
the performance of the contract, the fourth with the rights of an 
unpaid seller against the goods, and the fifth with remedies for breach 
of contract, the sixth part is supplemental. The 1st section, which 
ftiay be regarded as the keystone of the act, is in the following 
terms: "A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the 
seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the 
buyer lot a money consideration called the price. A contract of 
sale may be absolute or conditional. When under a contract of sale 
the property in the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer 
the contract is called a ' sale,' but when the transfer of the property 
in the goods is to take place at a future time or subject to some 

condition thereafter to be fulfilled the contract is called an ' agree- 
ment to sell.' An agreement to sell becomes a sale when the time 
elapses or the conditions are fulfilled subject to which the property 
in the goods is to be transferred." This section clearly enunciates 
the consensual nature of the contract, and this is confirmed by 
section 55, which provides that " where any right, duty or liability 
would arise under a contract of sale by implication of law," it may 
be negatived or varied by express agreement, or by the course of 
dealing between the parties, or by usage, if the usage be such as to 
bind both parties to the contract. The next question is who can sell 
and buy. The act is framed on the plan that if the law of contract 
were codified, this act would form a chapter in the code. The question 
of capacity is therefore referred to the general law, but a special 
provision is inserted (section 2) relating to the supply of necessaries 
to infants and other persons who are incompetent to contract. 
Though an infant cannot contract he must live, and he can only get 
goods by paying for them. The law, therefore, provides that he is 
liable to pay a reasonable price for necessaries supplied to him, and 
it defines necessaries as " goods suitable to the condition in life of 
such minor or other person, and to his actual requirements at the 
time of the sale and delivery." 

The 4th section of the act reproduces the famous 17th section of 
the Statute of Frauds, which was an act " for the prevention of 
frauds and perjuries." The object of that statute Was to prevent 
people from setting up bogus contracts of sale by requiring material 
evidence of the contract. The section provides that " a contract 
tor the sale of any goods of the value of ten pounds or upwards shall 
not be enforceable by action unless the buyer shall accept part of the 
goods so sold, and actually receive the same, or give something in 
earnest to bind the contract, or in part payment, or unless some note 
or memorandum in writing of the contract be made and signed by 
the party to be charged, or his agent in that behalf." It is a much 
disputed question whether this enactment has done more good or 
harm. It has defeated many an honest claim, though it may have 
prevented many a dishonest one from being put forward. When 
judges and juries have been satisfied of the bona fides of a contract 
which does not appear to satisfy the statute, they have done their 
best to get round it. Every expression in the section has been the 
subject of numerous judicial decisions, which ran into almost 
impossible refinements, and illustrate the maxim that hard cases 
make bad law. It is to be noted that Scotland is excluded from the 
operation of section 4. The Statute of Frauds has never been 
applied to Scotland; and Scotsmen appear never to have felt the 
want of it. 

As regards the subject-matter of the contract, the act provides 
that it may consist either of existing goods or " future goods " — that 
is to say, goods to be manufactured or acquired by the seller after 
the making of the contract (§ §). Suppose that a man goes into a 
gunsmith's shop and says, " This gun suits me, and if you will make 
or get me another like it I will buy the pair." This is a good contract, 
and no question as to its validity would be likely to occur to the lay 
mind. But lawyers have seriously raised the question, whether there 
could be a valid contract of sale when the subject-matter of the 
contract was not in existence at the time when the contract was 
made. The price is an essential element in a contract of sale. It 
may be either fixed by the contract itself, or left to be determined in 
some manner thereby agreed upon, e.g. by the award of a third party. 
But there are many cases in which the parties intend to effect a sale, 
and yet say nothing about the price. Suppose that a man goes into 
a hotel and orders dinner without asking the price. How is it to be 
fixed ? The law steps in and says that, in the absence of any agree- 
ment, a reasonable price must be paid (§ 8). This prevents ex- 
tortion on the part of the seller, and unreasonableness or fraud on 
the part of the buyer. 

The next question dealt with is the difficult one of conditions and 
warranties (§§ 10 and 11). The parties may insert what stipulations 
they like in a contract of sale, but the law has to interpret 
them. The term" warranty "has a peculiar and technical Warr anty. 
meaning in the law of sale. It denotes a stipulation which the law 
regards as collateral to the main purpose of the contract. A breach, 
therefore, does not entitle the buyer to reject the goods, but only to 
claim damages. Suppose that a man buys a particular horse, which 
is warranted quiet to ride and drive. If the horse turns out to be 
vicious, the buyer's only remedy is to claim damages, unless he has 
expressly reserved a right to return it. But if, instead of buying a 
particular horse, a man applies to a dealer to supply him with a 
quiet horse, and the dealer supplies him with a vicious one, the 
stipulation is a condition. The buyer can either return the horse, or 
keep it and claim damages. Of course the right of rejection must be 
exercised within a reasonable time. In Scotland no distinction has 
been drawn between conditions and warranties, an3 the act preserves 
the Scottish rule by providing that, in Scotland, " failure by the 
seller to perform any material part of a contract of sale " entitles the 
buyer either to reject the goods within a reasonable time after 
delivery, or to retain them and claim compensation (§11 (2)). In 
England it is a very common trick for the buyer to keep the goods, 
and then set up in reduction of the price that they are of inferior 
quality to what was ordered. To discourage this practice in Scotland 
the act provides that, in that country, the court may require the buyer 
who alleges a breach of contract to bring the agreed price into court 



pending the decision of the case (§ 59). It seems a pity that this 
sensible rule was not extended to England. 

In early English law caveat emptor was the general rule, and it was 
one well suited to primitive times. Men either bought their goods in 
the open market-place, or from their neighbours, and buyer and seller 
contracted on a footing ol equality. Now the complexity of modern 
commerce, the division of labour and the increase of technical skill, 
have altogether altered the state of affairs. The buyer is more and 
more driven to rely on the honesty, skill and judgment of the seller 
or manufacturer. Modern law has recognized this, and protects the 
buyer by implying various conditions and warranties in contracts of 
sale, which may be summarized as follows: First, there is an 
implied undertaking on the part of the seller that he has a right to 
sell the goods (§ 12). Secondly, if goods be ordered by description, 
they must correspond with that description (§ 13). This, of course, is 
a universal rule — ■ Si aes pro auro veneat, non valet. Thirdly, there is 
the case of manufacturers or sellers who deal in particular classes of 
goods. They naturally have better means of judging of their 
merchandise than the outside public, and the buyer is entitled within 
limits to rely on their skill or judgment. A tea merchant or grocer 
knows more about tea than his customers can, and so does a gun- 
smith about guns. In such cases, if the buyer makes known to the 
seller the particular purpose for which the goods are required, there 
is an implied condition that the goods are reasonably fit for it, and if 
no particular purpose be indicated there is an implied condition that 
the goods supplied are of merchantable quality (§ 14). Fourthly, in 
the case of a sale by sample, there is " an implied condition that the 
bulk shall correspond with the sample in quality," and that the 
buyer shall have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the bulk with 
the sample (§ 15). 

The main object of sale is the transfer of ownership from seller to 
buyer, and it is often both a difficult and an important matter to 
determine the precise moment at which the change of 
Effects of owners hip is effected. According to Roman law, which is 
Contract. gt jjj ^ f oun <j a ti on f most European systems, the property 
in a thing sold did not pass until delivery to the buyer. Troditionibus 
et usucapionibus dominia rerum, non nudis pactis, transferuntur . 
English law has abandoned this test, and has adopted the principle 
that the property passes at such time as the parties intend it to pass. 
Express stipulations as to the time when the property is to pass are 
very rare. The intention of the parties has to be gathered from their 
conduct. A long train of judicial decisions has worked out a more or 
less artificial series of rules for determining the presumed intention 
of the parties, and these rules are embodied in sections 16 to 20 of the 
act. The first rule is a negative one. In the case of unascertained 
goods, i.e. goods defined by description only, and not specifically 
identified , " no property in the goods is transferred to the buyer unless 
and until the goods are ascertained." If a man orders ten tons of 
scrap iron from a dealer, it is obvious that the dealer can fulfil his 
contract by delivering any ten tons of scrap that he may select, 
and that until the ten tons have been set apart, no question of 
change of ownership can arise. But when a specific article is bought, 
or when goods ordered by description are appropriated to the 
contract, the passing of the property is a question of intention. De- 
livery to the buyer is strong evidence of intention to change the 
ownership, but it is not conclusive. Goods may be delivered to the 
buyer on approval, or for sale or return. Delivery to a carrier for 
the buyer operates in the main as a delivery to the buyer, but the 
seller may deliver to the carrier, and yet reserve to himself a right of 
disposal. On the other hand, when there is a sale of a specific 
article, which is in a fit state for delivery, the property in the article 
prima facie passes at once, even though delivery be delayed. When 
the contract is for the sale of unascertained goods, which are ordered 
by description, the property in the goods passes to the buyer, when, 
with the express or implied consent of the parties, goods of the 
required description are " unconditionally appropriated to the 
contract." The cases which determine what amounts to an appro- 
priation of. goods to the contract are numerous and complicated. 
Probably they could all be explained as cases of constructive delivery, 
but at the time when the law of appropriation was worked out the 
doctrine of constructive delivery was not known. It is perhaps to 
be regretted that the codifying act did not adopt the test of delivery, 
but it was thought better to adhere to the familiar phraseology of the 
cases. Section 20 deals with the transfer of risk from seller to buyer, 
and lays down the prima facie rule that " the goods remain at the 
seller's risk until the property therein is transferred to the buyer, 
but when the property therein is transferred to the buyer, the goods 
are at the buyer's risk whether delivery has been made or not." 
Res peril domino is therefore the maxim of English, as well as of 
Roman law. 

In the vast majority of cases people only sell what they have a 
right to sell, but the law has to make provision for cases where a man 
sells goods which he is not entitled to sell. An agent may 
* misconceive or exceed his authority. Stolen goods may 

be passed from buyer to buyer. Then comes the question, Which of 
two innocent parties is to suffer? Is the original owner to be 
permanently deprived of his property, or is the loss to fall on the 
innocent purchaser? Roman law threw the loss on the buyer, Nemo 
plus juris in alium transferre potest quam ipse kabet. French law, 
in deference to modern commerce, protects the innocent purchaser 

XXIV. 3. 

and throws the loss on the original owner. " En fait de meubles, 
possession vaut titre " (Code civil, art. 1599). English law is a 
compromise between these opposing theories. It adopts the Roman 
rule as its guiding principle, but qualifies it with certain more or 
less arbitrary exceptions, which cover perhaps the majority of the 
actual cases which occur (§§ 21 to 26). In the first place, the pro- 
visions of the Factors Act, 1889 (52 and 53 Vict. c. 45, extended to 
Scotland by 53 and 54 Vict. c. 40), are preserved. That act validates 
sales and other dispositions of goods by mercantile agent acting 
within the apparent scope of their authority, and also protects 
innocent purchasers who obtain goods from sellers left in possession, 
or from intending buyers who have got possession of the goods while 
negotiations are pending. In most cases a contract induced by fraud 
is voidable only, and not void, and the act provides, accordingly, 
that a voidable contract of sale shall be avoided to the prejudice 
of an innocent purchaser. The ancient privilege of market overt 1 
is preserved intact, section 22 providing that " where goods are sold 
in market overt, according to the usage of th» market, the buyer 
acquires a good title to the goods provided he buys them in good 
faith, and without notice of any defect or want of title on the part 
of the seller." The section does not apply to Scotland, nor to the 
law relating to the sale of horses which is contained in two old 
statutes, 2 & 3 Phil, and Mar. c. 7, and 31 Eliz. c. 12. The minute 
regulations of those statutes are never complied with, so their 
practical effect is to take horses out of the category of things which 
can be sold in market overt. The privilege of market overt applies 
only to markets by prescription, and does not attach to newly- 
created markets. The operation of the custom is therefore fitful and 
capricious. For example, every shop in the City of London is within 
the custom, but the custom does not extend to the greater London 
outside. If then a man buys a stolen watch in Fleet Street.^he may 
get a good title to it, but he cannot do so if he buys it a few doors off 
in the Strand. There is, however, a qualification of the rights 
acquired by purchase even in market overt. When goods have been 
stolen and the thief is prosecuted to conviction, the property in the 
goods thereupon revests in the original owner, and he is entitled to 
get them back either by a summary order of the convicting court or 
by action. This rule dates back to the statute 21 Hen. VIII. c. II. 
It was probably intended rather to encourage prosecutions in the 
interests of public justice than to protect people whose goods were 

Having dealt with the effects of sale, first, as between seller and 
buyer, and, secondly, as between the buyer and third parties, 
the act proceeds to determine what, in the absence of . 

convention, are the reciprocal rights and duties of the " erf orm- 
parties in the performance of their contract (§§ 27 to 37). aace ' 
" It is the duty of the seller to deliver the goods and of the buyer to 
accept and pay for them in accordance with the terms of the contract 
of sale " (§ 27). In ordinary cases the seller's duty to deliver the 
goods is satisfied if he puts them at the disposal of the buyer at the 
place of sale. The normal contract of sale is represented by a cash 
sale in a shop. The buyer pays the price and takes away the goods : 
" Unless otherwise agreed, delivery of the goods and payment of the 
price are concurrent conditions " (§ 27). But agreement, express or 
implied, may create infinite variations on the normal contract. It 
is to be noted that when goods are sent to the buyer which he is 
entitled to reject, and does reject, he is not bound to send them back 
to the seller. It is sufficient if he intimate to the seller his refusal to 
accept them (§ 36). 

The normal theory of sale is cash against delivery, but in the great 
majority of actual cases, especially in commercial transactions, 
this theory is departed from in practice. The interests of 
the seller are therefore protected by two rules — namely, * ignisat 
those as to lien and as to stoppage in transitu. In the /?* 
absence of any different agreement, as, for instance, where * era * 
there is a stipulation for sale on credit, the unpaid seller has a right 
to retain possession of the goods until the price is paid or tendered. 
The right may, of course, be waived, even when it is not negatived 
by the contract. It is to be noted that when the seller takes a bill of 
exchange or other negotiable instrument for the price, the instru- 
ment operates as conditional payment. On the dishonour of the 
instrument the seller's rights revive (§§ 38-43). If the buyer becomes 
insolvent the unpaid seller has a further right founded on ancient 
mercantile usage. He may have parted with both the property in 
and possession of the goods sold, but he can attach the goods as long 
as they are in the hands of a carrier or forwarding agent, and have 
not reached the actual possession of the seller or his immediate agent. 
"Subject to the provisions of this Act, when the buyer of goods 
becomes insolvent, the unpaid seller who has parted with the 
possession of the goods has the right of stopping them in transitu — ■ 
that is to say, he may resume possession of the goods as long as they 
are in course of transit, and may retain them until payment or 
tender of the price " (§ 44). The right of stoppage, however, cannot 
be exercised to the prejudice of third parties to whom the bill of 
lading or other document of title to goods has been lawfully trans- 
ferred for value (§ 47). 

The ultimate sanction of a contract is the legal remedy for its 

1 That is, " open market," where the goods on sale are exposed to 




breach. Seller and buyer have each their appropriate remedies. 
If the property in the goods has passed to the buyer, or if, under the 
contract, " the price is payable on a day certain irrespec- 
"*"* tive of delivery," the seller's remedy for breach of the con- 

j**^|f tract is an action for the price (§ 49). In other cases his 
asase er. remet j v j s an ac tj on f or damages for non-acceptance. In 
the case of ordinary goods of commerce the measure of damages is 
the difference between the contract price and the market or current 

grice at the time when the goods ought to have been accepted, 
ut this test is often applicable. For instance, the buyer may have 
ordered some article of special manufacture for which there would 
be no market. The convenient market-price rule is therefore sub- 
ordinate to the general principle that " the measure of damages is 
the estimated loss directly and naturally resulting in the ordinary 
course of events from the buyer's breach of contract " (§ 56). Similar 
considerations apply to the buyer's right of action for non-delivery of 
the goods (§ 51). Section 52 deals with a peculiar feature of English 
law. In Scotland, as a general rule, a party who complains of a 
breach of contract is entitled to claim that the contract shall be 
specifically performed. In England a court of common law could 
only award damages, and apart from certain recent statutes, a claim 
for specific performance could only be entertained by a court of 
equity in a very narrow class of cases when the remedy by damages 
wasdeemed inadequate. But now, underthe act of 1893, " in any 
action for breach of contract to deliver specific or ascertained goods 
the court may, if it thinks fit, direct that the contract shall be per- 
formed specifically without giving the defendant the option of re- 
taining the goods on payment of damages." The buyer who com- 
plains of a breach of warranty on the part of the seller has two 
remedies. He may either set up the breach of warranty in reduction 
of the price, or he may pay the price and sue for damages. The prima 
facie measure of damages is the difference between the value of the 
goods at thj time of delivery and the value they would have had if 
they had answered to the warranty (§ 53). 

The sixth part of the act is supplemental, and is mainly con- 
cerned with drafting explanations, but section 58 contains some 
rules for regulating sales by auction. It prohibits secret bidding on 
behalf of the seller to enhance the price, but is silent as to combina- 
tion by buyers to reduce the price. Such a combination, commonly 
known as a " knock out," is left to be dealt with by the ordinary 
law of conspiracy. 

The Sale of Goods Act 1893 was the third attsmpt made by 
the English parliament to codify a branch of commercial law. It 
would be out of place here to discuss the policy of mercantile 
codification, but it may be noted that there are very few reported 
cases on the construction of the act, so that its interpretation 
does not seem to have given rise to difficulty. As has been noted 
above, the act preserves some curious anomalies and distinctions 
between English and Scottish law. But the amendments re- 
quired to remove them would be few and simple, should the 
legislature ever think it worth while to undertake the task. 

United States. — -The law as to the sale of real estate agrees gener- 
ally with English law. It is considerably simplified by a system of 
registration. The covenant of warranty, unknown in England, is 
the principal covenant for title in the United States. It corresponds 
generally to the English covenant for quiet enjoyment. The right of 
judicial sale of buildings under a mechanic's lien for labour and 
materials is given by the law of many states. The sale of public 
lands is regulated by Act of Congress. In the law of sale of personal 
property American law is also based upon English law. The principal 
differences are that the law of market overt is not recognized by the 
United States, and that an unpaid vendor is the agent of the vendee 
to resell on non-payment, and is entitled to recover the difference 
between the contract price and the price of resale. Warranty of title 
is not carried as far as in England. United States decisions draw a 
distinction between goods in the possession and goods not in the 
possession of the vendor at the time of '5*ale. There is no warranty of 
title of the latter. The Statute of Frauds has been construed in some 
respects differently from the English decisions. As to unlawful sales, 
it has been held that a sale in a state where the sale is lawful is 
valid in a state where it is un-lawful by statute, even though the 
goods are in the latter state. 

The ordinary text-books on the law of sale are constantly re-edited 
and brought up to date. The following among the others may be 
consulted: Benjamin's Sale of Personal Property; Blackburn's 
Contract of Sale; Campbell's Law of Sale and Mercantile Agency; 
Brown's Sale of Goods Act (Scotland); Chalmers's Sale of Goods Act; 
Moyle's Contract of Sale in the Civil Law; E. J. Schuster s Principles 
of German Civil Law; Beddarride's Des achats el ventes commer- 
ciales; Story's Sale of Personal Property (United States). 

(M. D. Ch.) 

SALEP (Arab, sahleb, Gr. 8px«), a drug extensively used in 
oriental countries as a nervine restorative and fattener, and also 
much prescribed in paralytic affections. It probably owed its 
original popularity to the belief in the " doctrine of signatures." 

It is not used in European medicine. It consists of the tuberous 
roots of various species of Orchis and Eulophia, which are decorti- 
cated, washed, heated until horny in appearance, and then dried. 
Its most important constituent is a mucilaginous substance 
which it yields with cold water to the extent of 48 %. 

SALERNO (anc. Salernum), a seaport and archiepiscopal 
see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Salerno, on 
the west coast, 33 m. by rail S.E. of Naples. Pop. (1901), 
28,936 (town); 45,313 (commune). The ruins of its old Norman 
castle stand on an eminence 905 ft. above the sea with a back- 
ground of graceful limestone hills. The town walls were destroyed 
in the beginning of the 19th century; the seaward portion has 
given place to the Corso Garibaldi, the principal promenade. 
The chief buildings are the theatre, the prefecture, and the 
cathedral of St Matthew (whose bones were brought from 
Paestum to Salerno in 954), begun in 1076 by Robert Guiscard 
and consecrated in 1084 by Gregory VII. In front is a beautiful 
quadrangular court (112 by 102 ft.), surrounded by arcades 
formed of twenty-eight ancient pillars mostly of granite from 
Paestum, and containing twelve sarcophagi of various periods; 
the middle entrance into the church is closed by remarkable 
bronze doors of 11th-century Byzantine work. The nave and 
two aisles end in apses. Two magnificent marble ambones, 
the larger dating from 1175, a large nth-century altar frontal 
in the south aisle, having scenes from the Bible carved on thirty 
ivory tablets, with 13th-century mosaics in the apse, given by 
Giovanni da Procida, the promotor of the Sicilian Vespers, 
and the tomb of Pope Gregory VII., and that of Queen Margaret 
of Durazzo, mother of King Ladislaus, erected in 1412, deserve 
to be mentioned. In the crypt is a bronze statue of St Matthew. 
The cathedral possesses a fine Exultet roll. S. Domenico near 
it has Norman cloisters, and several of the other churches contain 
paintings by Andrea Sabbatini da Salerno, one of the best of 
Raphael's scholars. A fine port constructed by Giovanni da 
Procida in 1.260 was destroyed when Naples became the capital 
of the kingdom, and remained blocked with sand till after 
the unification of Italy, when it was cleared; but it is now 
unimportant. The chief industries are silk and cotton-spinning 
and printing. Good wine is produced in the neighbourhood. A 
branch railway runs N. up the Irno valley to Mercato S. Severino 
on the line from Naples to Avellino. 

A Roman colony (Salernum) was founded in 194 B.C. to keep the 
Picentini in check. It was captured by the Samnites in the Social 
War. It was the point at which the coast road to Paestum diverged 
from the Via Popillia, rejoining it again E. of Buxentum. In the 4th 
century the correclores of Lucania and the territory of the Bruttii 
resided here, but it did not attain its full importance till after the 
Lombard conquest. Dismantled by order of Charlemagne, it became 
in the 9th century the capital of an independent principality, the 
rival of that of Benevento, and was surrounded by strong fortifica- 
tions. The Lombard princes, who had frequently defended their 
city against the Saracens, succumbed before Robert Guiscard, who 
took the castle after an eight months' siege and made Salerno the 
capital of his new territory. The removal of the court to Palermo 
and the sack of the city by the emperor Henry VI. in 1 194 put a stop 
to its development. The medical school of the Cimtas Hippo- 
cratica (as it called itself on its seals) held a high position in medieval 
times. Salerno university, founded in I i$o, and long one 6f the great 
seats of learning in Italy, was closed in 1817. 

See A. Avena, Monumenti dell' Italia Meridionale (Naples, 1902), i. 
371 sqq. _ (T. As.) 

SALERS, a village of central France, in the department of 
Cantal, 30 m. N. of Aurillac by road. Pop. (1906), 659. Salers 
dates from the gth or 10th century and its lords were already 
powerful in the nth century. It is finely situated on a plateau 
overlooking the valley of the Maronne. It is a quaint old town 
with a church of the 13th and 15th centuries, remains of its 
ancient ramparts and many houses of the 15th and 16th centuries. 
Salers has given its name to a celebrated breed of red cattle 
raised in the district. 

SALESBURY (or Salisbury), WILLIAM (c. 1520-c. 1600), 
Welsh scholar, was a native of Denbighshire, being the son of 
Foulke Salesbury, who belonged to a family said to be descended 
from a certain Adam of Salzburg, a member of the ducal house 
of Bavaria, who came to England in the 12th century. Salesbury 
was educated at Oxford, where he accepted the Protestant 



faith, but he passed most of his life at Llanrvvst, working at 
his literary undertakings. The greatest Welsh scholar of his 
time, Salesbury was acquainted with nine languages, including 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and was learned in philology and 
botany. He died about 1600. About 1546 he edited a collection 
of Welsh proverbs (Oil synwyr pen kembero), probably the first 
book printed in Welsh, and in 1547 his Dictionary in Englyshe 
and Welshe was published (facsimile edition, 1877). In 1563 
the English parliament ordered the Welsh bishops to arrange 
for the translation of the Scriptures and the book of common 
prayer into Welsh. The New Testament was assigned to Sales- 
bury, who had previously translated parts of it. He received valu- 
able assistance from Richard Davies, bishop of St Davids, and 
also from Thomas Huet, or Hewett (d. 1591), but he himself did 
the greater part of the work. The translation was made from the 
Greek, but Latin versions were consulted, and in October 1567 
the New Testament was published for the first time in Welsh. 
This translation never became very popular, but it served as the 
basis for the new one made by Bishop William Morgan (c. 1 547- 
1 604) . Salesbury and Davies continued to work together, translat- 
ing various writings into Welsh, until about 1576 when the literary 
partnership was broken. After this event, Salesbury, although 
continuing his studies, produced nothing of importance. 

Other noteworthy members of the family (the modern spelling is 
Salusbury) are: John Salesbury (c. 1500-1573), who held many 
preferments under the Tudor sovereigns and was bishop of Sodor 
and Ma.i from 1571 to 1573; Thomas Salesbury (c. 1555-1586), an 
associate of Anthony Babington, who was executed for conspiring 
against Queen Elizabeth; Henry Salesbury (1561-c. 1637), the 
author of a Welsh grammar published in 1593; Thomas Salesbury 
(d. 1643), a poet, who probably fought for Charles I. at Edgehill; 
and another royalist, William Salesbury (c. 1580-c. 1659), governor 
of Denbigh Castle, which, in 1646, he gallantly defended in the 
interests of the king. 

SALEYER (Dutch, Saleijer), a group of islands belonging 
to the government of Celebes and its dependencies in the 
Dutch East Indies, numbering altogether 73, the principal 
being Saleyer, Tambalongang, Pulasi and Bahuluwang; between 
S°36' and 7 25' S. and 119 50' and 121 30' E. The mainisland, 
Saleyer, is over 50 m. long and very narrow; area, 248 sq. m. 
The strait separating it from Celebes is more than 100 fathoms 
deep and, running in a strong current, is dangerous for native 
ships to navigate. The strata of the island are all sedimentary 
rocks: coralline limestone, occasionally sandstone; everywhere, 
except in the north and north-west, covered by a fertile soil. 
The watershed is a chain running throughout the island from N. 
to S., reaching in Bontona Haru 5840 ft., sloping steeply to the 
east coast. 

The population, mainly a mixed race of Macassars, Buginese, the 
natives of Luvu and Buton, is estimated at 57,000 on the main island 
and 24,000 on the dependent isles. They use the Macassar language, 
are for the most part nominally Mahommedans (though many 
heathen customs survive), and support themselves by agriculture, 
fishing, seafaring, trade, the preparation of salt (on the south coast) 
and weaving. Field work is largely performed by a servile class. 
Raw and prepared cotton, tobacco, trepang, tortoise-shell, coco-nuts 
and coco-nut oil, and salt are exported. There are frequent emigra- 
tions to Celebes and other parts of the archipelago. For that reason, 
and also on account of its excellent horses and numerous buffaloes, 
Saleyer is often compared with Madura, being of the same import- 
ance to Celebes as is Madura to Java. 

SALFORD, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough 
of Lancashire, England, 189 m. N.W. by N. of London and 
31 m. E. by N. of Liverpool. Pop. (1908 estimate), 239,234. 
Salford also gives its name to the hundred of south-west Lanca- 
shire in which Manchester is situated; probably because when 
the district was divided into hundreds Manchester was in a 
ruinous condition from Danish ravages. The parliamentary 
and municipal boundaries of Salford are identical; area, 5170 
acres. The parliamentary borough has three divisions, each 
returning a member. The borough, composed of three townships 
identical with the ancient manors of Salford, Pendleton and 
Broughton, is for the most part separated from Manchester by 
the river Irwell, which is crossed by a series of bridges. The 
valley of the Irwell, now largely occupied by factories, separates 
the higher ground of Broughton from that of Pendleton, and 

is flattest at the south where it joins the Manchester boundary. 
At the other extremity of Salford it joins the borough of Eccles. 
The chief railway station is Exchange station, which is in Salford, 
but has its main approach in Manchester. The Lancashire 
& Yorkshire and the London & North- Western railways serve 
the town. 

Until 1634 Salford was entirely dependent upon Manchester in its 
ecclesiastical arrangements. In that year Sacred Trinity Church 
("Salford Chapel") was built and endowed under the will of 
Humphrey Booth the elder, who also founded charities which have 
grown greatly in value. The yearly income of more than £17,000 is 
disposed of in perfsions and in hospital grants. His grandson, 
Humphrey Booth the younger, left money for the repair of the 
church and the residue is distributed amongst the poor. The yearly 
revenue is about £1400. Salford is the seat of a Roman Catholic 
bishopric, and its cathedral, St John's, with its spire of 240 ft., is the 
most noteworthy ecclesiastical building in the borough. Salford 
has been to a large extent overshadowed by Manchester, and the two 
boroughs, in spite of their separate government, are so closely con- 
nected as to be one great urban area. Many of the institutions in 
Manchester are intended for the service also of Salford, which, 
however, has resisted all attempts at municipal amalgamation. 

The chief public buildings are the museum and art gallery at Peel 
Park, the technical school, the education offices and the Salford 
Hospital. The town hall, built in 1825, is no longer adequate for 
municipal needs. Broughton and Pendleton have each a separate 
town hall. The large and flourishing technical school was developed 
from a mechanics' institution. Peel Park, bought by public sub- 
scription in 1 846, was the first public recreation ground in the borough. 
In the grounds are Langworthy Gallery and a museum. In the park 
are statues of Queen Victoria, the Prince Consort, Sir Robert Peel, 
Joseph Brotherton and Richard Cobden. The only other monu- 
ment — a South African War memorial — is outside and almost 
opposite Peel Park. Other parks are at Seedley, Albert and Buile 
Hill ; the last contains a museum, the contents of which have been 
transferred from Peel Park. There is also Kersal Moor, 21 acres of 
Moorland, crossed by a Roman road, which has been noticed for the 
variety of its flora, and for the capture of the Oecophara Woodiella, 
of which there is no other recorded habitat. The David Lewis 
recreation ground at Pendleton may also be named. Altogether 
Salford has thirty parks anrJopen spaces having a total area of 217 
acres. The corporation have also provided two cemeteries. 

When the municipal museum was founded in 1849 a reference 
library formed part of the institution, and from this has developed a 
free library system in which there are also nine lending libraries. 

The commercial and industrial history of Salford is closely bound 
up with that of Manchester. It is the seat of extensive cotton, iron, 
chemical and allied industries. It owes its development to the 
steam-engine and the factory system, and in recent years has shared 
in the increase of trade owing to the construction of the Manchester 
Ship Canal, which has added greatly to its prosperity. This will be 
seen by an examination of the rateable value of the three townships 
now comprised in the borough. This in 1692 was £1404; in 1841, 
£244,853; in 1884, £734,220; in 1901, £967,727; in 1908-1909, 

The municipal government is in the hands of a town council con- 
sisting of 16 aldermen and 48 councillors elected in 16 wards. The 
water-supply is from Manchester. The corporation have an excellent 
tramway service. There are also municipal baths. Salford has a 
separate commission of the peace. 

There are no certain figures as to the population before 1773, when 
at the instance of Dr Thomas Percival a census was taken of 
Manchester and Salford. The latter had then 4755 inhabitants. 
Census returns show that its population in 1801 was 14,477; m 
1851, 63,850; and in 1901, 220,956. The death-rate in 1906 was 
18-5 per thousand. 

Within the present borough area there have been found neo- 
lithic implements and British urns, as well as Roman coins. 
In 1851 traces of a Roman road were still visible. Domesday 
Book mentions Salford as held by Edward the Confessor and as 
having a forest three leagues long and the same broad. At the 
Conquest it was part of the domain granted to Roger of Poitou, 
but reverted to the crown in 1102. After successively belonging 
to the earls of Chester and of Derby it passed to Edward Crouch- 
back, earl of Lancaster. It was erected into a duchy and county 
palatine in 1353, and when the house of Lancaster succeeded to : 
the throne their Lancashire possessions were kept separate. 
Salford and Pendleton are still parts of the ancient duchy of 
Lancaster, belonging to the English crown. In 1231 Ranulf 
de Blundeville, earl of Chester, granted a charter constituting 
Salford a " free borough." But the government notwithstanding 
was essentially manorial and not municipal. In the Civil Wars 
between Charles I. and the parliament, Salford was royalist, 



and the unsuccessful siege of Manchester was conducted from 
its side of the Irwell. Its later history is mainly identical with 
that of Manchester (q.v.). In 1844 it received a municipal 
charter and became a county borough in 1889. 

Bibliography. — There is no separate history of Salf ord ; see 
publications named under Manchester. The MS. records of the 
Portmote or Court Leet, 1 597-1669, were edited by J. G. Mandley for 
the Chetham Society, but others still remain in manuscript in the 
State Paper Office. (W. E. A. A.) 

revolutionist, was born at Saliceto, in Corsica, on the 26th of 
August 1757, of a family of Piacenza. After studying law in 
Tuscany, he became an avocat at the upper council of Bastia, 
and was elected deputy of the Third Estate to the French 
states-general in 1789. As deputy to the Convention, Saliceti 
voted for the death of Louis XVI. , and was sent to Corsica 
on mission to oppose the counter-revolutionary intrigues. But 
the success of his adversaries compelled him to withdraw to 
Provence, where he took part in repressing the revolts at 
Marseilles and Toulon. It was on this mission that he met and 
helped his compatriot Bonaparte. On account of his friendship 
with Robespierre, Saliceti was denounced at the revolution of 
9 Thermidor, and was saved only by the amnesty of the year IV. 
He subsequently organized the army of Italy and the two 
departments into which Corsica had been divided, was deputy 
to the Council of the Five Hundred, and accepted various offices 
under the Consulate and the Empire, being minister of police 
and of war at Naples under Joseph Bonaparte (1806-1809). 
He died at Naples on the 23rd of December 1809 — it has been 
alleged by poison. 

SALICIN, SALICINUM, C 13 H 18 7 , the bitter principle of 
willow-bark, discovered by Leroux in 1831. It exists in most 
species of Salix and Populus, and has been obtained to the extent 
of 3 or 4% from the bark of S. helix and S. pentandra, 

Salicin is prepared from a decoction of the bark by first precipitat- 
ing the tannin by milk of lime, then evaporating the filtrate to a soft 
extract, and dissolving out the salicin by alcohol. As met with in 
commerce it is usually in the form of glossy white scales or needles. 
It is neutral, odourless, unaltered by exposure to the air, and has a 
bitter taste. It is soluble in about 30 parts of water and 80 parts of 
alcohol at the ordinary temperature, and in 0-7 of boiling water or in 
2 parts of boiling alcohol, and more freely in alkaline liquids. It is 
also soluble in acetic acid without alteration, but is insoluble in 
chloroform and benzol. From phloridzin it is distinguished by its 
ammoniacal solution not becoming coloured when exposed to the air. 
Chemically, it is a glucoside derived from glucose and saligenin 
(o-oxy-benzyl alcohol), into which it is decomposed by the enzymes 
ptyaline and emulsin. Oxidation converts it into helicin (salicyl- 
aldehyde-glucose). Populin, a benzoyl salicin, is a glucoside found 
in the leaves and bark of Populus tremula. 

Salicin is used in medicine for the same purposes as salicylic acid 
and the salicylates. It is also used as a bitter tonic, i.e. a gastric 
stimulant, in doses of five grains. The ordinary dose may go up to 
forty grains or more with perfect safety, though the British Pharma- 
copoeia limits it to twenty. The remote action of the drug is that of 
salicylic acid or the numerous compounds that contain it (see 
Salicylic Acid). 

SALIC LAW, and other Feankish Laws. The Salic Law 
is one of those early medieval Frankish laws which, with other 
early Germanic laws (see Germanic Laws), are known collect- 
ively as leges barbarorum. It originated with the Salian Franks, 
often simply called Salians, the chief of that conglomeration of 
Germanic peoples known as Franks. 

The Salic Law has come down to us in numerous MSS. and in 
divers forms. The most ancient form, represented by Latin MS. 
No. 4404 in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, consists of 65 
chapters. The second form has the same 65 chapters, but contains 
interpolated provisions which show Christian influence. The third 
text consists of 99 chapters, and is divided into two groups, ac- 
cording as the MSS. contain or omit the " Malberg glosses." 1 The 

1 Some of the MSS. contain words in a barbarian tongue and often 
preceded by the word " malb." or " malberg." These are admitted 
to be Frankish words, and are known as the Malberg glosses. 
Opinions differ as to the true import of these glosses ; some scholars 
hold that the Salic Law was originally written in the Frankish 
vernacular, and that these words are remnants of the ancient text, 
while others regard them as legal formulae such as would be used 
either by a plaintiff in introducing a suit, or by the judge to denote 
the exact composition to be pronounced. It is more probable, 
however, that these words served the Franks, who were ignorant of 
Latin, as clues to the general sense of each paragraph of the law. 

fourth version, as emended by Charlemagne, consists of 70 chapters 
with the Latinity corrected and without the glosses. Though he 
added some new provisions, Charlemagne respected the ancient ones, 
even those which had long fallen into disuse. The last version, 
published by B. J. Herold at Basel in 1557 (Originum ac Germani- 
carum antiquitatum libri) from a MS. now lost, is founded on the 
second recension, but contains additions of considerably later date. 

The law is a compilation, the various chapters were composed at 
different periods, and we do not possess the original form of the 
compilation. Even the most ancient text, that in 65 chapters, 
contains passages which a comparison with the later texts shows to 
be interpolations. It is possible that chapter i., De mannire, was 
taken from a Merovingian capitulary and afterwards placed at the 
beginning of the Salic Law. This granted, internal evidence would 
go to show that the first compilation dates back to thetimeof Clovis, 
and doubtless to the last years of his reign, after his victory over the 
Visigoths (507-511). Many facts combine to preclude the assign- 
ment of an earlier date to the compilation of the law. The Germanic 
tribes had no need to use the Latin language until they had coalesced 
with the Gallo-Roman population. The scale of judicial fines is 
given in the denarius (" which makes so many solidi "), and it is 
known that the monetary system of the solidus did not appear until 
the Merovingian period. Even in its earliest form the law contains 
no trace of paganism — a significant fact when we consider how closely 
law and religion are related in their origins. As pointed out by 
H. Brunner in his Deutsche Rechtsgeschickte (i. 438), the Salic Law 
contains imitations of the Visigothic laws of Euric (466-485). 
Finally, chapter xlvii. seems to indicate that the Frankish power 
extended south of the Loire, since it speaks of men dwelling " trans 
Legerem " being summoned to the mallus (judicial assembly) and 
being allowed eighty nights for their journey. On the other hand, it is 
impossible to place the date of compilation later. The Romans are 
clearly indicated in the law as subjects, but as not yet forming part 
of the army, which consists solely of the antrustions, i.e. Frankish 
warriors of the king's bodyguard. As yet the law is not impregnated 
with the Christian spirit ; this absence of both Christian and Pagan 
elements is due to the fact that many of the Franks were still 
heathens, although their king had been converted to Christianity. 
Christian enactments were introduced gradually into the later 
versions. Finally, we find capitularies of the kings immediately 
following Clovis being gradually incorporated in the text of the law — 
e.g. the Pactum pro tenore pads of Childebert Land Clotaire I. (511- 
558), and the Edictum Chilperici (561-584), chapter iii. of which 
cites and emends the Salic Law. 

The law as originally compiled underwent modifications of varying 
importance before it took the form known to us in Latin MS. No. 
4404, to which the edict of Childebert I. and Clotaire I. is already 
appended. The classes of MSS. distinguished above give evidence of 
further changes, the law being supplemented by other capitularies 
and sundry extravagantia, prologues and epilogues, which some 
historians have wrongly assumed to be parts of the main text. 
Finally, Charlemagne, who took a keen interest in the ancient 
documents, had the law emended, the operation consisting in 
eliminating the Malberg glosses, which were no longer intelligible, 
correcting the Latinity of the ancienl text, omitting a certain number 
of interpolated chapters, and adding others which had obtained 
general sanction. 

The Salic Law is a collection of ancient customs put into 
writing by order of the prince. In the sense that they already 
existed and came ready-made to the prince's hand, it is legitimate 
to speak of these customs as a popular law, a V olksrecht; but it 
was the prince who gave them force of law, emended them, 
and rejected such of the ancient usages as appeared to him 
antiquated. The king, moreover, had the right to add provisions 
to the law; and we find capitularies of Charlemagne and Louis 
the Pious in the form of additamenta to the Salic Law. 

From this it will be seen that the Salic Law is not a political 
law; it is in no way concerned with the succession to the throne 
of France, and it is absolutely false to suppose that it was the 
Salic Law that was invoked in 1316 and 1322 to exclude the 
daughters of Louis X. and Philip V. from the succession to the 
throne. The Salic Law is pre-eminently a penal code, which 
shows the amount of the fines for various offences and crimes, 
and contains, besides, some civil law enactments, such as the 
famous chapter on succession to private property {de alode), 
which declares that daughters cannot inherit land. The text 
is filled with valuable information on the state of the family 
and property in the 6th century, and it is astonishing to find 
Montesquieu describing the Salic Law as the law of a people 
ignorant of landed property. The code also contains abundant 
information on the organization of the tribunals (tribunal 
of the hundred and tribunal of the king) and on procedure. 

Like all the barbarian laws, the law of the Salian Franks 



was a personal law; it applied only to the Salian Franks. As 
the Salians, however, were the victorious race, the law acquired 
an authority in excess of the other barbarian laws, and in the 
additions made to the Ripuarian, Lombard, and other allied 
laws, the Carolingians endeavoured to bring these laws into 
harmony with the Salic Law. Moreover, many persons, even of 
foreign race, declared themselves willing to live under the Salic 
Law. The principle of personality, however, gradually gave way 
to that of territoriality; and in every district, at least north ot 
the Loire, customs were formed in which were combined in 
varying proportions Roman law, ecclesiastical law and the 
various Germanic laws. So late as the 10th and nth centuries 
we find certain texts invoking the Salic Law, but only in a 
vague and general way; and it would be rash to conclude from 
this that the Salic Law was still in force. 

Of the numerous editions of the Salic Law only the principal ones 
can be mentioned: J. M. Pardessus, Loi salique (Paris, 1843), 8 
texts; G. Waitz, Das alte Recht der salischen Franken (1846), text of 
the first version; J. F. Behrend, Lex Salica (1873; 2nd ed., Weimar, 
1897) ; J. H. Hessels, Lex Salica: the Ten Texts with the Glosses, and 
the Lex Emendala, with notes on the Frankish words in the Lex 
Salica by H. Kern (1880), the various texts shown in synoptic tables ; 
A. Holder, Lex Salica (1879 seq.), reproductions of all the MSS. with 
all the abbreviations; H. Geffcken, Lex Salica (Leipzig, 1898), the 
text in 65 chapters, with commentary paragraph by paragraph, and 
appendix of additamenta; and the edition undertaken by Mario 
Krammer for the Mon. Germ. hist. For further information see the 
dissertations prefixed to the editions of Pardessus, Waitz and Hessels ; 
Jungbohn Clement, Forschungen iiber das Recht der salischen Franken 
(Berlin, 1876); R. Sohm, Der Prozess der Lex Salica (Weimar, 
1867; French trans, by M. Thevenin) and Die frankische Reichs- 
und Gerichtsverfassung (Weimar, 1876); J. J. Thonissen, L'Organisa- 
iion judiciaire, le droit pSnal et la procedure de la hi salique (2nd ed., 
Brussels and Paris, 1882); P. E. Fahlbeck, La Royaute et la droit 
royal francs (Lund, 1883); Mario Krammer, " Kritische Untersu- 
chungen zur Lex Salica" in the Neues Archiv, xxx. 263 seq.; H. 
Brunner, Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1906), i. 427 seq. 
The Lex Ripuaria was the law of the Ripuarian Franks, who 
dwelt between the Meuse and the Rhine, and whose centre 
was Cologne. We have no ancient MSS. of the law of the 
Ripuarians; the 35 MSS. we possess, as well as those now lost 
which served as the basis of the old editions, do not go back 
beyond the time of Charlemagne (end of 8th century and 9th 
century). In all these MSS. the text is identical, but it is a 
revised text — in other words, we have only a lex emendata. 

On analysis, the law of the Ripuarians, which contains 89 
chapters, falls into three heterogeneous divisions. Chapters i.- 
xxxi. consist of a scale of compositions; but, although the fines 
are calculated, not on the unit of 15 solidi, as in the Salic Law, 
but on that of 18 solidi, it is clear that this part is already 
influenced by the Salic Law. Chapters xxxii.-lxiv. are taken 
directly from the Salic Law; the provisions follow the same 
arrangement; the unit of the compositions is 15 solidi; but 
capitularies are interpolated relating to the affranchisement 
and sale of immovable property. Chapters lxv.-lxxxix. consist 
of provisions of various kinds, some taken from lost capitularies 
and from the Salic Law, and others of unknown origin. The 
compilation apparently goes back to the reign of Dagobert I. 
(629-639), to a time when the power of the mayors of the palace 
was still feeble, since we read of a mayor being threatened with 
the death penalty for taking bribes in the course of his judicial 
duties. It is probable, however, that the first two parts are 
older than the third. Already in the Ripuarian Law the diverg- 
ences from the old Germanic law are greater than in the Salic 
Law. In the Ripuarian Law a certain importance attaches 
to written deeds; the clergy are protected by a higher wergild — 
600 solidi for a priest, and 900 for a bishop; on the other hand, 
more space is given to the cojuratores (sworn witnesses); and 
we note the appearance of the judicial duel, which is not men- 
tioned in the Salic Law. 

There is an edition of the text of the Ripuarian Law in Mon. Ger. 
hist. Leges (1883), v. 185 seq. by R. Sohm, who also brought out a 
separaie edition in 1885 for the use of schools. For further informa- 
tion see the prefaces to Sohm's editions; Ernst Mayer, Zur 
Entstehung der Lex Ribuariorum (Munich, 1886); Julius Ficker, 
" Die Heimat der Lex Ribuaria " in the Mitteilungen fur osterrei- 
chische Geschichtsforschung (supplt., vol. v.); H. Brunner Deutsche 
Rechtsgeschichte (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1906), i., 442. 

Lastly, we possess a judicial text in 48 paragraphs, which 
bears the title of Notitia vel commemoratio de ilia ewa {law), 
quae se ad Amor em habet. This was in use in the district along 
the Yssel formerly called Hamalant. The name Hamalant 
is unquestionably derived from the Frankish tribe of the Chamavi, 
and the document is often called Lex Francorum Chamavorum. 
This text, however, is not a law, but rather an abstract of the 
special usages obtaining in those regions — what the Germans call 
a Weistum. It was compiled by the itinerant Frankish officials 
known as the missi Dominici, and the text undoubtedly goes back 
to the time of Charlemagne, perhaps to the years 802 and 803, 
when the activity of the missi was at its height. In certain 
chapters it is possible to discern the questions of the missi and 
the answers of the inhabitants. 

There is an edition of this text by R. Sohm in Mon. Germ. hist. 
Leges, v. 269, and another appended to the same writer's school 
edition of the Lex Ribuaria. For further information see E. T. Gaupp, 
Lex Francorum Chamavorum (Breslau, 1855; French trans, in vol. i. 
of the Revue historique de droit frangais et etranger) ; Fustel de 
Coulanges, Nouvelles Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire 
(Paris, 1891), pp. 399-414; H. Froidevaux, Recherches sur la lex 
dicta Francorum Chamavorum (Paris, 1891). (C. Pf.) 

SALICYLIC ACID (ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid), an aromatic 
acid, C 6 H 4 (OH)(C0 2 H), found in the free state in the buds of 
Spiraea Ulmaria and, as its methyl ester, in gaultheria oil and 
in the essential oil of Andromeda Leschenaultii. It was discovered 
in 1838 by Piria as a decomposition product of salicin. It may 
be obtained by the oxidation of saligenin and of salicylic aldehyde ; 
by the distillation of copper benzoate; by the decomposition 
of anthranilic acid with nitrous acid; by fusion of ortho-chlor 
or ortho-brom benzoic acid with potash ; by heating ortho- 
cyanphenol with alcoholic potash; by heating a mixture of 
phenol, carbon tetrachloride and alcoholic potash to ioo° C. 
(F. Tiemann and K Reimer, Ber., 1876, 9, p. 1285); and by 
the action of sodium on a mixture of phenol and chlorcarbonic 
ester (T. Wilm and G. Wischin, Zeit.f. Chemie, 1868, 6). 

It is manufactured by Kolbe's process or by some modification of 
the same. Sodium phenolate is heated in a stream of carbon 
dioxide in an iron retort at a temperature of 180-220° C, when half 
the phenol distils over and a basic sodium salicylate is left. The 
sodium salt is dissolved in water and the free acid precipitated by 
hydrochloric acid (H. Kolbe, Ann., i860, 115, p. 201). R. Schmitt 
(Jour. prak. Chem., 1885 (2), 31, p. 407) modified the process by 
saturating sodium phenolate at 130° C. with carbon dioxide, in an 
autoclave, sodium phenyl carbonate C6HsO - C0 2 Na being thus 
formed; by continuing the heating under pressure this carbonate 
gradually changes into mono-sodium salicylate. S. Manasse (German 
patent 73,279) prepared an intimate mixture of phenol and potassium 
carbonate, which is then heated in a closed vessel with carbon 
dioxide, best at i30-l6o°C. The Chemische Fabrik vorm. Hofmann 
and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and 
sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-200° C. 
When 90 % of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved 
and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in 
a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by 
hydrochloric acid. The acid may also be obtained by passing carbon 
monoxide over a mixture of sodium phenolate and sodium carbonate 
at200°C.:Na 2 C0 3 + C 6 H 2 ONa+CO = Cv^OjNaj + HC0 2 Na;and 
by heating sodium phenolate with ethyl phenyl carbonate to 200° C. : 
C«H 6 0-C0 2 C 2 H +C 6 H 6 ONa = HO-CeHiCOsNa+CeHs-GHs. It is to 
be noted in the Kolbe method of synthesis that potassium pheno- 
late may be used in place of the sodium salt, provided that the 
temperature be kept low (about 150° C.) , for at the higher temperature 
(220° C.) the isomeric para-oxybenzoic acid is produced. 

Salicylic acid crystallizes in small colourless needles which 
melt at 155° C. It is sparingly soluble in cold water, but readily 
dissolves in hot. It sublimes, but on rapid heating decomposes 
into carbon dioxide and phenol. It is volatile in steam. Ferric 
chloride colours its aqueous solution violet. Potassium bichro- 
mate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water; 
and potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid to chloranil. 
On boiling with concentrated nitric acid it yields picric acid. 
When heated with resorcin to 200 C. it gives trioxybenzophenone. 
Bromine water in dilute aqueous solution gives a white pre- 
cipitate of tribromophenol-bromide C 8 H 2 Br 3 OBr. Sodium 
reduces salicylic acid in boiling amyl alcohol solution to 
w-pimelic acid (A. Einhorn and R. Willstatter, Ber., 1893, 26, pp. 
2, 913; 1894, 27 p. 331). Potassium persulphate oxidizes it 
in alkaline solution, the product on boiling with acids giving 



hydroquinone carboxylic acid (German Patent 81,297). When 
boiled with calcium chloride and ammonia, salicylic acid gives a 

precipitate of insoluble basic calcium salicylate, C 6 H4<^ Q 2 ^>Ca, 
a reaction which serves to distinguish it from the isomeric meta- 
and para-hydroxybenzoic acids. It yields both esters and 
ethers since it is an acid and also a phenol. 

Methyl Salicylate, C6H4(OH)-C0 2 CH 3 , found in oil of wintergreen, 
in the oil of Viola tricolor and in the root of varieties of Polygala, is 
a pleasant-smelling liquid which boils at 222 ° C. On passing dry 
ammonia into the boiling ester, it gives salicylamide and dimethylam- 
ine. When boiled with aniline it gives methylaniline and phenol. 
Ethyl salicylate, C6H 4 (OH)-C0 2 C 2 H6, is obtained by boiling salicylic 
acid with alcohol and a little sulphuric acid, or by dropping an alco- 
holic solution of salicylic acid into /3-naphthalene sulphonic acid at a 
temperature of 140-150 C. (German Patent 76,574). It is a pleasant- 
smelling liquid which boils at 233° C. It is practically unchanged 
when boiled with aniline. Phenyl salicylate, CjH^OIiO-C-OaCeHs, 
or salol, is obtained by heating salicylic acid, phenol and phosphorus 
oxychloride to 120-125° C.; by heating salicylic acid to 210° C. ; or 
by heating salicyl metaphosphoric acid and phenol to 140-150 C. 
(German Patent 85,565). It crystallizes in rhombic plates which 
melt at 42 C. and boil at 172 C. (12 mm.). Its sodium salt is 
transformed into the isomeric C6H 4 (OC 6 H 5 ) C0 2 Na when heated to 
300 . When heated in air for many hours it decomposes, yielding 
carbon dioxide, phenol and xanthone. Acetyl- salicylic acid (salacetic 
acid), C«H4(OCOCH S )'C0 2 H, is obtained by the action of acetyl 
chloride on the acid or its sodium salt (K. Kraut, Ann ., 1869, 150, 
p. 9). It crystallizes in needles and melts at 132 C. (with decom- 
position). Hydrolysis with baryta water gives acetic and salicylic 
acids. It is used in medicine under the names aspirin, acetysal, 
aletodin, saletin, xaxa s &c. It has the same action as salicylic acid 
and salicylates, but is said to be much freer from objectionable 
secondary effects. Salicylo- salicylic acid 0-(C 6 H 4 C0 2 H) 2 is obtained 
by continued heating of salicylic acid and acetyl chloride to 130- 
140° C. It is an amorphous yellow mass which is easily soluble in 

Applications. — The addition of a little of the acid to glue 
renders it more tenacious; skins to be used for making leather 
do not undergo decomposition if steeped in a dilute solution; 
butter containing a small quantity of it may be kept sweet for 
months even in the hottest weather. It also prevents the 
mouldiness of preserved fruits and has been found useful in the 
manufacture of vinegar. The use of salicylic acid as a food 
preservative, was, however, condemned in the findings of the 
commission appointed by the government of the United States 
of America, in 1904. 

Medicine. — The pharmacopeial dose of the acid is 5-20 grains, 
but it is so unrelated to experience and practice that it may be 
ignored. The British Pharmacopeia contains only one prepara- 
tion, an ointment containing one part of acid to 49 of white 
paraffin ointment. Salicylic acid is now never given internally, 
being replaced by its sodium salt, which is much cheaper, more 
soluble and less irritating to mucous membranes. The salt 
has a sweet, mawkish taste. 

Salicylic acid and salicin (q.v.) share the properties common to the 
group of aromatic acids, which, as a group, are antiseptic without 
being toxic to man — a property practically unique ; are unstable in 
the body ; are antipyretic and analgesic ; and diminish the excretion 
of urea by the kidneys. As an antiseptic salicylic acid is somewhat 
less powerful than carbolic acid, but its insolubility renders it un- 
suitable for general use. It is much more powerful than carbolic 
acid in its inhibitory action upon unorganized ferments such as 
pepsin or ptyalin. Salicyclic acid is not absorbed by the skin, but 
it rapidly kills the cells of the epidermis, without affecting the im- 
mediately subjacent cells of the dermis (" true skin "). It has a very 
useful local anhidrotic action. Salicylic acid is a powerful irritant 
when inhaled or swallowed in a concentrated form, and even when 
much diluted it causes pain, nausea and vomiting. When salicin is 
taken internally no irritant action occurs, nor is there any antisepsis. 
Whatever drug of this group be taken, the product absorbed by the 
blood is almost entirely sodium salicylate. When the salt is taken 
by the mouth, absorption is extremely rapid, the salt being present 
in the peripheral blood within ten minutes. 

Sodium salicylate circulates in the blood unchanged, decom- 
position occurring in the kidney, and probably in tissues suffering 
from the Diplococcus rheumaticus of Poynton and Paine. It used to 
be stated that these drugs are marked cardiac depressants; and the 
heart being invariably implicated in rheumatic fever, it is supposed 
that these drugs must be given with great caution. It has now been 
established that, provided the kidneys be healthy, natural salicylic 
acid, sodium salicylate prepared from the natural acid, and salicin, 
are not cardiac depressants. Of the two latter, 300 grains may be 

given in a dose and i| oz. in twenty-four hours, without any toxic 
symptoms. The artificial acid and its salt contain ortho-, para- and 
meta-cresotic acids, which are cardiac depressants. The vegetable 
product — which is extremely expensive — must be prescribed or 
the synthetic product guaranteed " physiologically pure," i.e. tested 
upon animals and found to have no toxic properties. Salicylates 
are the next safest to quinine of all antipyretics, whilst being much 
more powerful in all febrile states except malaria. Sodium sali- 
cylate escapes from the blood mainly by the kidneys, in the secretion 
of which sodium salicylate and salicyluric acid can be detected 
within fifteen minutes of its administration. After large doses 
haematuria has been observed in a few cases. The rapid excretion 
by the kidneys is one of the cardinal conditions of safety, and also 
necessitates the very frequent administration of the drug. 

Therapeutics. — Salicylic acid is used externally for the removal 
of corns and similar epidermic thickenings. It causes some pain, so 
that a sedative should be added. A common formula has 1 1 parts 
of the acid, 3 of extract of Indian hemp, and 86 of collodion. There 
is probably no better remedy for corns. Perspiration of the feet 
cannot be attacked locally with more success than by a powder 
consisting of salicylic acid, starch and chalk. 

These drugs are specific for acute rheumatism (rheumatic fever). 
The drug is not a true specific, as quinine is for malaria , since it 
rarely, if ever, prevents the cardiac damage usually done by rheu- 
matic fever; but it entirely removes the agonizing pain, shortly 
after its administration, and, an hour or two later, brings down the 
temperature to normal. In thirty-six hours no symptoms are left. 
If the drug be now discontinued, they will return in over 90% of 
cases. In acute gonorrhoeal arthritis, simulating rheumatic fever, 
salicylates are useless. They may thus afford a means of diagnosis. 
In rheumatic hyperpyrexia, where the poison has attacked the central 
nervous system, salicylates almost always fail. The mode of their 
administration in rheumatic fever is of the utmost importance. At 
first 20 grains of sodium salicylate should be given every hour: the 
interval being doubled as soon as the pain disappears, and extended 
to three hours when the temperature becomes normal. The patient 
should continue to take about 100 grains a day for at least a fortnight 
after he is apparently convalescent, otherwise a recrudescence is 
very probable. 

Salicylate of soda may occasionally be of use in cases of gallstone, 
owing to its action on the bile. It often relieves neuralgia, especially 
when combined with caffeine and quinine. 

Salicylism, or salicylic poisoning, occurs in a good many cases of 
the use of these drugs. Provided the kidneys be healthy, the 
symptoms may be ignored. If nephritis be present, it may be 
seriously aggravated, and the drug must therefore be withheld. 
The headache, deafness, ringing in the ears and even delirium of 
salicylism, are practically identical with the symptoms of cinchonism. 
The drug must be at once withheld if haemorrhages (subcutaneous, 
retinal, &c.) are observed. As in the case of quinine, the administra- 
tion of small doses of hydrobromic acid often relieve the milder 

SALIERI, ANTONIO (1750-1825), Italian composer, was born 
at Legnano, on the 19th of August 1750. His father was a mer- 
chant who died a bankrupt. Through the family of Mocenigo 
he obtained free admission to the choir school of St Mark's, 
Venice. In 1766 he was taken to Vienna by F. L. Gassmann, 
who introduced him to the emperor Joseph. His first 
opera, Le Donne letterate, was produced at the Burg-Theater 
in 1770. Others followed in rapid succession, and his Armida 
(1771) was a triumphant success. 

On Gassmann's death in 1774, he became Kapellmeister and, on 
the death of Bonno in 1788, Hof kapellmeister. He held his offices for 
fifty years, though he made frequent visits to Italy and Paris, and 
composed music for many European theatres. His chefd'xuvre 
was Tarare (afterwards called Axur, re d'Ormus), a work which was 
preferred by the public of Vienna to Mozart's Don Giovanni. It was 
first produced at Vienna on the 8th of June 1787, and was revived 
at Leipzig in 1846, though only for a single representation. His last 
opera was Die Neger, produced in 1804. After this he devoted 
himself to the composition of church music, for which he had a very 
decided talent. Salieri lived on friendly terms with Haydn, but 
was a bitter enemy to Mozart, whose death he was suspected of 
having produced by poison; but no evidence was ever forthcoming 
to give colour to the accusation. He retired from office on his full 
salary in 1824, and died at Vienna on the 7th of May 1825. Salieri 
gave lessons in composition to Cherubini and to Beethoven, who 
dedicated to him his " Three Sonatas for Pianoforte and Violin," 
Op. 12. 

See also Albert von Hermann, Antonio Salieri, eine Sludie (1897); 
J. F. Edler von Mosel, Uber das Leben und die Werke des Antonio 
Salieri (Vienna, 1827). 

SALII, the " dancers," an old Italian priesthood, said to have 
been instituted by Numa for the service of Mars, although later 
tradition derived them from Greece. They were originally 
twelve in number, called Salii Palatini to distinguish them from 



a second college of twelve, Salii Agonales or Collini, said to have 
been added by Tullus Hostilius; the Palatini were consecrated 
to Mars, the Collini to Quirinus. All the members were patricians, 
vacancies being rilled by co-optation from young men whose 
parents were both living; membership was for life, subject to 
certain exceptions. The officials of the college were the 
magister, the praesul, and the vates (the leaders in dance and 

Each college had the care of twelve sacred shields called ancilia. 
According to the story, during the reign of Numa a small oval shield 
fell from heaven, and Numa, in order to prevent its being stolen, 
had eleven others made exactly like it. They were the work of a 
smith named Mamurius Veturius, probably identical with the god 
Mamers (Mars) himself. These twelve shields (amongst which was 
the original one) were in charge of the Salii Palatini. The greater 
part of March (the birth-month of Mars), beginning from the 1st, 
on which day the ancile was said to have fallen from heaven and the 
campaigning season began, was devoted to various ceremonies con- 
nected with the Salii. On the 1st, they marched in procession 
through the city, dressed in an embroidered tunic, a brazen breast- 
plate and a peaked cap ; each carried a sword by his side and a short 
staff in his right hand, with which the shield, borne on the left arm, 
was struck from time to time. A halt was made at the altars and 
temples, where the Salii, singing a special chant, danced a war dance. 
Every day the procession stopped at certain stations (mansiones), 
where the shields were deposited for the night, and the Salii partook 
of a banquet (see Horace, Odes, i. 37. 2). On the next day the pre- 
cession passed on to another mansio; this continued till the 24th, 
when the shields were replaced in their sacrarium. During this 
period the Salii took part in certain other festivities: the Equirria 
(Ecurria) on the 14th, a chariot race in honour of Mars on the Campus 
Martius (in later times called Mamuralia, in honour of Mamurius), 
at which a skin was beaten with staves in imitation of hammering ; 
the Quinquatrus on the 19th, a one-day festival, at which the shields 
were cleansed; the Tubilustrium on the 23rd, when the trumpets 
of the priests were purified. On the 19th of October, at the Armi- 
lustrium or purification of arms, the ancilia were again brought out 
and then put away for the winter. The old chant of the Salii, called 
axamenta, was written in the old Saturnian metre, in language so 
archaic that even the priests themselves could hardly understand it. 
. See Quintilian, Instit. i. 6. 40; also J. Wordsworth, Fragments 
and Specimens of Early Latin (1874). The best account of the Salii 
generally will be found in Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, iii. 
(1885) pp. 427-438. 

SALIMBENE, Or more usually Salimbene or Parma (1221- 
c. 1290), the name taken by the Italian writer, Ognibene di 
Guido di Adamo. The son of a crusader, Gui di Adamo, and 
born at Parma on the 9th of October 1221, Ognibene entered 
the order of the Minorites in 1238, and was known as brother 
Salimbene. He passed some years in Pisa and other Italian 
towns; then in 1247 he was sent to Lyons, and from Lyons 
he went to Paris, returning through France to Genoa, where 
he became a priest in 1249. From 1249 to 1256 he resided at 
Ferrara, engaged in writing and in copying manuscripts, but 
later he found time to move from place to place. His concluding 
years were mainly spent in monastic retirement in Italy, and 
he died soon after 1 288. 

Salimbene was acquainted with many of the important personages 
of his day, including the emperor Frederick II., the French king St 
Louis and Pope Innocent IV. ; and his Chronicon, written after 1281, 
is a work of unusual value. This covers the period 1 167-1287. 
Salimbene is a very discursive and a very personal writer, but he 
gives a remarkably vivid picture of life in France and Italy during 
the 13th century. The manuscript of the chronicle was found 
during the 1 8th century, and passed into the Vatican library, where 
it now remains. The part of the Chronicon dealing with the period 
between 1212 and 1287 was edited by A. Bertani and published at 
Parma in 1857. This edition, however, is very defective, but an 
excellent and more complete one has been edited by O. Holder- 
Egger, and is printed in Band xxxii. of the Monumenta Cermaniae 
historica. Scriptores (Hanover, 1905). 

See U. Balzani, Le Croniche italiane nel medio evo (Milan, 1884); 
L. Cl&lat, De fratre Salimbene et de ejus chronicae auctoritate (Paris, 
1878); E. Michael, Salimbene und seine Chronik (Innsbruck, 1889); 
A. Molinier, Les Sources de Vhistoire de France, tome iii. (1903) ; 
D. W. Duthie, The Case of Sir John Fastolf and other Historical 
Studies (1907); G. G. Coulton, From St Francis to Dante (1906). 

SALINA, a city and the county-seat of Saline county, Kansas, 
U.S.A., on the Smoky Hill river, near the mouth of the Saline 
river, about 100 m. W. of Topeka. Pop. (1905) 7829; (1910) 
9688. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Missouri Pacific and the 
Union Pacific railways. Salina has a Carnegie library, and is 

the seat of Kansas Wesleyan University (Methodist Episcopal; 
chartered in 1885, opened in 1886) and of St John's Military 
School (Protestant Episcopal) . The city is the see of a Protestant 
Episcopal bishop. Salina is the central market of a fertile farming 
region. Power is furnished by the river, and among the manu- 
factures are flour, agricultural implements, foundry products 
and carriages. The first settlement on the site of Salina was 
made in 1857. Its first railway, the Union Pacific, came through 
in 1867. Salina was first chartered as a city in 1870. 

SALINA CRUZ, a seaport of Mexico, in the state of Oaxaca, 
at the southern terminus of the Tehuantepec National Railway. 
It is situated near the mouth of the Tehuantepec river, on the 
open coast of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and has no natural 
harbour. There was only a small Indian village here before 
Salina Cruz was chosen as the Pacific terminus of the railway. 
Since then a modern town has been laid out and built on adjacent 
higher ground. The new port was opened to traffic in 1907 
and in 1909 its population was largely composed of labourers. 
A costly artificial harbour has been built by the Mexican govern- 
ment to accommodate the traffic of the Tehuantepec railway. 
It is formed by the construction of two breakwaters, the western 
3260 ft. and the eastern 1900 ft. long, which curve toward each 
other at their outer extremities and leave an entrance 635 ft. 
wide. The enclosed space is divided into an outer and inner 
harbour by a double line of quays wide enough to carry six 
great warehouses with electric cranes on both sides and a number 
of railway tracks. Connected with the new port works is one 
of the largest dry docks in the world — 610 ft. long and 89 ft. 
wide, with a depth of 28 ft. on its sill at low water. The works 
were planned to handle an immense volume of transcontinental 
freight, and before they were finished four steamship lines had 
arranged regular calls at Salina Cruz; this number has since 
been largely increased. 

SALINS, a town of eastern France, in the department of Jura, 
on a branch line of the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 4293. 
Salins is situated in the narrow valley of the Furieuse, between 
two fortified hills, while to the north rises Mont Poupet (2798 ft.). 
The town possesses an interesting Romanesque church (which 
has been well restored) and an hotel de ville of the 18th century. 
A Jesuit chapel of the 17th century contains a library (established 
in 1 593) and a museum. Salins owes its name to its saline waters, 
used for bathing and drinking. There are also salt workings and 
gypsum deposits. 

The territory of Salins, which was enfeoffed in the 10th century 
by the abbey of Saint Maurice in Valais to the counts of Macon, 
remained in possession of their descendants till 11 75. Maurette de 
Salins, heiress of this dynasty, left the lordship to the house of 
Vienne, and her granddaughter sold it in 1225 to Hugh IV., duke of 
Burgundy, whoceded it in 1237 to John of Chalon (d.1267) in exchange 
for the countship of Chalon-sur-Sa6ne. John's descendants — counts 
and dukes of Burgundy, emperors and kings of the house of Austria — 
bore the title of sire de Salins. In 1477 Salins was taken by the 
French and temporarily made the seat of the parlement of Franche- 
Comti by Louis XI. In 1668 and 1674 it was retaken by the French 
and thenceforward remained in their power. In 1825 the town was 
almost destroyed by fire. In 1871 it successfully resisted the German 

SALISBURY, EARLS OF. The title of earl of Salisbury was 
first created about 1149, when it was conferred on Patrick de 
Salisbury (sometimes from an early date called in error Patrick 
Devereux), a descendant of Edward de Salisbury, mentioned in 
Domesday as vicecomes of Wiltshire. His granddaughter Isabella 
became countess of Salisbury suo jure on the death of her father, 
William the 2nd earl, without male heirs, in 1196, and the title 
was assumed by her husband, William de Longespee (d. 1226), 
illegitimate son of King Henry II. possibly by Rosamond Clifford 
(" The fair Rosamond "). Isabella survived her husband, and 
outlived both her son and grandson, both called Sir William de 
Longespee, and on her death in 1261 her great-granddaughter 
Margaret (d. 1310), wife of Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, 
probably became suo jure countess of Salisbury; she transmitted 
the title to her daughter Alice, who married Thomas Plantagenet, 
earl of Lancaster. Lancaster having been attainted and 
beheaded in 1322, the countess made a surrender of her lands 



and titles to Edward II., the earldom thus lapsing to the 

The earldom of Salisbury was granted in 1337 by Edward III. 
to William de Montacute, Lord Montacute (1301-1344), in whose 
family it remained till 1400, when John, 3rd earl of this line, 
was attainted and his titles forfeited. His son Thomas (1388- 
1428) was restored in blood in 1421; and Thomas's daughter 
and heiress, Alice, married Sir Richard Neville (1400-1460), 
a younger son of Ralph Neville, 1st earl of Westmorland and a 
grandson of John of Gaunt, who sat in parliament in right of his 
wife as earl of Salisbury; he was succeeded by his son Richard, 
on whose death without male issue in 147 1 the earldom fell into 
abeyance. George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence, brother of 
Edward IV., who married Richard's daughter and co-heiress, 
Isabel, became by a separate creation earl of Salisbury in 1472, 
but by his attainder in 1478 this title was forfeited, and immedi- 
ately afterwards was granted to Edward Plantagenet, eldest 
son of Richard duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III., on 
whose death in 1484 it became extinct. 

Richard III.'s queen, Anne, was a sister of the above-mentioned 
Isabel, duchess of Clarence, and co-heiress with her of Richard 
Neville, earl of Salisbury. On the death of Queen Anne in 
1485 the abeyance of the older creation terminated, Edward 
Plantagenet, eldest son of George duke of Clarence by Isabel 
Neville, becoming earl of Salisbury as successor to his mother's 
right. He was attainted in 1504, five years after his execution, 
but the earldom then forfeited was restored to his sister Margaret 
(1474-1541), widow of Sir Richard Pole, in 1513- This lady 
was also attainted, with forfeiture of her titles, in 1539. 

Sir Robert Cecil, second son of the 1st Lord Burghley (q.v.), 
was created earl of Salisbury (1605), having no connexion in blood 
with the former holders of the title. (See Salisbury, Robert 
Cecil, ist Earl or.) In his family the earldom has remained 
till the present day, the 7th earl of the line having been created 
marquess of Salisbury in 1789. 

See G. E. C, Complete Peerage, vol. vii. (1896). 

CECIL, 3RD Marquess or (1830-1903), British statesman, 
second son of James, 2nd marquess, by his first wife, Frances 
Mary Gascoyne, was born at Hatfield on the 3rd of February 
1830, and was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he took his degree in 1850. At Oxford he was an active 
member of the Union Debating Society. The first, few years 
after leaving the university were spent by Lord Robert Cecil 
(as he then was) in travel, as far afield as New Zealand; but 
in 1853 he was returned unopposed to the House of Commons 
as Conservative member for Stamford, being elected in the same 
year a fellow of All Souls. He made his maiden speech in 
Parliament on the 7th of April 1854, in opposition to Lord John 
Russell's Oxford University Bill. The speech was marked 
by scepticism as to the utility of reforms, and Lord Robert 
prophesied that if the wishes of founders were disregarded, 
nobody would in future care to found anything. In 1857 he 
Burly appeared as the author of his first Bill — for establishing 

years in the voting-paper system at parliamentary elections ; 
and in the same year he married Georgina Caroline, 
daughter of Sir Edward Holt Alderson, a baron of the 
Court of Exchequer, a large share of whose great intellectual 
abilities she inherited. Lord Robert Cecil continued to be 
active not only in politics, but, for several years, in journalism, 
the income he earned by his pen being then a matter of pecuniary 
importance to him. One of his contemporaries at Oxford had 
been Thomas Hamber of Oriel, who became editor of the Standard, 
and during these years Cecil was an occasional contributor of 
" leaders " to that paper. He also contributed to the Saturday 
Review, founded in 1855 by his brother-in-law Beresford Hope, 
and edited by his friend Douglas Cook; not infrequently he 
wrote for the Quarterly (where, in 1867, he was to publish his 
famous article on "the Conservative Surrender"); and in 
1858 he contributed to Oxford Essays a paper on " The Theories of 
Parliamentary Reform," giving expression to the more intellectual 
and aristocratic antagonism to doctrinaire Liberal views on the 


subject, while admitting the existence of many anomalies in the 
existing electoral system. In February of the next year, when 
Disraeli introduced his Reform Bill with its " fancy franchises," 
the member for Stamford was prominent among its critics from 
the Tory point of view. During the seven years that followed 
Lord Robert was always ready to defend the Church, or the 
higher interests of Conservatism and property; and his speeches 
then, not less than later, showed a caustic quality and a tendency 
to what became known as " blazing indiscretions." For example, 
when the repeal of the paper duty was being discussed in 1861, 
he asked whether it " could be maintained that a person of any 
education could learn anything worth knowing from a penny 
paper " — a question the answer to which has been given by the 
powerful, highly organized, and admirable Conservative penny 
press of a subsequent day. A little later he declared the proceed- 
ings of the Government " more worthy of an attorney than 
of a statesman"; and on being rebuked, apologized — to the 
attorneys. He also charged Lord John Russell with adopting 
" a sort of tariff of insolence " in his dealings with foreign Powers, 
strong and weak. 

It was not, however, till the death of Palmerston and the 
removal of Lord John Russell to the House of Lords had brought 
Gladstone to the front that Lord Robert Cecil — who 
became Lord Cranborne by the death of his elder „* ni f* er . 
brother on the 14th of June 1865 — began to be accepted the 
as a politician of the first rank. His emergence Franchise 
coincided with the opening of the new area in British « ,ues "°» ; 
politics, ushered in by the practical steps taken to u on jggz. 
extend the parliamentary franchise. On the 12th of 
March 1866 Gladstone brought forward his measure to establish 
a £7 franchise in boroughs and a £14 franchise in counties, which 
were calculated to add 400,000 voters to the existing lists. Lord 
Cranborne met the Bill with a persistent opposition, his rigorous 
logic and merciless hostility to clap-trap tending strongly to 
reinforce the impassioned eloquence of Robert Lowe. But 
though he attacked the Government Bill both in principle and 
detail, he did not absolutely commit himself to a position of 
hostility to Reform of every kind; and on the .defeat of Glad- 
stone's Ministry no surprise was expressed at his joining the 
Cabinet of Lord Derby as secretary of state for India, even when 
it became known that a settlement of the Reform question was 
part of the Tory programme. The early months of the new 
Government's tenure were marked by the incident of the Hyde 
Park riots; and if there had been members of the Cabinet and 
party who believed up to that time that the Reform question 
was not urgent the action of the Reform League and the London 
populace forced them to a different conclusion. On the nth of 
February Disraeli informed the House of Commons that the 
Government intended to ask its assent to a series of thirteen 
resolutions; but when, on the 26th of February, the Liberal 
leaders demanded that the Government should produce a Bill, 
Disraeli at once consented to do so. The introduction of a Bill 
was, however, delayed by the resignation of Lord Cranborne, 
General Peel and Lord Carnarvon. The Cabinet had been 
considering two alternative measures, widely different in kind 
and extent, and the final decision between the two was taken in 
ten minutes (whence the nickname of the " Ten Minutes Bill ") 
at an informal gathering of the Cabinet held just before Derby 
was engaged to address a general meeting of the party. At a 
Cabinet council held on the 23rd of February measure A had 
been agreed upon, the three doubtful ministers having been 
persuaded that the checks and safeguards provided were sufficient ; 
in the interval between Saturday and Monday they had come 
to the conclusion that the checks were inadequate; on Monday 
morning they had gone to Lord Derby and told him so; at two 
o'clock the rest of the Cabinet, hastily summoned, had been 
informed of the new situation, and had there and then, before 
the meeting at half-past two, agreed, in order to retain their 
three colleagues, to throw over measure A, and to present 
measure B to the country as the fruit of their matured and 
unanimous wisdom. Derby at the meeting, and Disraeli a few 
hours later in the House of Commons, explained their new 



measure — a measure based upon a £6 franchise; but their 
own side did not like it, the Opposition were furious, and 
the moral sense of the country was revolted by the undisguised 
adoption of almost the very Bill which the Conservatives had 
refused to accept from their opponents only a year before. The 
result was that the Government reverted to measure A, and 
the three ministers again handed in their resignations. In the 
debate on the third reading of the Bill, when its passage through 
the House of Commons without a division was assured, Lord 
Cranborne showed with caustic rhetoric how the " precautions, 
guarantees, and securities " with which the Bill had bristled on 
its second reading had been dropped one after another at the 
bidding of Gladstone. 

In countries where politics are conducted on any other than the 
give-and-take principles in vogue in England, such a breach as 

that which occurred in 1867 between Lord Cranborne 
* e . and his former colleagues, especially Disraeli, would 
Lords. have been beyond repair. But Cranborne, though an 

aristocrat both by birth and by conviction, was not 
impracticable; moreover, Disraeli, who had himself risen to 
eminence through invective, admired rather than resented that 
gift in others; and their common opposition to Gladstone was 
certain to reunite the two colleagues. In the session of 1868 
Gladstone announced that he meant to take up the Irish question, 
and to deal especially with the celebrated " Upas tree," of which 
the first branch was the Established Church. By way of giving 
full notice to the electorate, he brought in a series of resolutions 
on this question; and though the attitude adopted' by the 
official Conservatives towards them was not one of serious 
antagonism, Lord Cranborne vigorously attacked them. This 
was his last speech in the House of Commons, for on the 1 2th of 
April his father died, and he became 3rd marquess of Salisbury. 
In the House of Lords the new Lord Salisbury's style of eloquence 
— terse, incisive and wholly free from false ornament — found an 
even more appreciative audience than it had met with in the 
House of Commons. The questions with which he was first 
called upon to deal were questions in which his interest was keen — 
the recommendations of the Ritual Commission and, some time 
later, the Irish Church Suspensory Bill. Lord Salisbury's argu- 
ment was that the last session of an expiring parliament was 
not the time in which so grave a matter as the Irish Church 
Establishment should be judged or prejudged; that a Suspensory 
Bill involved the question of disestablishment; and that such 
a principle could not be accepted by the Lords until the country 
had pronounced decisively in its favour. Even then there were 
those who raised the cry that the only business of the House of 
Lords was to register the decisions of the Commons, and that if 
they refused to do so it was at their peril. Lord Salisbury met 
this cry boldly and firmly: — 

" When the opinion of your countrymen has declared itself, and you 
see that their convictions — their firm, deliberate, sustained convic- 
tions — are in favour of any course, I do not for a moment deny that 
it is your duty to yield." 

In the very next session Lord Salisbury was called upon to put 
his view into practice, and his influence went far to persuade the 
peers to pass the Irish Church Disestablishment Bill. In his 
opinion the general election of the autumn of 1868 had been 
fought on this question; his friends had lost, and there was 
nothing for them to do but to bow to the necessities of the situa- 
tion. The story of his conduct in the matter has been told in 
some fulness in the Life of Archbishop Tait, with whom Salisbury 
acted, and who throughout those critical weeks played a most 
important part as mediator between the two extreme parties — ■ 
those of Lord Cairns (representing Ulster) and Gladstone. 
October 1869 saw the death of the old Lord Derby, who was still 
the titular leader of his party; and he was succeeded as leader 
of the House of Lords by Cairns. For the dignified post of 
chancellor of the university of Oxford Convocation unanimously 
chose as Derby's successor the marquess of Salisbury. Derby 
had translated the Iliad very well, but his successor was far more 
able to sympathize with the academic mind and temper. He 
• was at heart a student, and found his best satisfaction in scientific 

research and in scientific speculation; while still a young man 
he had made useful contributions to the investigation of the flora 
of Hertfordshire, and at Hatfield he had his own laboratory, 
where he was able to satisfy his interest in chemical and electrical 
research. As regards his connexion with Oxford may be men- 
tioned in particular his appointment, in 1877, of a second 
University Commission, and his appearance, in September 1894, 
in the Sheldonian Theatre as president of the British Association. 

It is not necessary to dwell at any length upon the part taken 
by Lord Salisbury between 1869 and 1873 in respect of the other 
great political measures of Gladstone's Government — 
the Irish Land Act, the Act Abolishing Purchase in ^ S uf eH t 
the Army, Forster's Education Act, &c. Nor does oti874. 
his attitude towards the Franco-German War of 1870- 
71 call for any remark; a British leader of Opposition is bound, 
even more than a minister, to preserve a discreet silence on such 
occasions. But early in 1874 came the dissolution, suddenly 
announced in Gladstone's famous Greenwich letter, with the 
promise of the abolition of the income-tax. For the first time 
since 1841 the Conservatives found themselves in office with a 
large majority in the House of Commons. In Disraeli's new 
Cabinet in 1874 Salisbury accepted his old position at the India 
Office, The first task with which the new secretary of state had 
to deal was one of those periodical famines which are the great 
scourge of India; he supported the action of Lord Northbrook, 
the viceroy, and refused to interfere with private trade by 
prohibiting the export of grain. This attitude was amply 
justified, and Lord Salisbury presently declared that the action 
of the Government had given so much confidence to private 
traders that, by their means, " grain was pouring into the dis- 
tressed districts at a greater rate than that which was being 
carried by the public agency,- the amount reaching nearly 2000 
tons a day." The Public Worship Regulation Bill of 1874 was 
the occasion of a famous passage of arms between Salisbury and 
his chief. The Commons had inserted an amendment which, 
on consideration by the Lords, Salisbury opposed, with the 
remark that it was not for the peers to attend to the " bluster " 
of the lower House merely because a small majority there had 
passed the amendment. The new clause was accordingly rejected, 
and the Commons eventually accepted the situation; but Disraeli, 
banteringly criticizing Salisbury's use of the word " bluster," 
alluded to him as " a man who does not measure his phrases. 
He is one who is a great master of gibes and flouts and jeers." 

From the middle of 1876 the Government was occupied with 
foreign affairs. In regard to the stages of Eastern fever through 
which the nation passed between the occurrence 
of the Bulgarian " atrocities " and the signature of T ^ e 
the Treaty of Berlin, the part played by Salisbury question. 
was considerable. The excesses of the Bashi-Bazouks 
took place in the early summer of 1876, and were recorded in 
long and highly-coloured despatches to English newspapers; 
presently there followed Gladstone's pamphlet on Bulgarian 
Horrors, his speech on Blackheath and his enunciation of a 
" bag-and-baggage " policy towards Turkey. The autumn 
went by, Servia and Montenegro declared war upon Turkey 
and were in imminent danger of something like extinction. 
On the 31st of October Russia demanded an armistice, which 
Turkey granted; and Great Britain immediately proposed a 
conference at Constantinople, at which the powers should 
endeavour to make arrangements with Turkey for a genera) 
pacification of her provinces and of the inflammable communities 
adjoining. At this conference Great Britain was represented 
by Lord Salisbury. It met early in December, taking for its 
basis the British terms, namely, the status quo ante in Servia 
and Montenegro; a self-denying ordinance on the part of all 
the powers; and the independence and territorial integrity of 
the Ottoman empire, together with large administrative reforms 
assured by guarantees. General Ignatieff , the Russian ambassador, 
was effusively friendly with the British envoy; but though 
the philo-Turkish party in England professed themselves 
scandalized, Salisbury made no improper concessions to Russia, 
and departed in no way from the agreed policy of the British 



Cabinet. On the 20th of January the conference broke up, 
Turkey having declared its recommendations inadmissible; 
and Europe withdrew to await the inevitable declaration of 
war. Very early in the course of that war the intentions of 
Great Britain were clearly indicated in a despatch of Lord Derby 
to the British representative at St Petersburg, which announced 
that so long as the struggle concerned Turkish interests alone 
Great Britain would be neutral, but that such matters as Egypt, 
the Suez Canal, the regulations affecting the passage of the 
Dardanelles, and the possession of Constantinople itself would 
be regarded as matters to which she could not be indifferent. 
For some nine months none of these British interests appeared 
to be threatened, nor had Lord Salisbury's own department 
to concern itself very directly with the progress of the belligerents. 
Once or twice, indeed, the Indian secretary committed himself 
to statements which laid him open to a good deal of attack, as 
when he rebuked an alarmist by bidding him study the Central 
Asian question " in large maps. " But with the advance of 
Russia through Bulgaria and across the Balkans, British anxiety 
grew. In mid-December explanations were asked from the 
Russian Government as to their intentions with regard to 
Constantinople. On the 23rd of January the Cabinet ordered 
the fleet to sail to the Dardanelles. Lord Carnarvon resigned, 
and Lord Derby handed in his resignation, but withdrew it. 
The Treaty of San Stefano was signed on the 3rd of March; 
and three weeks later, when its full text became known, the 
Succeeds Cabinet decided upon measures which finally induced 
Lord Derby Lord Derby, at the end of the month, to retire from 
a u, F ? l ? lga the Foreign Office, his place being immediately filled 
by Lord Salisbury. The new foreign secretary at 
once issued the famous " Salisbury circular " to the British 
representatives abroad, which appeared in the newspapers on 
the 2nd of April. This elaborate and dignified State paper was 
at once a clear exposition of British policy, and practically an 
invitation to Russia to reopen the negotiations for a European 
congress. These negotiations, indeed, had been proceeding 
for several weeks past; but Russia having declared that she 
would only discuss such points as she pleased, the British 
Cabinet had withdrawn, and the matter for the time was at an 
end. The bulk of the document consisted of an examination 
of the Treaty of San Stefano and its probable effects, Lord 
Salisbury justifying such an examination on the ground that as 
the position of Turkey and the other countries affected had been 
settled by Europe in the Treaty of Paris in 1856, the powers 
which signed that treaty had the right and the duty to see that 
no modifications of it should be made without their consent. 

The effect of the circular was great and immediate. At 
home the Conservatives were encouraged, and many moderate 
Liberals rallied to the Eastern policy of the Govern- 
ment. Abroad it seemed as if the era of divided 
councils was over, and the Russian Government 
promptly recognized that the circular meant either a congress 
or war with Great Britain. For the latter alternative it was by 
no means prepared, and very soon negotiations were reopened, 
which led to the meeting of the congress at Berlin on the 13th 
of June. The history of that famous gathering and of its results 
is narrated under Europe. Lord Beaconsfield on two or three 
subsequent occasions referred to the important part that his 
colleague had played in the negotiations, and he was not using 
merely the language of politeness. Rumours had appeared 
in the London press as to a supposed Anglo-Russian agreement 
that had been signed between Salisbury and the Russian 
ambassador, Count Shuvaloff, and these rumours or statements 
were described by the foreign secretary in the House of Lords, 
just before he left for Berlin, as " wholly unauthentic." But 
on the 14th of June what purported to be the full text of the 
agreement was published by the Globe newspaper through a 
certain Charles Marvin, at that time employed in occasional 
transcribing work at the Foreign Office, and afterwards known 
by some strongly anti-Russian books on the Central Asian 
question. Besides the general inconvenience of the disclosure, 
the agreement, which stipulated that Batum and Kars might 

At Berlin 

be annexed by Russia, made it impossible for the congress to 
insist upon Russia entirely withdrawing her claim to Batum, 
though at the time of the meeting of the congress it was known 
to some of the negotiators that she was not unwilling to do so. 
In one respect Salisbury's action at the congress was unsuccessful. 
Much as he disliked Gladstone's sentimentalism, he was not 
without a certain sentimentalism of his own, and at the Berlin 
Congress this took the form of an unexpected and, as it happened, 
useless pushing of the claims of Greece. But in the main Salisbury 
must be held to deserve, almost equally with his great colleague, 
the credit for the Berlin settlement. Great, however, as was the 
work done at Berlin, and marked the relief to all Europe which 
was caused by the signing of the treaty, much work, and of no 
pleasant kind, remained for the British Foreign Office and for 
the Indian Government before the Beaconsfield parliament 
ended and the Government had to render up its accounts to 
the nation. Russia, foreseeing a possible war with Great Britain, 
had during the spring of 1878 redoubled her activity in Central 
Asia, and, almost at the very time that the treaty was being 
signed, her mission was received at Kabul by the Amir Sher Ali. 
Out of the Amir's refusal to receive a counterbalancing British 
mission there grew the Afghan War; and though he had 
ceased to control the India Office, Salisbury was naturally held 
responsible for some of the preliminary steps which, in the 
judgment of the Opposition, had led to these hostilities. But 
the Liberals entirely failed to fix upon Salisbury the blame for 
a series of events which was generally seen to be inevitable. A 
defence of the foreign policy of the Government during the year 
which followed the Berlin Treaty was made by Salisbury in a 
speech at Manchester (October 1879), which had a great effect 
throughout Europe. In it he justified the occupation of Cyprus, 
and approved the beginnings of a league of central Europe for 
preserving peace. 

In the spring of 1880 the general election overthrew Beacons- 
field's Government and replaced Gladstone in power, and the 
country entered upon five eventful years, which were Leader 
to see the consolidation of the Parnellite party, the of Con- 
reign of outrage in Ireland, disasters in Zululand and aervative 
the Transvaal, war in Egypt, a succession of costly y ' 

mistakes in the Sudan, and the final collapse of Gladstone's 
Government on a trifling Budget question. The defeat of 1880 
greatly depressed Beaconsfield, who till then had really believed 
in that " hyperborean " theory upon which he had acted in 1867 
— the theory that beyond and below the region of democratic 
storm and violence was to be found a region of peaceful conser- 
vatism and of a dislike of change. After the rude awakening of 
April 1880 Beaconsfield seems to have lost heart and hope, and 
to have ceased to believe that wealth, birth and education would 
count for much in future in England. Salisbury, who on Beacons- 
field's death a year later was chosen, after the claims of Cairns 
had been withdrawn, as leader of the Conservative peers (Sir 
Stafford Northcote continuing to lead the Opposition in the 
lower House), was not so disposed to counsels of despair. After 
the Conservative reaction had come in 1886, he was often taunted 
with pessimism as regards the results, and he certainly spoke 
on more than one occasion in a way which appeared to justify 
the caricatures which appeared of him in the Radical press in his 
character of Hamlet; but in the days of Liberal ascendancy 
Salisbury was confident that the tide would turn. We may pass 
briefly over the years of Opposition between 1880 and 1885; 
the only policy that could then wisely be followed by the Con- 
servative leaders was that of giving their opponents sufficient 
rope. In 1884 a new Reform Bill was introduced, extending 
household suffrage to the counties; this was met in the Lords 
by a resolution, moved by Cairns, that the peers could not pass 
it unaccompanied by a Redistribution Bill. The Government, 
therefore, withdrew their measure. In the summer and autumn 
there was a good deal of agitation ; but in November a redistribu- 
tion scheme was settled between the leaders of both parties, 
and the Bill passed. When, in the summer of 1885, Gladstone 
resigned, it became necessary for the country to know whether 
Salisbury or Northcote was the real Conservative leader; and 



the Queen settled the matter by at once sending for Lord Salis- 
bury, who became prime minister for the first time in 1885. 

The " Forwards " among the Conservatives, headed by Lord 
Randolph Churchill, brought so much pressure to bear that 

Northcote was induced to enter the House of Lords 
Minister as ear " °* Iddesleigh, while Sir Michael Hicks Beach 
18CS. w as made leader of the House of Commons, Loid 

Randolph Churchill secretary for India, and Mr Arthur 
Balfour president of the Local Government Board. The new 
Government had only to prepare for the general election in the 
autumn. The ministerial programme was put forward by 
Salisbury on the 7th of October in an important speech addressed 
to the Union of Conservative Associations assembled at Newport, 
in Monmouthshire; and in this he outlined large reforms in 
local government, poured scorn upon Mr Chamberlain's Radical 
policy of " three acres and a cow," but promised cheap land 
transfer, and opposed the disestablishment of the Church as a 
matter of life or death to the Conservative party. In this Lord 
Salisbury was declaring war against what seemed to be the 
danger should Mr Chamberlain's " unauthorized programme " 
succeed; while the comparative slightness of his references to 
Ireland showed that he had no more suspicion than anybody 
else of the event which was about to change the whole face of 
British politics, to break up the Liberal party and to change 
the most formidable of the advanced Radicals into an ally 
and a colleague. The general election took place, and there were 
returned to parliament 335 Liberals, 249 Conservatives and 86 
Home Rulers; so that if the last two parties had combined, 
they would have exactly tied with the Liberals. The Conservative 
Government met parliament, and after a short time were put 
into a minority of 79 on a Radical land motion, brought in by 
Mr Chamberlain's henchman, Mr Jesse Collings. Mr Gladstone's 
Unionism: return to office, and his announcement of a Bill giving 
PHme a separate parliament to Ireland, were quickly followed 
Minister, by the secession of the Unionist Liberals; the defeat of 
1886. t Vj e -gjrj. an a pp ea j t0 tne country; and the return 

of the Unionist party to power with a majority of 118. Salisbury 
at once offered to make way for Lord Hartington, but the 
suggestion that the latter should form a Government was declined; 
and the Conservatives took office alone, with an Irish policy 
which might be summed up, perhaps, in Salisbury's words as 
" twenty years of resolute government." For a few months, 
until just before his sudden death on the 12th of January 1887, 
Lord Iddesleigh was foreign secretary; but Salisbury, who 
meantime had held the post of lord privy seal, then returned to 
the Foreign Office. Meanwhile the increasing friction between 
him and Lord Randolph Churchill, who, amid many qualms 
on the part of more old-fashioned Conservatives, had become 
chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons, 
had led to the latter's resignation, which, to his own surprise, 
was accepted; and from that date Salisbury's effective primacy 
in his own party was unchallenged. 

Only the general lines of Salisbury's later political career 
need here be sketched. As a consequence of the practical 
1886-1902. mon opoly of political power enjoyed by the Unionist 

party after the Liberal disruption of 1886 — for even 
in the years 1892-1895 the situation was dominated by the 
permanent Unionist majority in the House of Lords — Salisbury's 
position became unique. These were the long-looked-for days of 
Conservative reaction, of which he had never despaired. The 
situation was complicated, so far as Salisbury personally was 
concerned, by the coalition with the Liberal Unionists, which 
was confirmed in 1895 by the inclusion of the duke of Devonshire, 
Mr Chamberlain, and other Liberal Unionists in the Cabinet. 
But though it appeared anomalous that old antagonists like 
Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain should be working together 
in the same ministry, the prime minister's position was such that 
he could disregard a superficial criticism which paid too little 
heed to his political faculty and his patriotic regard for the 
requirements of the situation. Moreover, the practical work 
of reconciling Conservative traditions with domestic reform 
depended rather on Salisbury's nephew, Mr Balfour, who led 

the House of Commons, than on Salisbury, who devoted himself 
almost entirely to foreign affairs. The new Conservative move- 
ment, moreover, in the country at large, was, in any case, of a 
more constructive type than Salisbury himself was best fitted 
to lead, and he was not the real source of the political inspiration 
even of the Conservative wing of the Unionist party during this 
period. He began to stand to some extent outside party and 
above it, a moderator with a keenly analytic and rather sceptical 
mind, but still the recognized representative of the British 
empire in the councils of the world, and the trusted adviser of his 
sovereign. Though himself the last man to be selected as the 
type of a democratic politician— for his references to extensions 
of popular government, even when made by his own party, were 
full of mild contempt — Salisbury gradually acquired a higher 
place in public opinion than that occupied by any contemporary 
statesman. His speeches — which, though carelessly composed, 
continued to blaze on occasion with their old fire and their some- 
what mordant cynicism— were weightier in tone, and became 
European events. Without the genius of Disraeli or the personal 
magnetism of Gladstone, he yet inspired the British public with 
a quiet confidence that under him things would not go far wrong, 
and that he would not act rashly or unworthily of his country. 
Even political opponents came to look on his cautious and 
balanced conservatism, and his intellectual aloofness from 
interested motives or vulgar ambition, as standing between 
them and something more distasteful. Moreover, in the matter 
of foreign affairs his weight was supreme. He had lived to 
become, as was indeed generally recognized, the most experienced 
working diplomatist in Europe. His position in this respect 
was shown in nothing better than in his superiority to criticism. 
In foreign affairs many among his own party regarded him as 
too much inclined to " split the difference " and to make " grace- 
ful concessions " — as in the case of the cession of Heligoland to 
Germany — in which it was complained that Great Britain got the 
worst of the bargain. But though occasionally, as in the with- 
drawal of British ships from Port Arthur in 1898, such Criticism 
became acute, the plain fact of the preservation of European 
peace, often in difficult circumstances, reconciled the public to 
his conduct of affairs. His patience frequently justified itself, 
notably in the case of British relations with the United States, 
which were for a moment threatened by President Cleveland's 
message concerning Venezuela in 1895. And though his loyalty 
to the European Concert in connexion with Turkey's dealings 
with Armenia and Crete in 1895-1898 proved irritatingly in- 
effectual — the pace of the concert, as Lord Salisbury explained, 
being rather like that of a steam-roller — no alternative policy 
could be contemplated as feasible in any other statesman's 
hands. Salisbury's personal view of the new situation created 
by the methods of the sultan of Turkey was indicated not only 
by a solemn and unusual public warning addressed to the sultan 
in a speech at Brighton, but also by his famous remark that 
in the Crimean War Great Britain had " put her money on the 
wrong horse. " Among his most important strokes of diplomacy 
was the Anglo-German agreement of 1890, delimiting the British 
and German spheres of influence in Africa. The South African 
question from 1896 onwards was a matter for the Colonial Office, 
and Salisbury left it in Mr Chamberlain's hands. 

A peer premier must inevitably leave many of the real problems 
of democratic government to his colleagues in the House of 
Commons. In the Upper House Lord Salisbury was paramount. 
Yet while vigorously opposing the Radical agitation for the 
abolition of the House of Lords, he never interposed a -non 
possumus to schemes of reform. He was always willing to 
consider plans for its improvement, and in May 1888 himself 
introduced a bill for reforming it and creating life peers; but he 
warned reformers that the only result must be to make the 
House stronger. To abolish it, on the other hand, would be 
to take away a necessary safeguard for protecting " Philip 
drunk " by an appeal to " Philip sober. "■ 

Lord Salisbury suffered a severe loss by the death in 1900 of 
his wife, whose influence with her husband had been great, as 
her devotion had been unswerving. Her protracted illness was 

7 6 


one among several causes, including his own occasional ill-health, 
which after 1895 made him leave as much as possible of the work 
of political leadership to his principal colleagues — Mr Arthur 
Balfour more than once acting as foreign secretary for several 
weeks while his uncle stayed abroad. But for some years it was 
felt that his attempt to be both prime minister and foreign 
secretary was a mistake; and after the election of 1900 Salisbury 
handed over the seals of the foreign office to Lord Lansdowne, 
remaining himself at the head of the government as lord privy 
seal. In 1902, upon the conclusion of peace in South Africa, 
he felt that the time had come to retire from office altogether; 
and on the nth of July his resignation was accepted by the 
king, and he was succeeded as prime minister by Mr Arthur 

From this moment he remained in the political background, 
and his ill-health gradually increased. He died at Hatfield on 
the 22nd of August 1903, and was succeeded in the marquessate 
by his eldest son Lord Cranborne (b. 1861), who entered the 
house of commons for the Darwen division of Lancashire (1885- 
1892) and since 1893 had been member for Rochester. The new 
marquess had been under-secretary for foreign affairs since 
1900, and in October 1903 he became lord privy seal in Mr 
Balfour's ministry. Of the other four sons, Lord Hugh Cecil 
(b. 1869) became a prominent figure in parliament as Conserva- 
tive member for Greenwich (1895-1906), first as an ardent and 
eloquent High Churchman in connexion with the debates on 
education, &c, and then as one of the leaders of the Free-Trade 
Unionists opposing Mr Chamberlain; and his elder brother Lord 
Robert Cecil (b. 1864), who had at first devoted himself to the 
bar and become a K.C., entered parliament in 1906 for Maryle- 
bone, holding views in sympathy with those of Lord Hugh, who 
had been defeated through the opposition of a Tariff Reform 
Unionist in a triangular contest at Greenwich, which gave the 
victory to the Radical candidate. In the elections of January 
1910 Lord Robert Cecil resigned his candidature for Marylebone, 
owing to the strong opposition of the Tariff Reformers, which 
threatened to divide the party and lose the seat; he stood for 
Blackburn as a Unionist Free Trader and was defeated. On 
the other hand Lord Hugh Cecil was returned for Oxford 
University in place of the Rt. Hon. J. G. Talbot. Lord Hugh's 
candidature, which was announced in 1909 simultaneously with 
the resignation of the sitting member, was opposed by many 
who disagreed with his fiscal views and his attitude on Church 
questions; but it was found that he had the support of the great 
majority of the electors, and he was ultimately returned un- 
opposed. ( H. Ch. ) 

SALISBURY, ROBERT CECIL, ist Earl of (c. 1565-1612), 
English lord treasurer, the exact year of whose birth is unrecorded, 
was the youngest son of William Cecil, ist Lord Burghley, 
and of his second wife Mildred, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, 
of Gidea Hall in Essex. He was educated in his father's house 
and at Cambridge University. In 1584 he was sent to France, 
and was returned the same year to parliament, and again in 
1586, as member for Westminster. In 1588 he accompanied 
Lord Derby in his mission to the Netherlands to negotiate peace 
with Spain,and sat in the parliament of 1588, and in the assemblies 
of 1593, 1597 and 1601 for Hertfordshire. About 1589 he appears 
to have entered upon the duties of secretary of state, though he 
did not receive the official appointment till 1596. On the 20th 
of May 1 591 he was knighted, and in August sworn of the privy 
council. In 1597 he was made chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, and in 1598 despatched on a mission to Henry IV. 
of France, to prevent the impending alliance between that 
country and Spain. The next year he succeeded his father as 
master of the court of wards. On Lord Burghley's death on 
the 4th of August both Essex and Bacon desired to succeed him 
in the supreme direction of affairs, but the queen preferred the 
son of her last great minister. On Essex's disgrace, consequent 
on his sudden and unauthorized abandonment of his command 
in Ireland, Cecil's conduct was worthy of high praise. " By 
employing his credit with Her Majesty in behalf of the Earl," 
wrote John Petit (June 14, 1600), " he has gained great credit 

to himself both at home and abroad." At this period began 
Cecil's secret correspondence with James in Scotland. Hitherto 
Cecil's enemies had persuaded James that the secretary was 
unfavourable to his claims to the English throne. An under- 
standing was now effected by which Cecil was able to assure 
James of his succession, ensure his own power and predominance 
in the new reign against Sir Walter Raleigh and other competitors, 
and secure the tranquillity of the last years of Elizabeth, the 
conditions demanded by him being that all attempts of James 
to obtain parliamentary recognition of his title should cease, 
that an absolute respect should be paid to the queen's feelings, 
and that the communications should remain a profound secret. 
Writing later in the reign of James, Cecil says: " If Her Majesty 
had known all I did, how well these (? she) should have known 
the innocency and constancy of my present faith, yet her age 
and orbity, joined to the jealousy of her sex, might have moved 
her to think ill of that which helped to preserve her." x 

Such was the nature of these secret communications, which, 
while they aimed at securing for Cecil a fresh lease of power 
in the new reign, conferred undoubted advantages on the country. 
Owing to Cecil's action, on the death of Elizabeth on the 24th of 
March 1603, James was proclaimed king, and took possession 
of the throne without opposition. Cecil was continued in his 
office, was created Baron Cecil of Essendon in Rutlandshire 
on the 13th of May, Viscount Cranborne on the 20th of August 
1604, and earl of Salisbury on the 4th of May 1605. He was 
elected chancellor of the University of Cambridge in February 
1601, and obtained the Garter in May 1606. Meanwhile Cecil's 
success had completed the discontent of Raleigh, who, exasperated 
at his dismissal from the captaincy of the guard, became involved 
— whether innocently or not is uncertain — in the treasonable 
conspiracy known as the " Bye Plot." Cecil took a leading 
part in his trial in July 1603, and, though probably convinced 
of his guilt, endeavoured to ensure him a fair trial and rebuked 
the attorney-general, Sir Edward Coke, for his harshness towards 
the prisoner. On the 6th of May 1608 the office of lord treasurer 
was added to Salisbury's other appointments, and the whole 
conduct of public affairs was placed solely in his hands. His 
real policy is not always easy to distinguish, for the king con- 
stantly interfered, and Cecil, far from holding any absolute or 
continuous control, was often not even an adviser but merely 
a follower, simulating approval of schemes opposed to his real 
judgment. In foreign affairs his aim was to preserve the balance 
of power between France and Spain, and to secure the independ- 
ence of the Netherlands from either state. He also hoped, like 
his father, to make England the head of the Protestant alliance 
abroad; and his last energies were expended in effecting the 
marriage in 161 2 of the princess Elizabeth, James's daughter, 
with the Elector Palatine. He was in favour of peace, preoccupied 
with the state of the finances at home and the decreasing revenue, 
and, though sharing Raleigh's dislike of Spain, was instrumental 
in making the treaty with that power in 1604. In June 1607 
he promised the support of the government to the merchants 
who complained of Spanish ill-usage, but declared that the 
commons must not meddle with questions of peace and war. 
In 161 1 he disapproved of the proposed marriage between the 
prince of Wales and the Infanta. His bias against Spain and 
his fidelity to the national interests render, therefore, his accept- 
ance of a pension from Spain a surprising incident in his career. 
At the conclusion of the peace in 1604 the sum Cecil received was 
£1000, which was raised the following year to £1500; while in 
1609 he demanded an augmentation and to be paid for each 
piece of information separately. If, as has been stated, 2 he 
received a pension also from France, it is not improbable that, 
like his contemporary Bacon, who accepted presents from 
suitors on both sides and still gave an independent decree, 
Cecil may have maintained a freedom from corrupting influences, 
while his acceptance of money as the price of information 
concerning the intentions of the government may have formed 

1 Correspondence of King James VI. of Scotland with Sir R. Cecil, 
ed. by J. Bruce (Camden Soc, 1861), p. xl. 

2 Gardiner, History of England, i. 214. 



part of a general policy of cultivating good relations with the 
two great rivals of England (one advantage of which was the 
communication of plots formed against the government), and 
of maintaining the balance of power between them. It is difficult, 
however, in the absence of complete information, to understand 
the exact nature and signification of these strange relations. 

As lord treasurer Salisbury showed considerable financial 
ability. During the year preceding his acceptance of that 
office the expenditure had risen to £500,000, leaving, with an 
ordinary revenue of about £320,000 and the subsidies voted by 
parliament, a yearly deficit of £73,000. Lord Salisbury took 
advantage of the decision by the judges in the court of exchequer 
in Bates's case in favour of the king's right to levy impositions; 
and (on the 28th of July 1608) imposed new duties on articles 
of luxury and those of foreign manufacture which competed with 
English goods, while lowering the dues on currants and tobacco. 
By this measure, and by a more careful collection, the ordinary 
income was raised to £460,000, while £700,000 was paid off 
the debt, leaving at the beginning of 1610 the sum of £300,000. 
This was a substantial reform, and if, as has been stated, the 
" total result of Salisbury's financial administration " was " the 
halving of the debt at the cost of doubling the deficiency," l 
the failure to secure a permanent improvement must be ascribed 
to the extravagance of James, who, disregarding his minister's 
entreaties and advice, continued to exceed his income by £149,000. 
But a want of statesmanship had been shown by Salisbury 
in forcing the king's legal right to levy impositions against the 
remonstrances of the parliament. In the " great contract," 
the scheme now put forward by Salisbury for settling the finances, 
his lack of political wisdom was still more apparent. The 
Commons were to guarantee a fixed annual subsidy, on condition 
of the abandonment of impositions and of the redress of grievances 
by the king. An unworthy and undignified system of higgling 
and haggling was initiated between the crown and the parlia- 
ment. Salisbury could only attribute the miscarriage of his 
scheme to the fact " that God did not bless it." But Bacon 
regarded it with severe disapproval, and in the parliament of 
1613, after the treasurer's death, he begged the king to abandon 
these humiliating and dangerous bargainings, " that your 
majesty do for this parliament put off the person of a merchant 
and contractor and rest upon the person of a king." In fact, 
the vicious principle was introduced that a redress of grievances 
could only be obtained by a payment of subsidies. The identity 
of interests between the crown and the nation which had made 
the reign of Elizabeth so glorious, and which she herself had 
consummated on the occasion of her last public appearance 
by a free and voluntary concession of these same impositions, 
was now destroyed, and a divergence of interests, made patent 
by vulgar bargaining, was substituted which stimulated the 
disastrous struggle between sovereign and people, and paralysed 
the national development for two generations. 

This was scarcely a time to expect any favours for the Roman 
Catholics, but Salisbury, while fearing that the Roman Church 
in England would become a danger to the state, had always been 
averse from prosecution for religijn, and he attempted to dis- 
tinguish between the large body of law-abiding and loyal Roman 
Catholics and those connected with plots and intrigues against 
the throne and government, making the offer in October 1607 
that if the pope would excommunicate those that rebelled against 
the king and oblige them to defend him against invasion, the 
fines for recusancy would be remitted and they would be allowed 
to keep priests in their houses. This was a fair measure of 
toleration. His want of true statesmanship was shown with 
regard to the Protestant Nonconformists, towards whom his 
attitude was identical with that afterwards maintained by Laud, 
and the same ideal pursued, namely that of material and outward 
conformity, Salisbury employing almost the same words as the 
archbishop later, that " unity in belief cannot be preserved 
unless it is to be found in worship." 2 

Bacon's disparaging estimate of his cousin and rival was 

1 Spedding, Life and Letters of Bacon, iv. 276. 
1 Gardiner, History of England, i. 199. 

probably tinged with some personal animus,- and instigated by 
the hope of recommending himself to James as his successor; 
but there is little doubt that his acute and penetrating description 
of Salisbury to James as one " fit to prevent things from growing 
worse but not fit to make them better," as one " greater in 
operatione than in opere," is a true one. 3 Elsewhere Bacon 
accuses him " of an artificial animating of the negative " — in 
modern language, of official obstruction and " red tape." But in 
one instance at least, when he advised James not to press forward 
too hastily the union of England and Scotland, a measure which 
especially appealed to Bacon's imagination and was ardently 
desired by him, Salisbury showed a prudence and judgment 
superior to his illustrious critic. It can scarcely be denied that 
he rendered substantial services to the state in times of great 
difficulty and perplexity, and these services would probably have 
been greater and more permanent had he served a better king and 
in more propitious times. Both Elizabeth and James found a 
security in Salisbury's calm good sense, safe, orderly official mind 
and practical experience of business, of which there was no 
guarantee in the restlessness of Essex, the enterprise of Raleigh 
or the speculation of Bacon. On the other hand, he was neither 
guided nor inspired by any great principle or ideal, he contributed 
nothing towards the settlement of the great national problems, 
and he precipitated by his ill-advised action the disastrous 
struggle between crown and parliament. 

Lord Salisbury died on the 24th of May 16 12, at the parsonage 
house at Marlborough, while returning to London from taking the 
waters at Bath. During his long political career he had amassed 
a large fortune, besides inheriting a considerable portion of Lord 
Burghley's landed estate. In 1607 he exchanged, at the king's 
request, his estate of Theobalds in Hertfordshire for Hatfield. 
Here he built the magnificent house of which he himself conceived 
the plans and the design, but which he did not live to inhabit, 
its completion almost coinciding with his death. In person and 
figure he was in strange contrast with his rivals at court, being 
diminutive in stature, ill-formed and weak in health. Elizabeth 
styled him her pygmy; his enemies delighted in vilifying his 
"wry neck," "crooked back" and "splayfoot," andin Bacon's 
essay on " Deformity," it was said, " the world takes notice that 
he paints out his little cousin to the life." 4 Molin, the Venetian 
ambassador in England, gives a similar description of his person, 
but adds that he had "a noble countenance and features." 6 
Lord Salisbury wrote The State and Dignitie of a Secretaire of 
Estate's Place (publ. 1642, reprinted in Harleian Miscellany, ii. 
and Somers Tracts (1809), v.; see also Harleian MSS. 305 and 
354), and An Answer to Certain Scandalous Papers scattered 
abroad under Colour of a Catholick Admonition (1606), justifying 
his attitude towards recusants after the discovery of the Gun- 
powder Plot (Harl. Misc. ii.; Somers Tracts, v.). He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Brooke, 5th Baron Cobham, 
by whom, besides one daughter, he had William (1591-1668), his 
successor as 2nd earl. 

No complete life of Robert Cecil has been attempted, but the 
materials for it are very extensive, including Hist. MSS. Comm. 
Series, Marquis of Salisbury's MSS. (superseding former reports in 
the series), from which MSS. selections were published in 1740 by 
S. Haynes, by Wm. Murdin in 1759, by John Bruce, in The Corre- 
spondence of King James VI. with Sir Robert Cecil, in 1 86 1 (Camden 
Society), and by Ed. Lodge, in Illustrations of English History , in 1838. 

The 2nd earl of Salisbury, who sided with the parliament 
during the Civil War and represented his party in negotiations 
with the king at Uxbridge and at Newport, was succeeded by his 
grandson James (1648-1683) as 3rd earl. James's descendant, 
James, the 7th earl (1 748-1823), who was lord chamberlain of 
the royal household from 1783 to 1804, was created marquess of 
Salisbury in 1789. His son and successor, James Brownlow 
William, the 2nd marquess (1791-1868), married Frances Mary, 
daughter of Bamber Gascoyne of Childwall Hall, Lancashire, 
and took the name of Gascoyne before that of Cecil. He was 
lord privy seal in 1852 and lord president of the council in 1858- 
1859; his son and heir was the famous prime minister. 

3 Spedding, Life and Letters of Bacon, iv. 278 note, 279. 

4 Chamberlain to Carleton, Birch's Court of King James, i. 214. 
6 Col. of Slate Papers: Venetian, x. 515. 



(1388-1428), was son of John, the third earl, who was executed 
in 1400 as a supporter of Richard II. Thomas was granted part 
of his father's estates and summoned to parliament in 1409, 
though not fully restored till 1421. He was present throughout 
the campaign of Agincourt in 141 5, and at the naval engagement 
before Harfleur in 1416. In the expedition of 1417-18 he served 
with increasing distinction, and especially at the siege of Rouen. 
During the spring of 1419 he held an independent command, 
capturing Fecamp, Honfleur and other towns, was appointed 
lieutenant-general of Normandy, and created earl of Perche. 
In 1420 he was in chief command in Maine, and defeated the 
Marechal de Rieux near Le Mans. When Henry V. went home 
next year Salisbury remained in France as the chief lieutenant 
of Thomas, duke of Clarence. The duke, through his own rash- 
ness, was defeated at Bauge on the 21st of March 1421. Salisbury 
came up with the archers too late to retrieve the day,but recovered 
the bodies of the dead, and by a skilful retreat averted further 
disaster. He soon gathered a fresh force, and in June was able to 
report to the king " this part of your land stood in good plight 
never so well as now." (Foedera, x. 131). Salisbury's success 
in Maine marked him out as John of Bedford's chief lieutenant 
in the war after Henry's death. In 1423 he was appointed 
governor of Champagne, and by his dash and vigour secured one 
of the chief victories of the war at Cravant on the 30th of July. 
Subsequent operations completed the conquest of Champagne, 
and left Salisbury free to join Bedford at Verneuil. There on 
the 17th of August, 1424, it was his "judgment and valour " 
that won the day. During the next fhree years Salisbury was 
employed on the Norman border and in Maine. After a year's 
visit to England he returned to the chief command in the field in 
July, 1428. Against the judgment of Bedford he determined 
to make Orleans his principal objective, and began the siege on 
the 1 2th of October. Prosecuting it with his wonted vigour 
he stormed Tourelles, the castle which protected the southern end 
of the bridge across the Loire, on the 24th of October. Three 
days later whilst surveying the city from a window in Tourelles 
he was wounded by a cannon-shot, and died on the 3rd of 
November 1428. Salisbury was the most skilful soldier on the 
English side after the death of Henry V. Though employed on 
diplomatic missions both by Henry V. and Bedford, he took no 
part in politics save for a momentary support of Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester, during his visit to England in 1427-1428. 
He was a patron of John Lydgate, who presented to him his 
book The Pilgrim (now Harley MS. 4826, with a miniature of 
Salisbury, engraved in Strutt's Regal Antiquities). By his first 
wife Eleanor Holand, daughter of Thomas, earl of Kent, Salisbury 
had an only daughter Alice, in her right earl of Salisbury, who 
married Richard Neville, and was mother of Warwick the King- 
maker. His second wife Alice was grand-daughter of Geoffrey 
Chaucer, and after his death married William de la Pole, duke of 

The chief accounts of Salisbury's campaigns are to be found in the 
Gesta Henrici Quinti, edited by B. Williams for the Eng. Hist. Soc. 
(London, 1850) in the Vita Henrici Quinti (erroneously attributed to 
Thomas of Elmham), edited by T. Hearne (Oxford, 1727); the 
Chronique of E. de Monstrelet, edited by L. D. d'Arcq (Paris, 1857- 
1862) ; the Chrtmiques of Jehan de Waurin, edited by W. and 
E. L. C. P. Hardy (London, 1864-1891); and the Chronique de la 
Pucelle of G. Cousinot, edited by Vaflet de Viriville (Paris, 1859). 
For modern accounts see Sir J. H. Ramsay, Lancaster and York 
(Oxford, 1892); and C. Oman, Political History of England, 1377- 
1485 (London, 1906). (C. L. K.) 

Earl of (d. 1226), was an illegitimate son of Henry II. In 
1 1 98 he received from King Richard I. the hand of Isabella, or 
Ela (d. 1261), daughter and heiress of William, earl of Salisbury, 
and was granted this title with the lands of the earldom. He 
held many high offices under John, and commanded a section 
of the English forces at Bouvines (1214), when he was made a 
prisoner. He remained faithful to the royal house except for 
a few months in 1216, when John's cause seemed hopelessly 
lost. He was also a supporter of Hubert de Burgh. In 1225 

he went on an expedition to Gascony, being wrecked on the 
Isle of Re on the return voyage. The hardships of this adventure 
undermined his health, and he died at Salisbury on the 7th of 
March 1226, and was buried in the cathedral there. The eldest 
of Longsword's four sons, William (6.1212-1250) did not receive 
his father's earldom, although he is often called earl of Salisbury. 
In 1247 he led the English crusaders to join the French at 
Damietta and was killed in battle with the Saracens in February 

SALISBURY, a township of Litchfield county, in the north- 
western corner of Connecticut, U.S.A. Pop. (1910) 3322. Area, 
about 58 sq. m. Salisbury is served by the Central New England, 
and the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways. In the 
township are several villages, including Salisbury, Lakeville, 
Lime Rock, Chapinville and Ore Hill. Much of the township is 
hilly, and Bear Mountain (2355 ft.), near the Massachusetts 
line, is the highest elevation in the state. The Housatonic 
river forms the eastern boundary. The township is a summer 
resort. In it are the Scoville Memorial Library (about 8000 
volumes in 1910); the Hotchkiss preparatory school (opened in 
1892, for boys); the Salisbury School (Protestant Episcopal, 
for boys), removed to Salisbury from Staten Island in 1901 and 
formerly St Austin's school; the Taconic School (1896, for girls); 
and the Connecticut School for Imbeciles (established as a private 
institution in 1858). Among the manufactures are charcoal, 
pig-iron, car wheels and general castings at Lime Rock, cutlery 
at Lakeville, and knife-handles and rubber brushes at Salisbury. 
The iron mines are among the oldest in the country; mining 
began probably as early as 1731. 

The first settlement within the township was made in 1720 by 
Dutchmen and Englishmen, who in 17 19 had bought from the Indians 
a tract of land along the Housatonic, called " Weatogue " — an 
Indian word said to mean " the wigwam place." In 1732 the 
township was surveyed with its present boundaries, and in 1738 the 
land (exclusive of that held under previous grants) was auctioned 
by the state at Hartford. In that year the present name was 
adopted, and in 1741 the township was incorporated. 

See Malcolm D. Rudd, An Historical Sketch of Salisbury, Con- 
necticut (New York, 1899); and Ellen S. Bartlett, " Salisbury," in 
The Connecticut Quarterly, vol. iv. No. 4, pp. 345 sqq. (Hartford, 
Conn., 1898). 

SALISBURY, a city and municipal and parliamentary borough, 
and the county town of Wiltshire, England, 83J m. W. by S. 
of London, on the London and South- Western and Great Western 
railways. Pop. (1901) 17,117. Its situation is beautiful. 
Viewed from the hills which surround it the city is seen to lie 
among flat meadows mainly on the north bank of the river 
Avon, which is here joined by four tributaries. The magnificent 
cathedral stands close to the river, on the south side of the city, 
the streets of which are in part laid out in squares called the 
" Chequers." To the north rises the bare upland of Salisbury 

The cathedral church of St Mary is an unsurpassed example of 
Early English architecture, begun and completed, save its spire and 
a few details, within one brief period (1220-1266). There is atradi- 
tion, supported by probability, that Elias de Derham, canon of the 
cathedral (d. 1245), was the principal architect. He was at Salisbury 
in 1220-1229, and had previously taken part in the erection of the 
shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury. The building is 473 ft. 
in extreme length, the length of the nave being 229 ft. 6 in., the 
choir 151 ft., and the lady chapel 68 ft. 6 in. The width of the 
nave is 82 ft. and the height 84 ft. The spire, the highest in England, 
measures 404 ft. (For plan, see Architecture : Romanesque and 
Gothic in England.) The cathedral, standing in a broad grassy close, 
consists of a nave of ten bays, with aisles and a lofty north porch, 
main transepts with eastern aisles, choir with aisles, lesser transepts, 
presbytery and lady chapel. The two upper storeys of the tower 
and the spire above are early Decorated. The west front, the last 
portion of the original building completed, bears in its rich orna- 
mentation signs of the transition to the Decorated style. The perfect 
uniformity of the building is no less remarkable within than without. 
The frequent use of Purbeck marble for shafts contrasts beautifully 
with the delicate grey freestone which is the principal building 
material. In the nave is a series of monuments of much interest, 
which ■ were placed here by James Wyatt, who, in an unhappy 
restoration of the cathedral (1782-1791), destroyed many magnificent 
stained-glass windows which had escaped the Reformation, and also 
removed two Perpendicular chapels and the detached belfry which 
stood to the north-west of the cathedral. One of the memorials is a 



small figure of a bishop in robes. This was long connected with the 
ceremony of the " boy bishop," which, as practised both here and 
elsewhere until its suppression by Queen Elizabeth, consisted in the 
election of a choir-boy as " bishop ' during the period between St 
Nicholas' and Holy Innocents' Days. The figure was supposed to 
represent a boy who died during his tenancy of the office. But such 
small figures occur elsewhere, and have been supposed to mark 
the separate burial-place of the heart. The lady chapel is the earliest 
part of the original building, as the west end is the latest. The 
cloisters, south of the church, were built directly after its completion. 
The chapter-house is of the time of Edward I., a very fine octagonal 
example, with a remarkable series of contemporary sculptures. 
The library contains many valuable MSS. and ancient printed books. 
The diocese covers nearly the whole of Dorsetshire, the greater part 
of Wiltshire and very small portions of Berkshire, Hampshire, 
Somersetshire and Devonshire. ' 

There are three ancient parish churches: St Martin's, with square 
tower and spire, and possessing a Norman font and Early English 
portions in the choir; St Thomas's (of Canterbury), founded in 1240 
as a chapel to the cathedral, and rebuilt in the 15th century; and St 
Edmund's, founded as the collegiate church of secular canons in 
1268, but subsequently rebuilt in the Perpendicular period. The 
residence of the college of secular priests is occupied by the modern 
ecclesiastical college of St Edmund's, founded in 1873. St John's 
chapel, founded by Bishop Robert Bingham in the 13th century, is 
occupied by a dwelling-house. There is a beautiful chapel attached 
to the St Nicholas hospital. The poultry cross, or high cross, an 
open hexagon with six arches and a central pillar, was erected by 
Lord Montacute before 1335.' In the market-place is Marochetti's 
statue to Sidney Herbert, Lord Herbert of Lea. The modern public 
buildings include the court-house, market, corn exchange and theatre. 
A park was laid out in 1887 to commemorate the jubilee of Queen 
Victoria, and in the same year a statue was erected to Henry Fawcett, 
the economist, who was born at Salisbury. Among remaining 
specimens of ancient domestic architecture may be mentioned the 
banqueting-hall of John Halle, wool merchant, built about 1470; 
and Audley House, belonging also to the 15th century, and repaired 
in 1881 as a diocesan church house. There are a large number of 
educational and other charities, including the bishop's grammar 
school, Queen Elizabeth's grammar school, the St Nicholas hospital 
and Trinity hospital, founded by Agnes Bottenham in 1379. Brew- 
ing, tanning, carpet-making and the manufacture of hardware and 
of boots and shoes are carried on, and there is a considerable agricul- 
tural trade. The city is governed by a mayor, 7 aldermen and 21 
councillors. Area, 1710 acres. 

History. — The neighbourhood of Salisbury is rich in anti- 
quities. The famous megalithic remains of Stonehenge (g.v.) are 
not far distant. From Milford Hill and Fisherton 
Sarum. many prehistoric relics have been brought to the fine 
Blackmore Museum in the city. But the site most 
intimately associated with Salisbury is that of Old Sarum, the 
history of which forms the preface to that of the modern city. 
This is a desolate place, lying a short distance north of Salisbury, 
with a huge mound guarded by a fosse and earthworks. The 
summit is hollowed out like a crater, its rim surmounted by 
a rampart so deeply cut away that its inner side rises like 
a sheer wall of chalk 100 ft. high. 

Old Sarum was probably one of the chief fortresses of the early 
Britons and was known to the Romans as Sorbiodunum. Cerdic, 
founder of the West Saxon kingdom, fixed his seat there in the 
beginning of the 6th century. Alfred strengthened the castle, 
and it was selected by Edgar as a place of national assembly 
to devise means of checking the Danes. Under Edward the 
Confessor it possessed a mint. The ecclesiastical importance 
of Old Sarum begins with the establishment of a nunnery by 
Edward the Confessor. Early in the 8th century Wiltshire had 
been divided between the new diocese of Sherborne a'nd that of 
Winchester. About 920 a bishopric had been created at Rams- 
bury, east of Savernake Forest; to this Sherborne was joined in 
1058 and in 1075/6 Old Sarum became the seat of a bishopric, 
transferred hither from Sherborne. Osmund, the second bishop, 
revised the form of communion service in general use, compiling 
a missal which forms the groundwork of the celebrated " Sarum 
Use." The "Sarum Breviary" was printed at Venice in 1483, 
and upon this, the most widely prevalent of English liturgies, 
the prayer-books of Edward VI. were mainly based. Osmund 
also built a cathedral, in the form of a plain cross, and this was 
traceable in the very dry summer of 1834. Old Sarum could 
have afforded little room for a cathedral, bishop's palace, 
garrison and townsfolk. The priests complained of their bleak 


and waterless abode, and still more of its transference to the 
keeping of lay castellans. Soldiers and priests were at perpetual 
feud ; and after a licence had been granted by Pope Honorius 
III., it was decided to move down into the fertile Avon valley. 
In 1 102 the notorious bishop, Roger Poore, by virtue of his 
office of sheriff, obtained custody of the castle and the grant of 
a comprehensive charter from Henry I. which confirmed and 
extended the possessions of the ecclesiastical establishment, 
annexed new benefactions and granted perpetual freedom in 
markets and fairs from all tolls and customs. This was confirmed 
by Henry II., John, and Henry III. With the building of New 
Sarum in the 13th century and the transference to it of the see, 
Old Sarum lapsed to the crown. It has since changed hands 
several times, and under James I. formed part of the property 
of the earldom of Salisbury. By the 16th century it was almost 
entirely in ruins, and in 1608 it was ordered that the town walls 
should be entirely demolished. The borough returned two 
members to parliament from 1295 until 1832 when it was de- 
prived of representation by the Reform Act, the privilege of 
election being vested in the proprietors of certain free burgage 
tenures. In the 14th century the town appears to have been 
divided into aldermanries, the will of one John atte Stone, dated 
1361, including a bequest of land within the aldermanry of 
Newton. In 1 102 Henry I. granted a yearly fair for seven days, 
on August 14 and for three days before and after. Henry III. 
granted another fair for three days from June 28, and Richard 
II. for eight days from September 30. 

The new city, under the name of New Sarum (New Saresbury, 
Salisbury) immediately began to spring up round the cathedral 
close. A charter of Henry III. in 1227 recites the 
removal from Old Sarum, the king's ratification and 
his laying the foundation-stone of the church. It 
then grants and confirms to the bishops, canons and citizens, 
all liberties and free customs previously enjoyed, and declares 
New Sarum to be a free city and to constitute forever part of the 
bishop's demesne. During the three following centuries periodical 
disputes arose between the bishop and the town, ending generally 
in the complete submission of the latter. One of these resulted 
in 1472 in the grant of a new charter by Edward IV. empowering 
the bishop to enforce the regular election of a mayor, and to 
make laws for governing the town. In 1611 the city obtained 
a charter of incorporation from James I. under the title of 
" mayor and commonalty " of the city of New Sarum, the 
governing body to consist of a mayor, recorder and twenty- 
four aldermen, with power to make by-laws. This charter was 
renewed by Charles I. and confirmed by Cromwell in 1656. 
The latter recites that since the deprivation of archbishops 
and bishops, by parliament, the mayor and commonalty have 
bought certain possessions of the late bishop of New Sarum, 
together with fairs and markets. These it confirms, constitutes 
the town a city and county, subjects the close to its jurisdiction 
and invests the bailiff with the powers of a sheriff. In 1659 
with the restoration of the bishops, the ancient charter of the 
city was revived and that of 1656 cancelled. In 1684 during the 
friction between Charles II. and the towns, Salisbury surrendered 
its charter voluntarily. Four years later in 1688 James II. 
restored to all cities their ancient charters, and the bishop 
continued to hold New Sarum as his demesne until 1835. The 
Municipal Corporations Act of that year reported that Salisbury 
was still governed under the charter of 161 1, as modified by later 
ones of Charles II., James II. and Anne. 

In 1 221 Henry III. granted the bishop a fair for two days from 
August 14, which in 1227 was prolonged to eight days. Two 
general fairs were obtained from Cromwell in 1656, on the 
Tuesday before Whit-Sunday and on the Tuesday in the second 
week before Michaelmas. In 1792 the fairs were held on the 
Tuesday after January 6, on the Tuesday and Wednesday after 
March 2 5, on Whit-Monday, on the second Tuesday in September, 
on the second Tuesday after October 10, and on the Tuesday 
before Christmas Day; in 1888 on July 15 and October 18; and 
now on the Tuesdays after January 6 and October 10. A large 
pleasure-fair was held until recently on Whit-Monday and 



Tuesday, but in 1885 this was reported as of bad character and 
it is now discontinued. A grant of a weekly market on Tuesday 
was obtained from Henry III. in 1227. In 1240 this privilege 
was being abused, a daily market being held, which was finally 
prohibited in 1361. In 13 16 a market on Saturday was granted 
by Edward II. and in 1656 another on every second Tuesday 
by Cromwell. In 1769 a wholesale cloth market was appointed 
to be held yearly on August 24. In 1888 and 1891 the market 
days were Tuesday and Saturday. A great corn market is now 
held every Tuesday, a cattle market on alternate Tuesdays, and 
a cheese market on the second Thursday in the month. Salisbury 
returned two members to parliament until 1885 when the number 
was reduced to one. As early as 1334 the town took part in 
foreign trade and was renowned for its breweries and woollen 
manufactories, and the latter industry continued until the 17th 
century, but has now entirely declined. Commercial activity 
gave rise to numerous confraternities amongst the various trades, 
such as those of the tailors, weavers and cutlers. The majority 
originated under Edward IV., though the most ancient — that 
of the tailors — was said to have been formed under Henry VI. 
and still existed in 1835. The manufacture of cutlery, once a 
flourishing industry, is now decayed. 

See Victoria County History. Wiltshire; Sir R. C. Hoare, History 
of New Sarum (1843) ; and History of Old Sarum (1843). 

SALISBURY, a town and the county-seat of Wicomico county, 
Maryland, U.S.A., on the Wicomico river, about 23 m. from its 
mouth. Pop. (1900) 4277, including 1006 negroes; (1910) 6690. 
It is served by the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic (which has 
shops here), and the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk 
railways, and by steamers on the Wicomico river, which 
has a channel 9 ft. deep; Salisbury is the head of navigation. 
Grain, vegetables and lumber are shipped along the coast. 
Salisbury was founded in 1732, organized as a town in 1812, 
and incorporated in 1854 and again in 1888. 

SALISBURY, a city and the county-seat of Rowan county, 
North Carolina, U.S.A., about 120 m. W. by S. of Raleigh. 
Pop. (1890) 4418; (1900) 6277 (2408 negroes); (1910) 7153. 
Salisbury is served by the Southern railway, which has repair 
shops here. It is the seat • of Livingstone College (African 
Methodist Episcopal, removed from Concord to Salisbury in 
1882, chartered 1885). There is a national cemetery here, 
in which 12,147 Federal soldiers are buried. The city has various 
manufactures and is the trade centre of the surrounding farming 
country. Salisbury was founded about 1753, was first incorpo- 
rated as a town in 1755 and first chartered as a city in 1770. 
During the Civil War there was a Confederate military prison 
here. On the 12th of April 1865 the main body of General 
George Stoneman's cavalry encountered near Salisbury a force 
of about 3000 Confederates under General William M. Gardner, 
and captured 1364 prisoners and 14 pieces of artillery. 

SALISHAN, the name of a linguistic family of North American 
Indian tribes, the more important of which are the Salish (Flat- 
heads), Bellacoola, Clallam, Colville, Kalispel, Lummi, Nisqually, 
Okinagan, Puyallup, Quinault, Sanpoil, Shushwap, Skokomish, 
Songeesh, Spokan and Tulalip. They number about 20,000, 
and live in the southern part of British Columbia, the coast of 
Oregon, and the north-west of Washington, Montana and Idaho. 
SALLI (Sid), a seaport on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, on 
the north side of the Bu Ragrag opposite Rabat (q.v). Pop. 
about 30,000. The shrine of Sidi Abd Allah Hasun in Salli 
is so sacred as to close the street in which it stands to any but 
Moslems. Outside the town walls there is no security for life 
or property. A bar at the mouth of the river excludes vessels 
of more than two hundred tons; steamers lie outside, communi- 
cating with the port by lighters of native build manned by 
descendants of the pirates known as "Salli Rovers." (See 
Barbary Pirates.) 

SALLO, DENIS DE, Sieur de la Coudraye [pseudonym Sieur 
d' Hidonville] (1626-1669), French writer, and founder of the 
first French literary and scientific journal, was born at Paris 
in 1626. In 1665 he published the first number of the Journal 
des savants. The Journal, under his direction, was suppressed 

after the thirteenth number, but was revived shortly afterwards. 
He died in Paris on the 14th of May 1669. 

SALLUST [Gaius Sallustius Crispus] (86-34 B.C.), Roman 
historian, belonging to a well-known plebeian family, was born 
at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines. After an ill-spent 
youth he entered public life, and was elected tribune of the 
people in 52, the year in which Clodius was killed in a street 
brawl by the followers of Milo. ■ Sallust was opposed to Milo 
and to Pompey's party and to the old aristocracy of Rome. 
From the first he was a decided partisan of Caesar, to whom 
he owed such political advancement as he attained. In 50 he 
was removed from the senate by the censor Appius Claudius 
Pulcher on the ground of gross immorality, the real reason 
probably being his friendship for Caesar. In the following year, 
no doubt through Caesar's influence, he was reinstated and 
appointed quaestor. In 46 he was praetor, and accompanied 
Caesar in his African campaign, which ended in the decisive 
defeat of the remains of the Pompeian party at Thapsus. As 
a reward for his services, Sallust was appointed governor of the 
province of Numidia. In this capacity he was guilty of such 
oppression and extortion that only the influence of Caesar 
enabled him to escape condemnation. On his return to Rome 
he purchased and laid out in great splendour the famous gardens 
on the Quirinal known as the Horti Sallustiani. He now retired 
from public life and devoted himself to historical literature. 
His account of the Catiline conspiracy (De conjuratione Catilinae 
or Bellum Catilinarium) and of the Jugurthine War (Bellum 
Jugurthinum) have come down to us complete, together with 
fragments of his larger and most important work (Hisloriae), 
a history of Rome from 78—67, intended as a continuation of 
L. Cornelius Sisenna's work. The Catiline Conspiracy (his first 
published work) contains the history of the memorable year 63. 
Sallust adopts the usually accepted view of Catiline, and describes 
him as the deliberate foe of law, order and morality, without 
attempting to give any adequate explanation of his views and 
intentions. Catiline, it must be remembered, had supported 
the party of Sulla, to which Sallust was opposed. There may be 
truth in Mommsen's suggestion that he was particularly anxious 
to clear his patron Caesar of all complicity in the conspiracy. 
Anyhow, the subject gave him the opportunity of showing off 
his rhetoric at the expense of the old Roman aristocracy, whose 
degeneracy he delighted to paint in the blackest colours. On 
the whole, he is not unfair towards Cicero. His Jugurthine War, 
again, though a valuable and interesting monograph, is not a 
satisfactory performance. We may assume that he had collected 
materials and put together notes for it during his governor- 
ship of Numidia. Here, too, he dwells upon the feebleness of 
the senate and aristocracy*'too often in a tiresome, moralizing 
and philosophizing vein, but as a military history the work is 
unsatisfactory in the matter of geographical and chronological 
details. The extant fragments of the Histories (some discovered 
in 1886) are enough to show the political partisan, who took 
a keen pleasure in describing the reaction against the dictator's 
policy and legislation after his death. The loss of the work 
is to be regretted, as it must have thrown much light on a very 
eventful period, embracing the war against Sertorius, the 
campaigns of Lucullus against Mithradates of Pontus, and the 
victories of the great Pompey in the East. Two letters (Duae 
epistolae de republica ordinanda), letters of political counsel 
and advice addressed to Caesar, and an attack upon Cicero 
(Invectiva or Declamatio in Ciceronem), frequently attributed 
to Sallust, are probably the work of a rhetorician of the first 
century A.D., also the author of a counter-invective by Cicero. 
Sallust is highly spoken of by Tacitus (Annals, iii. 30); and 
Quintilian (ii. 5, x. 1), who regards him as superior to Livy, 
does not hesitate to put him on a level with Thucydides On 
the whole the verdict of antiquity was favourable to Sallust 
as an historian. He struck out for himself practically a new 
line in literature, his predecessors having been little better than 
mere dry-as-dust chroniclers, whereas he endeavoured to explain 
the connexion and meaning of events, and was a successful 
delineator of character. The contrast between his early life 



and the high moral tone adopted by him in his writings was 
frequently made a subject of reproach against him; but there 
is no reason why he should not have reformed. In any case, 
his knowledge of his own former weaknesses may have led him 
to take a pessimistic view of the morality of his fellow-men, and 
to judge them severely. His model was Thucydides, whom he 
imitated in his truthfulness and impartiality, in the introduction 
of philosophizing reflections and speeches, and in the brevity 
of his style, sometimes bordering upon obscurity. His fondness 
for old words and phrases, in which he imitated his contemporary 
Cato, was ridiculed as an affectation; but it was just this 
affectation and his rhetorical exaggerations that made Sallust 
a favourite author in the 2nd century a.d. and later. 

Editions and translations in various languages are numerous. 
Editio princeps (1470); (text) R. Dietsch (1874); H. Jordan 
(1887); A. Eussner (1887); (text and notes) F. D. Gerlach (1823- 
1831); F. Kritz (1828-1853; ed. minor, 1856); C. H. Frotscher 
(1830); C. Merivale (1852); F. Jacobs, H. Wirz (1894); G. Long, 
revised by J. G. Frazer, with chief fragments of Histories (1884); 
W. W. Capes (1884); English translation by A. W. Pollard (1882). 
There are many separate editions of the Catilina and Jugurtha, 
chiefly for school use. The fragments have been edited by F. Kritz 
(1853) and B. Maurenbrecher (1891-1893); and there is an Italian 
translation (with notes) of the supposititious letters by G. Vittori 
(1897). On Sallust generally J. W. Lobell's Zur Beurtheilung des S. 
(18 1 8) should still be consulted; there are also treatises by T. Vogel 
(1857) and M. Jager (1879 and 1884), T. Rambeau (1879); L. 
Constans, De sermone Sallustiano (1880); P. Bellezza, Dei fonti e 
dell' autorila storica di Sallusiio (1891); and special lexicon by 
O. Eichert (1885). The sections in Teuffel-Schwabe's History of 
Roman Literature are full of information ; see also bibliography of 
Sallust for 1 878-1 898 by B. Maurenbrecher in C. Bursian, Jahres- 
bericht uber die Fortschritle der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 

SALMASIUS, CLAUDIUS, the Latinized name of Claude 
Saumaise (1588-1653), French classical scholar, born at Semur- 
en-Auxois in Burgundy on the 15th of April 1588. His father, 
a counsellor of the parlement of Dijon, sent him, at the age of 
sixteen, to Paris, where he became intimate with Casaubon. 
He proceeded in 1606 to the university of Heidelberg, where he 
devoted himself to the classics. 

Here he embraced Protestantism, the religion of his mother; and 
his first publication (1608) was an edition of a work by NilusCabasilas, 
archbishop of Thessalonica, in the 14th century, against the primacy 
of the pope {De primatu Papae), and of a similar tract by the Cala- 
brian monk Barlaam (d. c. 1348). In 1609 he brought out an edition 
of Florus. He then returned to Burgundy, ana 1 qualified for the 
succession to his father's post, which he eventually lost on account of 
his religion. In 1620 he published Casaubon's notes on the Augustan 
History, with copious additions of his own. In 1623 he married Anne 
Mercier, a Protestant lady of a distinguished family; the union 
was by no means a happy one, his wife being represented as a second 
Xanthippe. In 1629 Salmasius produced his magnum opus as a 
critic, his commentary on Solinus's Polyhistor, or rather on Pliny, to 
whom Solinus is indebted for the most important part of his work. 
Greatly as this commentary may have been overrated by his con- 
temporaries, it is a monument of learning and industry. Salmasius 
learned Arabic to qualify himself for the botanical part of his task. 
After declining overtures from Oxford, Padua and Bologna, in 1631 
he accepted the professorship formerly held by Joseph Scaliger at 
Leiden. Although the appointment in many ways suited him, he 
found the climate trying; and he was persistently attacked by a 
jealous clique, led by Daniel Heinsius, who as university librarian 
refused him access to the books he wished to consult. Shortly after 
his removal to Holland, he composed at the request of Prince 
Frederick of Nassau, his treatise on the military system of the Romans 
(De re militari Romanorum), which was not published until 1657. 
Other works followed, mostly philological, but including a denuncia- 
tion of wigs and hair-powder, and a vindication of moderate and 
lawful interest for money, which, although it drew down upon him 
many expostulations from lawyers and theologians, induced the 
Dutch Church to admit money-lenders to the sacrament. His 
treatise De primatu Papae (1645), accompanying a republication of 
the tract of Nilus Cabasilas, excited a warm controversy in France, 
but the government declined to suppress it. 

In November 1649 appeared the work by which Salmasius 
is best remembered, his Defensio regia pro Carolo I. His advice 
had already been sought on English and Scottish affairs, and, 
inclining to Presbyterianism or a modified Episcopacy, he had 
written against the Independents. It does not appear by whose 
influence he was induced to undertake the Defensio regia, but 
Charles II. defrayed the expense of printing, and presented the 

author with £100. The first edition was anonymous, but the 
author was universally known. A French translation which 
speedily appeared under the name of Claude Le Gros was the 
work of Salmasius himself. This celebrated work, in our day 
principally famous for the reply it provoked from Milton, even 
in its own time added little to the reputation of the author. His 
reply to Milton, which he left unfinished at his death, and which 
was published by his son in 1660, is insipid as well as abusive. 
Until the appearance of Milton's rejoinder in March 1651 the 
effect of the Defensio was no doubt considerable ; and it probably 
helped to procure him the flattering invitation from Queen 
Christina which induced him to visit Sweden in 1650. Christina 
loaded him with gifts and distinctions, but upon the appearance 
of Milton's book was unable to conceal her conviction that he 
had been worsted by his antagonist. Milton, addressing Christina 
herself, ascribes Salmasius's withdrawal from Sweden in 1651 
to mortification at this affront, but this appears to be negatived 
by the warmth of Christina's subsequent letters and her pressing 
invitation to return. The claims of the university of Leiden and 
dread of a second Swedish winter seem fully adequate motives. 
Nor is there any foundation for the belief that Milton's invectives 
hastened his death, which took place on the 3rd of September 
1653, from an injudicious use of the Spa waters. 

As a commentator and verbal critic, Salmasius is entitled to very 
high rank. His notes on the Augustan History and Solinus display 
not only massive erudition but massive good sense as well; his 
perception of the meaning of his author is commonly very acute, 
arid his corrections of the text are frequently highly felicitous. 
His manly independence was shown in many circumstances, and the 
bias of his mind was liberal and sensible. He was accused of sour- 
ness of temper; but the charge, if it had any foundation, is extenu- 
ated by the wretched condition of his health. 

The life of Salmasius was written at great length by Philibert de 
la Mare, counsellor of the parlement of Dijon, who inherited his MSS. 
from his son. Papillon says that this biography left nothing to 
desire, but it has never been printed. It was, however, used by 
Papillon himself, whose account of Salmasius in hisBibliotheque des 
auteurs de Bourgogne (Dijon, 1745) is by far the best extant, and con- 
tains an exhaustive list of his works, both printed and in MS. There 
is an Uoge by A. Clement prefixed to his edition of Salmasius's 
Letters (Leiden, 1656), and another by C. B. Morisot, inserted in his 
own Letters (Dijon, 1656). See also E. Haag, La France protestante, 
(ix. 149-173); and, for the Defensio regia, G. Masson's Life of 

SALMERON Y ALFONSO, NICOLAS (1838-1908), Spanish 
statesman, was born at Alhama la Seca in the province of Almeria, 
on the 10th of April 1838. He was educated at Granada and 
became assistant professor of literature and philosophy at 
Madrid. The last years of the reign of Isabella II. were times 
of growing discontent with her bad government and with the 
monarchy. Salmeron joined the small party who advocated 
the establishment of a republic. He was director of the Opposi- 
tion paper La Discusion, and co-operated with Don Emilio 
Castelar on La Democracia. In 1865 he was named one of the 
members of the directing committee of the Republican party. 
In 1867 he was imprisoned with other suspects. When the 
revolution of September 1868 broke out, he was at Almeria 
recovering from a serious illness. Salmeron was elected to the 
Cortes in 1871, and though he did not belong to the Socialist 
party, defended its right to toleration. When Don Amadeo of 
Savoy resigned the Spanish crown on the nth of February 1873 
Salmeron was naturally marked out to be a leader of the party 
which endeavoured to establish a republic in Spain. After 
serving as minister of justice in the Figueras cabinet, he was 
chosen president of the Cortes, and then, on the 1 8th of July 
1873, president of the republic, in succession to Pi Margall. 
He became president at a time when the Federalist party had 
thrown all the south of Spain into anarchy. Salmeron was 
compelled to use the troops to restore order. When, however, 
he found that the generals insisted on executing rebels taken in 
arms, he resigned on the ground that he was opposed to capital 
punishment (7th September). He resumed his seat as president 
of the Cortes on the 8th of September. His successor, Castelar, 
was compelled to restore order by drastic means. Salmeron 
took part in the attack made on him in the Cortes on the 3rd of 
January 1874, which provoked the generals into closing the 



chamber and establishing a provisional military government. 
Salmeron went into exile and remained abroad till 1881, when 
he was recalled by Sagasta. In 1886 he was elected to the 
Cortes as Progressive deputy for Madrid, and unsuccessfully 
endeavoured to combine the jarring republican factions into a 
party of practical moderate views. On the 18th of April 1907 
he was shot at, but not wounded, in the streets of Barcelona 
by a member of the more extreme Republican party. He died 
at Pau on the 21st of September 1908. 

SALMON, GEORGE (1819-1904), British mathematician and 
divine, was born in Dublin on the 25th of September 1819 and 
educated at Trinity College in that city. Having become 
senior moderator in mathematics and a fellow of Trinity, he 
took holy orders, and was appointed regius professor of divinity 
in Dublin University in 1866, a position which he retained 
until 1888, when he was chosen provost of Trinity College. He 
was provost until his death on the 22nd of January 1904. As 
a mathematician Salmon was a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
was president of the mathematical and physical section of the 
British Association in 1878. He was a D.C.L. of Oxford and an 
LL.D. of Cambridge. 

His published mathematical works include: Analytic Geometry of 
Three Dimensions (1862), Treatise on Conic Sections (4th ed., 1863) 
and Treatise on the Higher Plane Curves (2nd ed., 1873); these 
books are of the highest value, and have been translated into several 
languages. As a theologian he wrote Historical Introduction to the 
Study of the New Testament (1885), The Infallibility of the Church 
(1888), Non-Miraculous Christianity (1881) and The Reign of Law 

SALMON and SALMONIDAE. 1 The Salmonidae are an im- 
portant family of fishes belonging to the Malacopterygian 
Teleosteans, characterized as follows: Margin of the upper 
jaw formed by the premaxillaries and the maxillaries — supra- 
occipital in contact with the frontals, but frequently overlapped 
by the parietals, which may meet in a sagittal suture; opercular 
bones all well developed. Ribs sessile, parapophyses very short 
or absent; epineurals, sometimes also epipleurals, present. 
Post-temporal forked, the upper branch attached to the epiotic, 
the lower to the opisthotic; postclavicle, as usual, applied to the 
inner side of the clavicle. A small adipose dorsal fin. Air-bladder 
usually present, large. Oviducts rudimentary or absent, the 
ova falling into the cavity of the abdomen before extrusion. 

The Salmonidae are very closely related to the Clupeidae, or 
herring family, from which they are principally distinguished 
by the position of the postclavicle and by the presence of a 
rayless fin on the back, at a considerable distance from the true 
or rayed dorsal fin ; this so-called adipose fin is an easy recogni- 
tion-mark of this family, so far as British waters are concerned, 
for, if it is present in several other families, these have no repre- 
sentatives in the area occupied by the fresh-water salmonids, 
with the exception of the North American Siluridae and Percop- 
sidae, which are readily distinguished by the pungent spine or 
spines which precede the rays of the first dorsal fin. The imper- 
fect condition of the oviducts, quite exceptional among fishes, 
owing to which the large ripe eggs may be easily squeezed out of 
the abdomen, is a feature of great practical importance, since 
it renders artificial impregnation particularly easy, and to it is 
due the fact that the species of Salmo have always occupied the 
first place in the annals of fish-culture. 

The Salmonidae inhabit mostly the temperate and arctic zones 
of the northern hemisphere, and this is the case with all fresh- 
water' forms, with one exception, Retropinna, a smelt-like fish 
from the coasts and rivers of New Zealand. A few deep-sea 
forms {Argentina, Microstoma, Nansenia, Bathylagus) are known 
from the Arctic ocean, the Mediterranean and the Antarctic 
ocean, down to 2000 fathoms. The question has been discussed 
whether the salmonids, so many of which live in the sea, but 
resort to rivers for breeding purposes, were originally marine or 
fresh-water. The balance of opinion is in favour of the former 
hypothesis, which is supported by the fact that the overwhelm- 
ing majority of the members of the suborder of which the 
salmonids form part permanently inhabit the sea. The clupeids, 

1 The Latin name salmo possibly means literally " the leaper," 
from satire, to leap, jump. 

for instance, which are their nearest allies, are certainly oi 
marine origin, as proved by their abundance in Cretaceous seas, 
yet a few, like the shads, ascend' rivers to spawn, in the same way 
as the salmon does, without this ever having been adduced as 
evidence in favour of a fresh-water origin of the genus Clupea to 
which they belong. 

No remains older than Miocene (Osmerus, Prothymailus, 
Thaumaturus) are certainly referable to this family, the various 
Cretaceous forms originally referred to it, such as Osmeroides 
and Pachyrhizodus, being now placed with the Elopidae. There 
is probably no other group of fishes to which so much attention 
has been paid as to the Salmonidae, and the species have been 
unduly multiplied by some writers. Perhaps not more than 80 
should be regarded as valid, but some of them fall into a number 
of local forms which are distinguished as varieties or subspecies 
by some authors, whilst others would assign them full specific 
rank. These differences of opinion prevail whether we deal with 
Salmo proper or with Coregonus. 

Classification. — The recent genera may be arranged in five groups : 
The first, which includes Salmo, Brachymystax, Stenodus, Coregonus, 
Phylogephyra and Thymallus, has 8 to 20 branchiostegal rays, 9 to 
13 rays in the ventral fin, the pyloric appendages more or less 
numerous (17 to 200) and breeding takes place in fresh water. 
The second group, with the single genus Argentina, is, like the follow- 
ing, marine, and is characterized by 6 branchiostegal rays, II to 14 
ventral rays, the stomach caecal, with pyloric appendages in moderate 
numbers (12 to 20). The third group, genera Osmerus, Thaleichthys , 
Mallotus, Plecoglossus, Hypomesus, has 6 to 10 branchiostegal rays, 
6 to 8 ventral rays, the stomach caecal, with pyloric appendages few 
(2 to 11) or rather numerous. The fourth group, genera Microstoma, 
Nansenia, Bathylagus, deep-sea forms with the branchiostegal rays 
reduced to 3 or 4, ventral rays 8 to 10, the stomach caecal and 
pyloric appendages absent ; whilst the fifth group, with the genera 
Retropinna and Salanx, is distinguished from the preceding in having 
no air-bladder, branchiostegal rays 3 to 6, ventral rays 6 or 7, 
stomach siphonal and pyloric appendages absent. 

The genus Salmo, the most important from the economical and 
sporting points of view, is characterized by small smooth scales, 
which at certain seasons may become embedded in the slimy skin, a 
moderately high dorsal fin with 10 to 12 well-developed rays, and a 
large mouth provided with strong teeth, which are present not only 
in the jaws and on the palate, but also on the tongue ; the maxillary 
or posterior bone of the upper jaw extends to below or beyond the 
eye. Young specimens (see Parr) are marked with dark vertical 
bars on the sides (parr-marks) , which in some trout are retained 
throughout life, and have the caudal fin more or less deeply forked 
or marginate, the form of the fin changing with the age and sexual 
development of the fish. Adult males have the jaws more produced 
in front than females, and both snout and chin may become curved 
and hooked. As pointed out by A. Gunther, who was the first to 
make a profound study of the members of this genus, and especially 
of the British forms, there is probably no other group of fishes which 
offers so many difficulties to the ichthyologist with regard to the 
distinction of species, as well as to certain points in their life-history, 
the almost infinite variations which they undergo being dependent 
on age, sex and sexual development, food and the properties of the 
water. The difficulties in their study have rather been increased 
by the excessive multiplication of so-called specific forms. Opinions 
also vary as to the importance to be attached to the characters 
which serve to group the principal species into natural divisions. 
Whilst A. Gunther admitted two genera, Salmo and Oncorhynchus, 
D. S. Jordan and B. W. Evermann go so far as to recognize five, 
Oncorhynchus, Salmo, Hucho, Cristivomer and Salvelinus. The latter 
arrangement is certainly the more logical, the difference between 
the first genus and the second being of rather less importance than 
that between the second and the third. However, considering the 
slightness of the distinctive characters on which these divisions are 
based, and the complete passage which obtains between them, the 
writer of this article thinks it best to maintain the genus Salmo in 
the wide sense, whilst retaining the divisions as subordinate divisions 
or sub-genera, with the following definitions : — 

Oncorhynchus (Pacific salmon). — Vomer flat, toothed along the 
shaft, at least in the young; anal fin with 12 to 17 well-developed 

Salmo (true salmon and trout). — Vomer flat, toothed along the 
shaft, at least in the young; anal fin with 8 to 12 well-developed rays. 

Salvelinus (char). — Vomer boat-shaped, the shaft strongly de- 
pressed behind the head, which alone is toothed, the teeth forming 
an isolated fascicle; anal fin with 8 to 10 welUdeveloped rays. 

Hucho (huchens). — Vomer as in the preceding, but teeth forming a 
single arched transverse series continuous with the palatine teeth; 
anal fin with 8 to 10 well-developed rays. 

The salmon itself (Salmo salar), the type of the family, is a 
large fish, attaining a length of 4 or 5 ft., and living partly in the 



sea, partly in fresh water, breeding in the latter. Fish which thus 
ascend rivers to spawn are called " anadromous." It may be 
briefly defined as of silvery coloration, with small black spots 
usually confined to the side above the lateral line, with the teeth 
on the shaft of the vomer disappearing in the adult, with 18 to 
22 gill-rakers on the first branchial arch, with 11 or 12 well- 
developed rays in the dorsal fin, no to 125 scales in the lateral 
line, and n or 12 (exceptionally 13) between the latter and the 
posterior border of the adipose fin. The young, called "parr" 
or "samlet," characterized by a smaller mouth, the maxillary 
bone not extending much beyond the vertical of the centre of the 
eye, the presence of an alternating double or zigzag series of teeth 
on the shaft of the vomer, the presence of dark vertical bars on 
the sides of the body, together with more or less numerous small 
red spots, is hatched in the spring, and usually remains for about 
two years in the rivers, descending at the third spring to the sea, 
where it is known as "smolt." In the sea it soon assumes a 
more uniform silvery coloration and from this state, or " grilse," 
develops its sexual organs and re-enters rivers to breed, after 
which operation, much emaciated and unwholesome as food, it is 
known as " kelt," and returns to the sea to recuperate. It has 
now been ascertained by the investigations instituted in Norway 
by K. Dahl that the smolts, immediately after leaving the rivers, 
make for the open sea, and do not return to the coast until 
they have reached the grilse stage. Thus specimens measuring 
between 8 and 18 in. hardly ever fall into the hands of the angler. 
The salmon inhabits the North Atlantic and its tributary 
waters. It is known to extend as far north as Scandinavia, 
Lapland, Iceland, Greenland and Labrador, and as far south as 
the north-west of Spain and the state of Connecticut. It ascends 
the Rhine as far as Basel. There are land-locked forms in 
Scandinavia and in Canada and Maine, which are regarded by 
some authors as distinct species {S. hardinii from Lake Wener, 
5. sebago from Sebago Lake in Maine, 5. ouananiche from Lake 
St John, Canada and neighbouring waters). These non- 
migratory forms are smaller than the typical salmon, never 
exceeding a weight of 25 lb, the ouananiche, the smallest of all, 
rarely weighing 73ft and averaging 33. Although spending their 
whole life in fresh waters, the habits of these fish are very similar 
to those of the sea salmon, ascending tributary streams to spawn 
in their higher ranges, and then returning to the deep parts of 
the lakes, which are to them what the sea is to the anadromous 

The salmon breeds in the shallow running waters of the upper 
streams of the rivers it ascends. The female, when about to deposit 
her eggs, scoops out a trough in the gravel of the bed of the stream. 
This she effects by lying on her «ide and ploughing into the gravel 
by energetic motions of her body. She then deposits her eggs in 
the trough ; while she is engaged in these operations she is attended 
by a male, who sheds milt over the eggs as the female extrudes them, 
fertilization being, as in the great majority of Teleostei, external. 
The parent fish then fill up the trough and heap up the gravel over 
the eggs until these are covered to a depth of some feet. The gravel 
heap thus formed is called a " redd." The period of the year at 
which spawning takes place in the British Isles, and in similar 
latitudes of the northern hemisphere, varies to a certain extent with 
the locality, and in a given locality may vary in different years; 
but, with rare exceptions, spawning is confined to the period between 
the beginning of September and the middle of January. 

The eggs are spherical and non-adhesive; they are heavier than 
water, and are moderately tough and elastic. The size varies 
slightly with the age of the parent fish, those from full-sized females 
being slightly larger than those from very young fish. According 
to rough calculations made at salmon-breeding establishments, there 
are 25,000 eggs to a gallon ; the diameter is about a quarter of an inch. 
It is usually estimated that a female salmon produces about 900 eggs 
for each pound of her own weight ; but this average is often exceeded. 
The time between fertilization and hatching, or the escape of 
the young fish from the egg-membrane, varies considerably with 
the temperature to which the eggs are exposed. It has been found 
that at a constant temperature of 41 ° F. the period is 97 days; 
but the period may be as short as 70 days and as long as 150 days 
without injury to the health of the embryo. It follows therefore 
that in the natural conditions eggs deposited in the autumn are 
hatched in the early spring. The newly hatched fish, or " alevin," 
is provided with a very large yolk-sac, and by the absorption of 
the yolk is nourished for some time; although its mouth is fully 
formed and open, it takes no food. The alevin stage lasts for about 
six weeks, and at the end of it the young fish is about I J in. long. 

The grilse, after spawning in autumn, return again to the sea in 
the winter or following spring, and reascend the rivers as mature 
spawning salmon in the following year. Both salmon and grilse 
after spawning are called " kelts.' The following recorded experi- 
ment illustrates the growth of grilse into salmon: a grilse-kelt 
of 2 lb was marked on March 31, 1858, and recaptured on August 2 
of the same year as a salmon of 81b. 

The ascent of rivers by adult salmon is not so regular as that 
of grilse, and the knowledge of the subject is not complete. Although 
salmon scarcely ever spawn before the month of September, they do 
not ascend in shoals just before that season; the time of ascent 
extends throughout the spring and summer. A salmon newly 
arrived in fresh water from the sea is called a clean salmon, on account 
of its bright, well-fed appearance; during their stay in the rivers the 
fish lose the brilliancy of their scales and deteriorate in condition. 
The time of year at which clean salmon ascend from the sea varies 
greatly in different rivers; and rivers are, in relation to this subject, 
usually denominated early or late. The Scottish rivers flowing into 
the German Ocean and Pentland Firth are almost all early, while 
those of the Atlantic slope are late. The Thurso in Caithness and 
the Naver in Sutherlandshire contain fresh-run salmon in December 
and January; the same is the case with the Tay. In Yorkshire 
salmon commence their ascent in July, August or September if the 
season is wet, but if it is dry their migration is delayed till the 
autumn rains set in. In all rivers more salmon ascend immediately 
after a spate or flood than when the river is low, and more with the 
flood tide than during the ebb. In their ascent salmon are able to 
pass obstructions, such as waterfalls and weirs of considerable 
height, and the leaps they make in surmounting such impediments 
and the persistence of their efforts are very remarkable. 

We reproduce here, with additions, Professor Noel Paton's 
summary (published first in the loth edition of this Encyclopedia) 
of observations on the life-history of the salmon. Important ad- 
vances in our knowledge of the life-history of the salmon have been 
made through the investigations of Professor F. Miescher on the 
Rhine at Basel, of Professor P. P. C. Hoek in Holland, of Mr Archer 
as lessee of the river Sands in Norway and as inspector of salmon 
fisheries for Scotland in conjunction with Messrs Gray and Tosh, 
and of a number of workers in the laboratory of the Royal College 
of Physicians of Edinburgh. With regard to the food of salmon, 
the enormously rapid growth of smolts to grilse and of salmon from 
year to year shows that they feed in the sea. In a few months a 
smolt will increase from a few ounces to 4 or 5 lb; while Archer's 
weighings of 16 salmon which had been marked and recaptured in 
the following year showed an average gain of 36 %, reckoned on 
from kelt stage to kelt stage. During the season of 1895 Tosh, at 
Berwick-on-Tweed, opened between March and August 514 fish, 
and found food in the stomachs of 76, or over 14% of the whole. 
As to the nature of the food, it was found to be as follows: — 

Herring 36 or 47 % 

Crustacea, amphipods, &c 14,, 18% 

Sand eels II ,, 14% 

Haddock and whiting 8 ,, 10% 

Feathers and vegetable matter . . 7 ,, 9% 

Excluding the feathers and vegetable matter, which are not really 
of the nature of food, all the material found in the stomach was of 
marine origin. Hoek, out of 2000 fish examined by him, found 7 
with food in the stomach, and, curiously enough, 4 of these were 
taken on the same day. In each case marine fish constituted the 
food. As to where salmon go to feed in the sea, our information 
is still very deficient, but the prevalence of herring in the stomach 
would seem to indicate that they must follow the shoals of these 
fish which approach the coast during the summer months. While 
there can be no doubt that salmon feed in the sea, the question of 
whether they feed in fresh water has been much debated. It is 
difficult for the popular mind to conceive of an active fish like the 
salmon subsisting for several months without food, and the fact that 
the fish so frequently not only takes into its mouth but actually 
swallows worms and various lures has still further tended to confirm 
many people in the conviction that salmon do feed in fresh water. 
In discussing the question it is well clearly to understand what is 
meant by feeding. It is the taking, digesting and absorbing of 
material of use in the economy in such quantities as to be of benefit 
to the individual. Accepting this definition, it may at once be said 
that all the evidence we possess is entirely opposed to the view that 
salmon feed when in fresh water. Miescher examined the stomachs 
of about 2000 salmon captured at Basel, about 500 m. from the 
mouth of the Rhine, and in only two did he find any indication of 
feeding. These two fish were male kelts. One contained the 
remains of a cyprinoid fish, and the other had a dilated stomach 
with an acid secretion, but no food remains. Hoek, who, as already 
stated, examined about 2000 fish, found food of marine origin in 7, 
but in none food derived from fresh water. Of the 132 stomachs 
of salmon from the estuaries and upper waters of Scottish rivers 
examined in the laboratory of the College of Physicians not one 
contained any food remains. The stomach of salmon captured in 
fresh water is collapsed and shrunken. Its mucous membrane is 
thrown into folds, and it contains a small amount of mucus of a 
neutral reaction. The intestine, which usually contains numerous 

8 4 


tape-worms, is full of a greenish-yellow viscous material which, 
when examined under the microscope, is found to consist of mucus 
with shed epithelial and other, cells and with masses of crystals of 
carbonate of lime. In no case does the microscope reveal any food 
remains such as fish-scales, plates of Crustacea or bristles of worms 
or annelids. In the fish taken in the estuaries up to the month of 
August the gall-bladder is distended ; in those taken later in the year 
it is empty. In all the fish from the upper waters the gall-bladder 
is empty and collapsed. According to the investigations of Hoek 
and of Gulland, the lining membrane of the stomach and intestine 
degenerates while the fish is in the river, but the correctness of these 
observations has been denied by F. B. Brown and J. Kingston 
Barton. Gillespie finds that the activity of the digestive processes 
is low in fish taken from the rivers, and that micro-organisms, 
which would be killed by the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice 
were it actively secreted, flourish in the intestines of the fish from 
the upper waters. Those who believe that the salmon feeds in fresh 
water explain the fact that the stomach is always found empty by 
the supposition that the fish vomits any food when it is captured, 
and several descriptions of cases in which this has been observed 
might be quoted; but such observations must be accepted with 
caution, and the contracted state of the stomach, the absence of 
the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice, and lastly the absence 
of any traces of digested food remains in the contents of the intestine, 
negative this explanation. 

The question may be presented in another way. Is there any 
reason why the salmon should feed while in fresh water? The 
investigations carried on in the laboratory of the College of Physicians 
have definitely shown that the salmon leaves the sea with an enormous 
supply of nourishment stored in its muscles, and that during its 
sojourn in fresh water it gets its energy and builds up its rapidly 
growing ovaries and testes from this stored material. Briefly stated, 
these investigations show that the supply of albuminous material 
and fats stored in the muscles and used while the fish is in the river 
is amply sufficient for the greatest requirements of the fish. The 
amount of energy liberated from the fats and albuminous material 
is 570 times more than is required to raise the fish from the level of 
the estuary to that of the upper waters! These analyses further 
show that all the materials required for the construction of the 
ovaries and the testes are found in sufficient quantity in the muscles, 
with the exception of iron, which is, however, abundantly present 
in the blood. 

It is a very common opinion that kelts feed voraciously while 
still in fresh water, and this has been used as an argument that they 
should be destroyed. It is not easy to bring forward such satis- 
factory evidence as has been adduced in the case of unspawned 
salmon, since it is illegal to kill kelts; but none of the 25 kelts 
procured by the Scottish Fishery Board, and examined in the College 
of Physicians' laboratory, contained any food, and Mr Anderson, 
formerly of Dunkeld, informs Professor Paton that in the old days, 
when kelts were habitually killed when captured, he has opened a 
large number and never found any trace of food in the stomach. 
Some fishers declare that they have seen kelts devouring salmon fry, 
but it is not easy to make accurate observations in deep water. 
According to Dr Gulland's investigations, the mucous membrane 
of the stomach and intestine is completely regenerated while the 
gall-bladder contains bile, and the digestive activity of the alimentary 
canal is greater than in salmon before spawning. Kelts thus appear 
at least to be capable of feeding. 

The rate of growth of the genitalia has been carefully studied by 
Miescher, Archer and Hoek. From January till about the end of 
May the growth of the ovaries is slow. In Hoek's series of obser- 
vations, which are the most complete, they increased from -35 to 
■85 % of the body weight. After this they enlarge more rapidly, 
and by the end of August are about 3 % in salmon taken at the 
mouth of the Tweed, about 4 % in the salmon from the mouth of 
the Rhine and about 8 % in the salmon from the Basel fisheries. 
By November they have risen to 20% in the Tweed and in Holland, 
and to 23 % in the upper reaches of the Rhine. According to 
Archer's observations, the development of the ovaries in grilse in 
the earlier months somewhat lags behind that in the salmon. The 
growth of the testes has been chiefly investigated by Archer and 
Tosh in the Tweed and by Miescher at Basel. From March to the 
middle of July in the Tweed these organs increase from about -19 
to '35% of the weight of the fish. In July their rate of growth 
increases, and they reach their maximum development at the end 
of September, when they are about 6% of the body weight. In 
the Rhine in March they weigh about • 1 %, and they reach their 
maximum development of about 5 % in October. 

What leads to the migration of salmon from sea to river and river 
to sea ? It is usually supposed that they come to the river to 
spawn; that it is the nisus generativus that drives them from the 
sea, where their ova will not develop, to the fresh water where develop- 
ment is possible. But it is found that salmon are passing from sea 
to river at all seasons of the year, and with their genitalia in all 
stages of development — some fish, running in March with ovaries 
only 1 % of the body weight, other fish not running till October 
with ovaries 15 or 16% of the body weight. It is difficult, then, to 
accept the theory that the sexual act is the governing factor. That 
it is a secondary factor seems to be indicated by the great run of 

fish in June, July and August, when the genitalia are most rapidly 
growing There is one respect, however, in which all the fish 
leaving the sea for the river agree, and that is in the amount of stored 
material accumulated in their bodies. In the early running fish this 
material is largely confined to the muscles, but in the later coming 
fish it is more equally distributed between muscles and genitalia. 
The amount of stored material may be measured by the amount of 
solids, and if we express the results of all the fish examined in terms 
of fish of uniform size — 100 cm. in length — the following results are 
obtained : — 

Nov. 1 





























It would thus appear that, when the salmon has in the sea accumu- 
lated a certain definite amount of nourishment, it ceases to feed, 
and returns to the river irrespective of the state of its genital organs. 
Nutrition, and not the nisus generativus, appears to be the motive 
power. That the fish after' spawning returns to the sea in search of 
food is fully recognized by all. 

Course of Migration.— It is well known that while salmon run all 
the year through in greater or lesser numbers, the run of grilse takes 
place in the summer months, from May to August. But it is further 
possible to divide the salmon into classes — the so-called winter 
salmon of the Rhine, large fish running from October to February, 
with unripe ovaries and testes; and the summer salmon, running 
for the most part from March to October, with genitalia more or less 
ripe. These summer fish are small in the early months, but increase 
in size as the autumn advances. The winter salmon, along with the 
early summer or spring fish, appear to pass directly to the upper 
reaches of the river, and to spawn there, while the larger late-coming 
fish appear to populate the lower waters. This seems to be indicated 
by the comparison of upper-water and estuary fish throughout the 
year. The period at which male and female fish enter the rivers 
also appears to be somewhat different. The observations of Tosh, 
Miescher and Hoek show that throughout the year the female fish 
exceed the males in number, and, secondly, that during the earlier 
months of the year female fish run in much larger numbers than do 
male fish. It is only in September that anything like an equality 
between the two sexes is established. But in Great Britain it is not 
until the end of August that the nets are removed, and one cannot 
but believe that the destruction of such a very large proportion of 
females as are captured during the early months of the season must 
have a most prejudicial effect upon the breeding stock. 

Rate of Migration. — By a comparison of the first appearance of 
winter salmon and of grilse in the markets of Holland and of Basel — 
500 m. up the river — Miescher gives some data for the determination 
of the average rate at which salmon ascend an unobstructed stream. 
It was found that winter salmon appeared at Basel about 54 days 
after their appearance in Holland, which would give a rate of passage 
of about 10 m. per diem. From a smaller number of observations 
on grilse, it appears that they travel at a somewhat slower rate. 
It is, however, doubtful how far these figures are of value in deciding 
the rate at which fish pass up the lower reaches of the river. 

Great difficulties have been experienced in ascertaining the age 
and rate of growth of salmon. The practice has long ago been 
resorted to of " marking " salmon, the most satisfactory mark 
being a small oblong silver label, oxidized or blackened, bearing 
distinctive letters and numbers, to the dorsal fin. But of late the 
structure of the scales has been studied with the object of obtaining 
indications of the age, growth and spawning habit. H. W. Johnston 
in 1905 contributed an interesting paper on the subject. The 
scales bear concentric lines, which vary in number and relative 
distance according to the growth of the fish, and during the feeding 
periods these lines are added with more rapidity and a greater degree 
of separation than at other times. Johnston has endeavoured to 
ascertain their meaning in Tay salmon, and he has shown that the 
number of lines external to their last annual ring gives some clue to 
the time at which they left the sea; he is thus able to distinguish 
among ascending salmon such as are on their first return from such 
as have made the journey once or oftener before. 

The group of Pacific salmon, or king salmon, commonly desig- 
nated as Oncorhynchus, contains the largest and commercially the 
most important of the Salmonidae. They are anadromous species 
inhabiting the North Pacific and entering the rivers of America as 
well as of Asia. The best known and most valuable is the quinnat 
(S. quinnat), ascending the large rivers in spring and summer, 
spawning from July to December. They die after the breeding 
season is over, and never return to the sea. For the important Sal- 
monidae known as Trout, Char,Whitefish,Smelt,Grayling, &c, 
see the separate articles. The huchen (S. hucho) of the Danube is 
an elongate, somewhat pike-like form, growing to the same size 

1 Winter fish not due to spawn till following November. 



as the salmon, of silvery coloration, with numerous small black dots, 
extending on the dorsal fin. Allied to it are S. fluviatilis from 
Siberia and S. perryi or blackistoni from the northern island of Japan. 

The genus Stenodus is intermediate between Salmo and Coregonus 
(whitefish). S. leuciththys is an anadromous species, inhabiting the 
Caspian Sea and ascending the Volga and the Ural ; it is also found 
in the Arctic ocean, ascending the Ob, Lena, &c. It grows to a 
length of 5 ft. A second species occurs in Arctic North America; 
this is the " Inconnu," S. mackenzii, from the Mackenzie river and 
its tributaries. 

The capelin {Mallotus villosus, so called from the villous bands 
formed by the scales of mature males) is a salmonid of the coasts of 
Arctic America and north-eastern Asia; it deposits its eggs in the 
sand along the shores in incredible numbers, the beach becoming 
a quivering mass of eggs and sand. Plecoglossus, a salmonid from 
Japan and Formosa, is highly remarkable for its lamellar, comb-like, 
lateral teeth. The siel-smelts, Argentina, are deep-sea salmonids, 
of which examples have occasionally been taken off the coasts of 
Scotland and Ireland. Bathylagus, another salmonid discovered by 
the " Challenger " expedition, is still better adapted for life at great 
depths (down to 1700 fathoms), the eyes being of enormous size. 

Authorities. — tm the systematic and life histories : A. Gunther, 
Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum, vol. vi. (1866) ; F. Day, 
British and Irish Salmonidae (London, 1887); F. A. Smitt, Kritisk 
Forteckning ofver de i Riksmuseum befintliga Salmonider (Stockholm, 
1886); V. Fatio, Faune des vertebres de la Suisse, vol. v. (1890); 
D. S. Jordan and B. W. Evermann, Fishes of North America, vol. i. 
(1896), and American Food and Game Fishes (London and New York, 
1902) ; F. F. Kavraisky, Die Lachse der Kaukasuslander (Tiflis, 
1896). On growth and migrations: Die histochemischen und physio- 
logischen Arbeiten von Friedrich Miescher, Band ii., pp. 116, 192, 
304, 325 (Leipzig, 1897); P. P. C. Hoek, Statische und biologische 
Untersuchungen an in den Niederlandern gefangenen Lachsen (Char- 
lottenburg, 1895) ; Annual Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland, 
part ii., " Report on Salmon Fisheries," Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14 (1893- 
1894-95-96) ; Report of Investigations on the Life-History of the Salmon 
to the Fishery Board for Scotland, edited by Noel Paton, presented 
to parliament and published 1898; K. Dahl, Orret og unglahs samt 
lovgivningens forhold til dem (Christiania, 1902) ; H. W. Johnston, 
" The Scales of Tay Salmon as indicative of Age, Growth and 
Spawning Habit," Ann. Rep- Fish. Board, Scotland, xxiii., appendix ii. 
(1905). Introduction in Tasmania and New Zealand: M. Airport, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. (1870), pp. 14 and 750; A. Nichol, Acclimatization 
of the Salmonidae at the Antipodes (London, 1882); W. Arthur, 

History of Fish Culture in New Zealand," TV. N. Zeal. Inst. xiv. 
( 1 88 1 ) p. 180; P. S. Seager, " Concise History of the Acclimatization 
of the Salmonids in Tasmania," Proc. R. 00c. Tasm. (1888) p. 1; 
also R. M. Johnston, I.e. p. 27. On the salmon disease: T. H. 
Huxley, Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci. xxii. (1882) p. 311. (G. A. B.) 

SALMONEUS, in Greek mythology, son of Aeolus (king of 
Magnesia in Thessaly, the mythic ancestor of the Aeolian race), 
grandson of Hellen and brother of Sisyphus. He removed to 
Elis, where he built the town of Salmone, and became ruler of the 
country. His subjects were ordered to worship him under the 
name of Zeus; he built a bridge of brass, over which he drove 
at full speed in his chariot to imitate thunder, the effect being 
heightened by dried skins and caldrons trailing behind, while 
torches were thrown into the air to represent lightning. At last 
Zeus smote him with his thunderbolt, and destroyed the town 
(Apollodorus i. 9. 7; Hyginus, Fab. 60, 61; Strabo viii. 
p. 356; Manilius, Astronom. 5, 91; Virgil, Aen. vi. 585, with 
Heyne's excursus). Joseph Warton's idea that the story is 
introduced by Virgil as a protest against the Roman custom of 
deification is not supported by the general tone of the Aeneid 
itself. According to Frazer (Early History of the Kingship, 1905; 
see also Golden Bough, i., 1900, p. 82), the early Greek kings, 
who were expected to produce rain for the benefit of the crops, 
were in the habit of imitating thunder and lightning in the 
character of Zeus. At Crannon in Thessaly there was a bronze 
chariot, which in time of drought was shaken and prayers offered 
for rain (Antigonus of Carystus, Historme mirabiles, 15). S. 
Reinach (Revue archtologique, 1903, i. 154) suggests that the 
story that Salmoneus was struck by lightning was due to the 
misinterpretation of a picture, in which a Thessalian magician 
appeared bringing down lightning and rain from heaven ; hence 
arose the idea that he was the victim of the anger or jealousy of 
Zeus, and that the picture represented his punishment. 

SALOME, in Jewish history the name borne by several women 
of the Herod dynasty. (1) Sister of Herod the Great, who became 
the wife successively of Joseph, Herod's uncle, Costobar, governor 
of Idumaea, and a certain Alexas. (2) Daughter of Herod by 

El pis, his eighth wife. (3) Daughter of Herodias by her first 
husband Herod Philip. She was the wife successively of Philip 
the Tetrarch and Aristobulus, son of Herod of Chalcis. This 
Salome is the only one of the three who is mentioned in the 
New Testament (Matt. xiv. 3 sqq.; Mark vi. i7sqq.) and only in 
connexion with the execution of John the Baptist. Herod 
Antipas, pleased by her dancing, offered her a reward " unto 
the half of my kingdom "; instructed by Herodias, she asked 
for John the Baptist's " head in a charger " x (see Herod II. 
Antipas) . 

Salome is also the name of one of the women who are mentioned 
as present at the Crucifixion (Mark xv. 40), and afterwards in 
the Sepulchre (xvi. 1). Comparison with Matt, xxvii. 56 suggests 
that she was also the wife of Zebedee (cf. Matt. xx. 20-23). 
It is further conjectured that she was a sister of Mary the mother 
of Jesus, in which case James and John would be cousins of 
Jesus. In the absence of specific evidence any such identifica- 
tion must be regarded with suspicion. 

SALON, a town of south-eastern France, in the department of 
Bouches-du-Rhone, 40 m. N.N.W. of Marseilles by rail. Pop. 
(1906), town, 9927; commune, 14,030. Salon is situated on the 
eastern border of the plain of Crau and on the irrigation canal 
of Craponne, the engineer of which, Adam de Craponne (1519- 
1559, has a statue in the town, where he was born. The chief 
buildings are the church of St Laurent (14th century), which 
contains the tomb of Michael Nostradamus, the famous astrologer, 
who died at Salon in 1565, and the church of St Michel (12th 
century), with a fine Romanesque portal. The central and oldest 
part of the town preserves a gateway of the 15th century and 
the remains of fortifications. There are remains of Roman walls 
near Salon, and in the h6tel-de-ville (17th century) there is a 
milestone of the 4th century. The town carries on an active 
trade in oil and soap, which are the chief of its numerous manu- 
factures. Olives are largely grown in the district, and there is 
a large trade in them and in almonds._ 

SALONICA, Salonika or Saloniki (anc. Thessalonica, Turkish 
Selanik, Slav. Solun); the capital of the Turkish vilayet of 
Salonica, in western Macedonia, and one of the principal seaports 
of south-western Europe. Pop. (1905) about 130,000, including 
some 60,000 Sephardic Jews, whose ancestors fled hither in the 
1 6th century to escape religious persecution in Spain and 
Portugal: their language is a corrupt form of Spanish, called 
Ladino (i.e. Latin), and spoken to some extent by other com- 
munities in the city. Salonica lies on the west side of the Chalcidic 
peninsula, at the head of the Gulf of Salonica (Sinus Thermaicus) , 
on a fine bay whose southern edge is formed by the Calamerian 
heights, while its northern and western side is the broad alluvial 
plain produced by the discharge of the Vardar and the Bistritza, 
the principal rivers of western Macedonia. Built partly on the 
low ground along the edge of the bay and partly on the hill to 
the north (a compact mass of mica schist), the city with its white 
houses enclosed by white walls runs up along natural ravines 
to the castle of the Heptapyrgion, or Seven Towers, and is 
rendered picturesque by numerous domes and minarets and the 
foliage of elms, cypresses and mulberry trees. The commercial 
quarter of the town, lying to the north-west, towards the great 
valleys by which the inland traffic is conveyed, is pierced by broad 
and straight streets paved with lava. There are electric tram- 
ways and a good water-supply, but most of the older houses 
are fragile wooden structures coated with lime or mud, and the 
sanitation is defective. Apart from churches, mosques and 
synagogues, there are a few noteworthy modern buildings, such 
as the Ottoman Bank, the baths, quarantine station, schools 
and hospitals; but the chief architectural interest of Salonica 
is centred in its Roman and Byzantine remains. 

Antiquities. — The Via Egnatia of the Romans (mod. Jassijol 
or Grande Rue de Vardar) traverses the city from east to west, 
between the Vardar Gate and the Calamerian Gate. Two Roman 
triumphal arches used to span the Via Egnatia. The arch near 
the Vardar Gate — a massive stone structure probably erected 
towards the end of the 1st century a.d., was destroyed in 1867 
I 1 Charger, a large flat plate (see Charge). 



to furnish material for repairing the city walls; an imperfect 
inscription from it is preserved in the British Museum. The other 
arch, popularly called the arch of Constantine, but with greater 
probability assigned to the reign of Galerius (a.d. 305-311), 
is built of brick and partly faced with sculptured marble. A 
third example of Roman architecture — the remains of a white 
marble portico supposed to have formed the entrance to the 
hippodrome — is known by the Judaeo-Spanish designation of 
Las Incantadas, from the eight Caryatides in the upper part 
of the structure. There are also numerous fragments of Roman 
inscriptions and statuary. The conspicuous mosques of Salonica 
are nearly all of an early Christian origin; the remarkable 
preservation of their mural decorations makes them very im- 
portant for the history of Byzantine architecture. The principal 
are those dedicated to St Sophia, St George and St Demetrius. 

St Sophia (Aya Sofia), formerly the cathedral, and probably 
erected in the 6th century by Justinian's architect Anthemius, was 
converted into a mosque in 1589. It is cased with slabs of white 
marble. The whole length of the interior is 1 10 ft. The nave, 
forming a Greek cross, is surmounted by a hemispherical dome, the 
600 sq. yds. of which are covered with a rich mosaic representing 
the Ascension. St Demetrius, which is probably older than the time 
of Justinian, consists of a long nave and two side aisles, each ter- 
minating eastward in an atrium the full height of the nave, in a 
style not known to occur in any other church. The columns of the 
aisles are half the height of those in the nave. The internal decoration 
is ali produced by slabs of different- coloured marbles. St George's, 
conjecturally assigned to the reign of Constantine (d. 337), is circular 
in plan, measuring inrernally 80 ft. in diameter. The external wall 
is 18 ft. thick, and at the angles of an inscribed octagon are chapels 
formed in the thickness of the wall, and roofed with wagon-headed 
vaults visible on the exterior; the eastern chapel, however, is en- 
larged and developed into a bema and apse projecting beyond the 
circle, and the western and southern chapels constitute the two 
entrances of the building. The dome, 72 yds. in circumference, is 
covered throughout its entire surface of 800 sq. yds. with what 
is the largest work in ancient mosaic still extant, representing a series 
of fourteen saints standing in the act of adoration in front of temples 
and colonnades. The Eski Juma, or Old Mosque, is another interest- 
ing basilica, evidently later than Constantine, with side aisles and 
an apse without side chapels. The churches of the Holy Apostles 
and of St Elias also deserve mention. Of the secular buildings, 
the Caravanserai, usually attributed to Murad II. (1422-1451), 
probably dates from Byzantine times. 

Salonica is the see of an Orthodox Greek archbishop. Each 
religious community has its own schools and places of worship, among 
the most important being the Jewish high-school, the Greek and 
Bulgarian gymnasia, the Jesuit college, a high-school founded in 
i860 and supported by the Jewish Mission of the Established 
Church of Scotland, a German school, dating from 1887, and a 
college for boys and a secondary school for girls, both managed by 
the French Mission La'ique and subsidized since 1905 by the French 

Railways, Harbour and Commerce. — Salonica is the principal 
Aegean seaport of the Balkan Peninsula, the centre of the import 
trade of all Macedonia and two-thirds of Albania, and the natural 
port of shipment for the products of an even larger area. It is the 
terminus of four railways. One line goes north to Nish in Servia, 
where it meets the main line (Paris- Vienna-Constantinople) of the 
Oriental railways; another, after following the same route as far as 
Uskiib in Macedonia, branches off to Mitrovitza in Albania; the 
extension of this line to Serajevo in Bosnia was projected in 1908 
in order to establish direct communication between Austria and 
Salonica. A third line, intended ultimately to reach the Adriatic, 
extends westward from Salonica to Monastir. A fourth, the Con- 
stantinople junction railway to Constantinople, is of great strategic 
importance; during the war with Greece in 1897 it facilitated the 
rapid concentration of Ottoman troops on the borders of Thessaly, 
and in 1908 it helped to secure the triumph of the Young Turks by 
bringing the regiments favourable to their propaganda within 
striking distance of Constantinople. 

The new harbour, which was opened to navigation in December 
1901, allows the direct transhipment of all merchandise whatever 
may be the direction of the wind, which was previously apt to 
render shipping operations difficult. The harbour works consist of 
a breakwater 1835 ft. long, with 28 ft. depth of water on its landward 
side for a width of 492 ft. Opposite the breakwater is a quay 
1475 ft. long, which was widened in 1903-1907 to a breadth of 
306 ft. ; at each end of the quay a pier 656 ft. long projects into the 
sea. Between the extremities of these two piers and those of the 
breakwater are the two entrances to the harbour. The average 
number of ships, including small coasters, which entered the port in 
each of the three years 1905-1907 was 3400, of 930,000 tons. Salonica 
exports grain, flour, bran, silk cocoons, chrome, manganese, iron, 
hides and skins, cattle and sheep, wool, eggs, opium, tobacco and 
fennel. The average yearly value of the imports from 1900 to 1905 

was £2,500,000, and that of the exports £1,200,000. The imports 
consist principally of textiles, iron goods, sugar, tobacco, flour, 
coffee and chemicals. The volume of the export trade tended to 
decrease in the first decade of the 20th century. The making of 
morocco leather and other leather-work, such as saddlery, harness 
and boots and shoes, affords employment to a large number of 
persons. Other industries are cotton-spinning, brewing, tanning, 
iron-founding, and the manufacture of bricks, tiles, so^p, flour, 
ironmongery and ice. The spirit called mastic or raki is largely 

History. — Thessalonica was built on the site of the older Greek 
city of Therma, so called in allusion to the hot-springs of the 
neighbourhood. It was founded in 315 b.c. by Cassander, who 
gave it the name of his wife, a sister of Alexander the Great. 
It was a military and commercial station on a main line of com- 
munication between Rome and the East, and had reached its 
zenith before the seat of empire was transferred to Constantinople. 
It became famous in connexion with the early history of Christ- 
ianity through the two epistles addressed by St Paul to the 
community which he founded here; and in the later defence 
of the ancient civilization against the barbarian inroads it played 
a considerable part. In 390 7000 citizens who had been guilty 
of insurrection were massacred in the hippodrome by command 
of Theodosius. Constantine repaired the port, and probably 
enriched the town with some of its buildings. During the 
iconoclastic reigns of terror it stood on the defensive, and 
succeeded in saving the artistic treasures of its churches: in 
the 9th century Joseph, one of its bishops, died in chains for his 
defence of image-worship. In the 7th century the Macedonian 
Slavs strove to capture the city, but failed even when it was 
thrown into confusion by a terrible earthquake. It was the 
attempt made to transfer the whole Bulgarian trade to Thes- 
salonica that in the close of the 9th century caused the invasion 
of the empire by Simeon of Bulgaria. In 904 the Saracens 
from the Cyrenaica took the place by storm; the public 
buildings were grievously injured, and the inhabitants to the 
number of 22,000 were carried off and sold as slaves throughout 
the countries of the Mediterranean. In 11 85 the Normans of 
Sicily took Thessalonica after a ten days' siege, and perpetrated 
endless barbarities, of which Eustathius, then bishop of the see, 
has left an account. In 1204 Baldwin, conqueror of Constanti- 
nople, conferred the kingdom of Thessalonica on Boniface, 
marquis of Montferrat; but in 1222 Theodore, despot of Epirus, 
one of the natural enemies of the new kingdom, took the city 
and had himself there crowned by the patriarch of Macedonian 
Bulgaria. On the death of Demetrius, who had been supported 
in his endeavour to recover his father's throne by Pope Honorius 
III., the empty title of king of Salonica was adopted by several 
claimants. In 1 266 the house of Burgundy received a grant of 
the titular kingdom from Baldwin II. when he was titular 
emperor, and it was sold by Eudes IV. to Philip of Tarentum, 
titular emperor of Romania, in 1320. The Venetians to whom the 
city was transferred by one of the Palaeologi, were in power when 
Murad II. appeared, and on the 1st of May 1430, in spite of the 
desperate resistance of the inhabitants, took the city, which had 
thrice previously been in the hands of the Turks. They cut to 
pieces the body of St Demetrius, the patron saint of Salonica, 
who had been the Roman proconsul of Greece, under Maximian, 
and was martyred in a.d. 306. In 1876 the French and German 
consuls at Salonica were murdered by the Turkish populace. 
On the 4th of September 1890 more than 2000 houses were 
destroyed by fire in the south-eastern quarters of the city. 
During the early years of the 20th century Salonica was the 
headquarters of the Committee of Union and Progress, the 
central organization of the Young Turkey Party, which carried 
out the constitutional revolution of 1908. Before this event the 
weakness of Turkey had encouraged the belief that Salonica 
would ultimately pass under the control of Austria-Hungary 
or one of the Balkan States, and this belief gave rise to many 
political intrigues which helped to delay the solution of the 
Macedonian Question. 

Vilayet. — The vilayet of Salonica has an area of 13,510 sq. m. 
and an estimated population of 1,150,000. It is rich in minerals, 
including chrome, manganese, zinc, antimony, iron, argentiferous 



lead, arsenic and lignite, but some of these are unworked. The 
chief agricultural products are grain, rice, beans, cotton, opium and 
poppy seed, sesame, fennel, red pepper, and much of the finest 
tobacco grown in Europe; there is also some trade in timber, live- 
stock, skins, furs, wool and silk cocoons. The growth of commerce 
has been impeded by the ignorance of cultivators, the want of good 
roads and the unsettled political condition of Turkey. Apart from 
the industries carried on in the capital, there are manufactures of 
wine, liqueurs, sesame oil, cloth, macaroni and soap. The principal 
towns, Seres (pop. 30,000), Vodena (25,000) and Cavalla (24,000), 
are described in separate articles; Tikvesh (21,000) is the centre of 
an agricultural region, Caraferia (14,000) a manufacturing town, 
and Drama (13,000) one of the centres of tobacco cultivation. 

SALOON, a large room for the reception of guests in a mansion. 
The French salon itself is formed from salle, Ger. Saal, hall, 
reception-room, represented in Old English by the cognate seel, 
hall, properly " abiding-place," from the root seen in Gothic 
saljan, to dwell, cf. Russ. selo, village. The word in its proper 
sense has now a somewhat archaistic flavour, being chiefly used 
of the 1 8th century, and it has come principally to be used (1) 
of the large rooms on passenger steamers; (2) on English 
railways of carriages for the accommodation of large parties 
not divided into compartments, and in the United States of the 
so-called " drawing-room cars "; and (3) of a bar or place for 
the sale of intoxicants. 

SALSAFY, or Salsify, Tragopogon porrijolius, a hardy 
biennial, with long, cylindrical, fleshy, esculent roots, which, when 
properly cooked, are extremely delicate and wholesome; it 
occurs in meadows and pastures in the Mediterranean region, 
and in Britian is confined to the south of England, but is not 
native. The salsafy requires a free, rich, deep soil, which should 
be trenched in autumn, the manure used being placed at two 
spades' depth from the surface. The first crop should be sown 
in March, and the main crop in April, in rows a foot from each 
other, the plants being afterwards thinned to 8 in. apart. In 
November the whitish roots should be taken up and stored in 
sand for immediate use, others being secured in a similar way 
during intervals of mild weather. The genus Tragopogon belongs 
to the natural order Compositae, and is represented in Britain by 
goat's beard, T. pratensis, found in meadows, pastures and waste 
places. The flowers close at noon, whence the popular name 
" John-go-to-bed-at-noon." 

SALSETTE ( = " sixty-six villages "), a large island in British 
India, N. of Bombay city, forming part of Thana district. 
Area, 246 sq. m. It is connected with Bombay Island and also 
with the mainland by bridge and causeway. Salsette is a 
beautiful, well-wooded tract, its surface being diversified by hills 
and mountains, some of considerable height, while it is rich in 
rice fields. In various parts of the island are ruins of Portuguese 
churches, convents and villas; while the cave temples of Kanheri 
form a subject of interest. There are 109 Buddhist caves, 
which date from the end of the 2nd century A.D., but are not so 
interesting as those of Ajanta, Ellora and Karli. Salsette is 
crossed by two lines of railway, which have encouraged the 
building of villa residences by the wealthier merchants of Bombay. 
The population in 1901 was 146,933. The island was taken 
from the Portuguese by the Mahrattas in 1739, and from them 
by the British in 1774; it was formally annexed to the East 
India Company's dominions in 1782 by the treaty of Salbai. 

There is another Salsette in the Portuguese settlement of Goa, a 
district with a population (1900) of 113,061. 

SALSOMAGGIORE, a village of Emilia, Italy, in the province 
of Parma, 6 m. S.W. of Borgo San Donnino by steam tramway. 
Pop. (1901) 1387 (village); 7274 (commune). It is situated 
525 ft. above sea-level at the foot of the Apennines, and is a 
popular watering-place, the baths being especially frequented. 
The water is strongly saline. 

SALT, SIR TITUS, Bart.(i8o3-i876), English manufacturer, 
was born on the 20th of September 1803, at Morley, Yorkshire. 
In 1820 he was apprenticed to learn wool-stapling at Bradford, 
and his father, having followed him there and started in that 
business, took him into partnership in 1824. His success in intro- 
ducing the coarse Russian wool (donskoi) into English worsted 
manufacture, due to special machinery of his own devising, 
gave his firm a great impetus. In 1836 he solved the difficulties 

of working alpaca (q.v.) wool, created an enormous industry 
in the production of the staple goods for which that name was 
retained, and became one of the richest manufacturers in Brad- 
ford. In 1853 he opened, a few miles out of the city on the Aire, 
the extensive works and model manufacturing town of Saltaire. 
From 1859-1861 Salt was M. P. for Bradford, of which city he had 
been mayor in 1848, and in 1869 he was created a baronet. 
He died on the 20th of September 1876, and was accorded a 
public funeral. After his death his many benevolent institutions 
at Saltaire, at first continued by his widow, were transferred to a 

See R. Balgarnie, Sir Titus Salt, his Life and its Lessons. 

SALT (a common Teutonic word, cf. Dutch zout, Ger. Sals, 
Scand. salt; cognate with Gr. ctXs, Lat. sal). In chemistry 
the term salt is given to a compound formed by substituting the 
hydrogen of an acid by a metal or a radical acting as a metal, or, 
what comes to the same thing, by eliminating the elements of 
water between an acid and a base (see Acid; Chemistry). 

Common Salt. 

Common salt, or simply salt, is the name given to the native 
and industrial forms of sodium chloride, NaCl. Pure sodium 
chloride, which may be obtained by passing hydrochloric acid 
gas into a saturated solution of the commercial salt, whereupon 
it is precipitated, forms colourless, crystalline cubes (see also 
below under Rock salt) which melt at 815. 4 , and begins to 
volatilize at slightly higher temperatures. It is readily soluble 
in water, 100 parts of which dissolve 35-52 parts at 0° and 
39.16 parts at 100°. The saturated solution at 109. 7 contains 
40-35 parts of salt to 100 of water. On cooling a saturated 
solution to -io°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, 
the hydrate NaCl. 2H 2 separates; on further cooling an aqueous 
solution to -20 a cryohydrate containing 23-7% of the salt is 
deposited. The consideration of this important substance falls 
under two heads, relating respectively to sea salt or " bay " salt 
and " rock " salt or mineral salt. The one is probably derived 
from the other, most rock salt deposits bearing evidence of having 
been formed by the evaporation of lakes or seas. 

Sea Salt. — Assuming that each gallon of sea water contains 
0-2547 lb of salt, and allowing an average density 2-24 for rock- 
salt, it has been computed that the entire ocean if dried up would 
yield no less than four and a half million cubic miles of rock-salt, 
or about fourteen and a half times the bulk of the entire continent 
of Europe above high-water mark. The proportion of sodium 
chloride in the water of the ocean, where it is mixed with small 
quantities of other salts, is on the average about 3.33%, ranging 
from 2-9% for the polar seas to 3-55% or more at the equator. 
Enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean, the Red Sea. the 
Black Sea, the Dead Sea, the Caspian and others, are dependent 
of course for the proportion and quality of their saline matter 
on local circumstances (see Ocean). 

At one time almost the whole of the salt in commerce was 
produced from the evaporation of sea water, and indeed salt so 
made still forms a staple commodity in many countries possessing 
a seaboard, especially those where the climate is dry and the 
summer of long duration. In Portugal there are salt works at 
Setubal, Alcacer do Sal, Figueira and Aveiro. Spain has salt 
works at the Bay of Cadiz, the Balearic Islands, &c; Italy at 
Sicily, Naples, Tuscany and Sardinia. France has its " marais 
salants du midi " and also works on the Atlantic seaboard; 
whilst Austria has " Salzgarten " at various places on the Adriatic 
(Sabbioncello, Trieste, Pirano, Capo d'Istria,&c). In England 
and Scotland the industry has greatly fallen off under the 
competition of the rock-salt works of Cheshire. 

The process of the spontaneous evaporation of sea water was 
studied by Usiglio on Mediterranean water at Cette. The density 
at first was 1-02. Primarily but a slight deposit is formed (none 
until the concentration arrives at specific gravity 1-0509), this 
deposit consisting for the most part of calcium carbonate and ferric 
oxide. This goes on till a density of 1 • 1 3 1 5 is attained, when hydra ted 
calcium sulphate begins to deposit, and continues till specific 
gravity 1-2646 is reached. At a density of 1-218 the deposit becomes 
augmented by sodium chloride, which goes down mixed with a 
little magnesium chloride and sulphate. At specific gravity 1-2461 a 



little sodium bromide has begun also to deposit. At specific gravity 

1-311 the volume of the water contained-- 

Magnesium sulphate . . . . 11-45% 

Magnesium chloride .... 19-53 % 

Sodium chloride 15-98% 

Sodium bromide 2-04% 

Potassium chloride . . . . 3-30% 

Up to the time then that the water became concentrated to 
specific gravity 1-218 only 0-150 of deposit had formed, and that 
chiefly composed of lime and iron, but between specific gravity 
1-218 and 1-313 there is deposited a mixture of — 

Calcium sulphate 0-0283 % 

Magnesium sulphate .... 0-0624% 

Magnesium chloride .... 0-0153% 

Sodium chloride 2-7107 % 

Sodium bromide 0-0222 % 


Of this about 95 % is sodium chloride. Up to this point the 
separation of the salts has taken place in a fairly regular manner, 
but now the temperature begins to exert an influence, and some of 
the salts deposited in the cold of the night dissolve again partially 
in the heat of the day. By night the liquor gives nearly pure mag- 
nesium sulphate; in the day the same sulphate mixed with sodium 
and potassium chlorides is deposited. The mother-liquor now falls 
to a specific gravity of 1-3082 to 1-2965, and yields a very mixed 
deposit of magnesium bromide and chloride, potassium chloride 
and magnesium sulphate, with the double magnesium and potassium 
sulphate, corresponding to the kainite of Stassfurt. There is also 
deposited a double magnesium and potassium chloride, similar to 
the carnallite of Stassfurt, and finally the mother-liquor, which has 
now again risen to specific gravity 1-3374, contains only pure mag- 
nesium chloride. 

The application of these results to the production of salt from sea 
water is obvious. A large piece of land, barely above high-water 
mark, is levelled, and if necessary puddled with clay. In tidal seas, 
a " jas " (or storage reservoir) is constructed alongside, similarly 
rendered impervious, in which the water is allowed to settle and 
concentrate to a certain extent. In non-tidal seas this storage 
basin is not required. The prepared land is partitioned off into 
large basins {adernes or muants) and others (called in France aires, 
auillets or tables salantes) which get smaller and more shallow in 
proportion as they are intended to receive the water as it becomes 
more and more concentrated, just sufficient fall being allowed from 
one set of basins to the other to cause the water to flow slowly 
through them. The flow is often assisted by pumping. The sea 
salt thus made is collected into small heaps on the paths around 
the basins or the floors of the basins themselves, and here it under- 
goes a first partial purification, the more deliquescent salts (especially 
the magnesium chloride) being allowed to drain away. From these 
heaps it is collected into larger ones, where it drains further, and 
becomes more purified. The salt is collected from the surface by 
means of a sort of wooden scoop or scraper, but in spite of every 
precaution some of the soil on which it is produced is inevitably 
taken up with it, communicating a red or grey tint. 

Generally speaking this salt, which may contain up to 15% 
of impurities, goes into commerce just as it is, but in some cases 
it is taken first to the refinery, where it either is simply washed 
and then stove-dried before being sent out, or is dissolved in 
fresh water and then boiled down and crystallized like white salt 
from rock-salt brine. The salt of the " salines du midi " of the 
south-east of France is far purer, containing about 5% of 
impurities. In northern Russia and in Siberia sea water is 
concentrated by freezing, the ice which separates containing 
little salt ; the brine is then boiled down when an impure sea salt 
is deposited. 

Rock-salt. — To mineralogists rock-salt is often known as 
halite — a name suggested in 1847 by E. F. Glocker from the 
Greek a\s (salt). The word halite, however, is sometimes 
used not only for the species rock-salt but as a group-name to 
include a series of haloid minerals, of which that species is the 
type. Halite or rock-salt crystallizes in the cubic system, 
usually in cubes, rarely in octahedra; the cubes being solid, 
unlike the skeleton-cubes obtained by rapid evaporation of 
brine. The mineral has perfect cubic cleavage. Percussion- 
figures, readily made on the cleavage-faces, have rays parallel 
to faces of the rhombic dodecahedron; whilst figures etched 
with water represent the four-faced cube. Rock-salt commonly 
occurs in cleavable masses, or sometimes in laminar, granular 
or fibrous forms, the finely fibrous variety being known as 
"hair-salt." The hardness is 2 to 2-5 and the spec. grav. 

2-1 to 2-6. Rock-salt when pure is colourless and transparent, 
but is usually red or brown by mechanical admixture with ferric 
oxide or hydroxide. The salt is often grey, through bituminous 
matter or other impurity, and rarely green, blue or violet. 
The blue colour, which disappears on heating or dissolving 
the salt, has been variously ascribed to the presence of sodium 
subchloride, sodium, sulphur or of a certain compound of iron, 
or again to the existence of minute cavities with parallel walls. 
Halite occasionally exhibits double refraction, perhaps due to 
natural pressure. It is remarkably diathermanous, or capable 
of transmitting heat-rays, and has therefore been used in certain 
physical investigations. Pure halite consists only of sodium 
chloride, but salt usually contains certain magnesium compounds 
rendering it deliquescent. Minute vesicular cavities are not 
infrequently present, sometimes as negative cubes, and these 
may contain saline solutions or carbon dioxide or gaseous 
hydrocarbons. Some salt decrepitates on solution (Knistersalz) , 
the phenomenon being due to the escape of condensed gases. 

Halite may occur as a sublimate on lava, as at Vesuvius 
and some other volcanoes, where it is generally associated with 
potassium chloride; but its usual mode of occurrence is in 
bedded deposits, often lenticular, and sometimes of great thick- 
ness. The salt is commonly associated with gypsum, often also 
with anhydrite, and occasionally with sylvite, carnallite and other 
minerals containing potassium and magnesium. Deposits of 
rock-salt have evidently been formed by the evaporation of 
salt water, probably in areas of inland drainage or enclosed 
basins, like the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake of Utah, or 
perhaps in some cases in an arm of the sea partially cut off, 
like the Kara Bughaz, which forms a natural salt-pan on the east 
side of the Caspian. Such beds of salt are found in strata of 
very varied geological age; the Salt Range of the Punjab, for 
instance, is probably of Cambrian age, while, the famous salt- 
deposits of Wieliczka, near Cracow, have been referred to the 
Pliocene period. In many parts of the world, including the 
British area, the Triassic age offered conditions especially 
favourable for the formation of large salt-deposits. 

In England extensive deposits of rock-salt are found near the base 
of the Keuper marl, especially in Cheshire. The mineral occurs 
generally in lenticular deposits, which may reach a thickness of 
more than 100 ft. ; but it is mined only to a limited extent, most of 
the salt being obtained from brine springs and wells which derive 
their saline character from deposits of salts. Much salt is obtained 
from north Lancashire, as also from the brine pits of Staffordshire, 
Worcestershire, Yorkshire, Durham and the Isle of Man (Point of 
Ayre). The salt of N.E. Yorkshire and S. Durham is regarded by 
some authorities as Permian, but that near Carrickfergus in Co. 
Antrim, Ireland, is undoubtedly of Triassic age. The Antrim salt 
was discovered in 1850 during a search for coal: one of the beds at 
Duncrue mine has a thickness of 80 ft. Important deposits of rock- 
salt occur in the Keuper at Berchtesgaden, in the Bavarian Alps; 
at Hall in Tirol and at Hallein, Hallstatt, Ischl and Aussee in the 
Salzkammergut in Austria. Salt occurs in the Muschelkalk at 
Friedrichshall and some other localities in Wurttemberg and Thur- 
ingia; and in the Bunter at Schoningen near Brunswick. 

The Permian system (Zechstein) yields the great salt-deposits 
worked at Stassfurt and at Halle in Prussian Saxony. The Stassfurt 
deposits are of special importance for the sake of the associated salts 
of potassium and magnesium, such as carnallite and kainite. These 
deposits, in addition to having a high commercial importance, 
present certain problems which have received much attention, more 
particularly at the hands of van't Hoff and his collaborators, whose 
results are embodied in his Zur Bildung der ozeanischen Salzab- 
lagerungen, vol. i. (1905), vol. ii. (1909). (A summary is given in 
A. W. Stewart, Recent Advances in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, 
1909; see also van't Hoff, Lectures on Theoretical and Physical 
Chemistry, vol. i.) A typical section is as follows: Beneath the 
surface soil of sandstone there is a layer up to 100 ft. in thickness 
of carnallite, MgCl 2 -KCl-6H 2 0, mixed with a little salt; this is 
followed by a thicker deposit of kieserite, MgSCvH 2 0, containing 
rather more salt than the upper bed. Deeper down there are suc- 
cessively strata of polyhalite, MgS0 4 -K2SOr2CaS04-2H 2 0, and 
anhydrite, CaSO*, interspersed with regular layers of rock-salt; 
whilst below the anhydrite we have the main rock-salt deposits. 
A bed of rock-salt in the Zechstein at Sperenberg near Berlin has 
been proved by boring to have a thickness of upwards of 4000 ft. 
The salt of Bex in Switzerland is Jurassic, whilst Cretaceous salt 
occurs in Westphalia and Algiers. Important deposits of salt are 
developed in many parts of the Tertiary strata. At Cardona, near 
Barcelona, Tertiary salt forms hill-masses, while the Carpathian 



sandstone in Galicia and Transylvania is rich in salt. The extensive 
mines at Wieliczka are in this rock-salt, as also is the salt of Kalusz 
in Galicia, which is associated with sylvite, KC1. 

In North America salt is widely distributed at various geological 
horizons. In New York it occurs in the Salina beds of the Onondaga 
series, of Silurian age; and Silurian salt is found also in parts of 
Michigan and in Ontario, Canada. Some of the salt of Michigan is 
regarded as Carboniferous. Rock-salt is mined in several states, 
as New York, Kansas and Louisiana; but American salt is mostly 
obtained from brine. Deposits of salt, regarded as either Cretaceous 
or Tertiary, occur in the island of Petite Anse, west of Vermilion 
Bay, in Louisiana. Salt often occurs in association with petroleum 
and natural gas, and extensive beds were discovered in the Wyoming 
valley in boring for petroleum. In the dry regions of the West 
salt occurs as an incrustation on the surface of the soil — a mode of 
occurrence found in desert areas in various parts of the world. 

Cubic pseudomorphs representing rock-salt are sometimes seen in 
strata which have been deposited in shallow water, especially on the 
margin of a salt-lake. The salt has been dissolved out of its original 
matrix, and the cavity so formed has then been filled with fine clayey 
or other mineral matter, forming a cubic cast. Such casts are not 
infrequent in the Keuper marls and sandstones, and in the Purbeck 
beds of England. 

Manufacture. — The chief centres of manufacture in England are at 
Northwich, Middlewich, Winsford and Sandbach in Cheshire, 
Weston-on-Trent in Staffordshire, Stoke Prior and Droitwich in 
Worcestershire and Middlesbrough in Yorkshire. 1 The Cheshire 
and Worcestershire salt deposits are by far the most important. 
Although brine springs have been known to exist in both these 
counties ever since the Roman occupation, and salt had been made 
there from time immemorial, it was not till 1670 that rock-salt 
about 30 yds. thick was discovered at Marbury near Northwich 
by some men exploring for coal, at a depth of 34 yds. In 1779 
three beds of rock-salt were discovered at Lawton, separated from 
one another by layers of indurated clay. The old Marston or Marston 
Rock mine is the largest and perhaps the oldest in England. It 
was worked for about a hundred years in only its upper bed, but in 
1 78 1, after traversing a layer of indurated clay intersected with 
small veins of salt iOj yds. thick, a layer of rock-salt 33 to 37 yds. 
thick was found. Beneath it are others, but they are thin and im- 
pure. The total depth of the mine to the bottom of the lower level 
is 120 yds. At Winsford, where the same formation seems to recur, 
it is 159 yds. from the surface. The Marston mine covers an area of 
about 40 acres. The salt is first reached at 35-40 yds. in the North- 
wich district, and the upper layer is 25-30 yds. in thickness (Marston 
23-26 yds.); it has above it,- apparently lying in the recesses of its 
surface, a layer of saturated brine. This is the brine which is raised 
at the various pumping stations in Northwich and elsewhere around, 
and which serves to produce white salt. The beds are reached by 
sinking through the clays and variegated marls typical of this for- 
mation. The salt is blasted out with gunpowder. The Middles- 
brough deposit was discovered by Bolckow and Vaughan in boring 
for water in 1862 at a depth of 400 yds., but was not utilized, and 
was again found by Messrs Bell Brothers at Port Clarence at a depth 
°f 376 yds. In Cheshire the surface-water trickling through the 
overlying strata dissolves the salt, which is subsequently pumped 
as brine, but at Middlesbrough the great depth and impermeability 
of the strata precludes this, so another method has been resorted to. 
A bore is made into the salt, and lined with tubing, and this tube 
where it traverses the salt is pierced with holes. Within this is hung 
loosely a second tube of much smaller dimensions so as to leave an 
annular space between the two. Through this space the fresh surface 
water finds its way, and dissolving the salt below rises in the inner 
tube as brine, but only to such a level that the two columns bear to 
one another the relation of ten to twelve, this being the inverse ratio 
of the respective weights of saturated brine and fresh water. For 
the remaining distance the brine is raised by a pump. The fresh 
water, however, as it descends rises to the surface of the salt, tending 
rather to dissolve its upper layers and extend superficially, so that 
after a time the superincumbent soil, being without support, falls in. 
These interior landslips, besides choking the pipes and breaking the 
communication, often produce sinkings at the surface. The same 
inconvenience is felt in the environs of Nancy, and a similar one 
produces on a larger scale the sinking and subsidences at Winsford 
and Northwich. 

In the United States extensive deposits and brine springs are 
worked, and also incrustations (see above). Canada also is a pro- 
ducer. South America possesses several salt deposits and brine 
springs. Asiatic Russia is very abundantly supplied with salt, as 
likewise is China; and Persia is perhaps one of the countries most 
abundantly endowed with this natural and useful product. In 
India there is the great salt range of the Punjab, as well as the 
Sambhur Lake, and salt is obtained from sea water at many places 
along its extensive seaboard. 

1 The termination " wich " in English place-names often points to 
ancient salt manufacture — the word " wich " (creek, bay; Icel. 
vik) having acquired a special sense in English usage. In Germany 
the various forms of the non-Teutonic words Hall, Halle occurring 
in place-names point in the same way to ancient salt-works. 

Rock-salt is the origin of the greater part of the salt manufactured 
in the world. It occurs in all degrees of purity, from that of mere 
salty clay to that of the most transparent crystals. In the former 
case it is often difficult to obtain the brine at a density even approach- 
ing saturation, and chambers and galleries are sometimes excavated 
within the saliferous beds to increase the dissolving surface, and 
water let down fresh is pumped up as brine. Many brine springs 
also occur in a more or less saturated condition. In cases where the 
atmospheric conditions are suitable the brine is run into large tanks 
and concentrated merely by solar heat, or it may be caused to 
trickle over faggots arranged under large open sheds called " gradua- 
tion houses " (Gradirhauser) , whereby a more extensive surface of 
evaporation is obtained and the brine becomes rapidly concentrated. 
After settling it is evaporated in iron pans. The use, however, of 
the "graduation houses" is dying out, as both their construction 
and their maintenance are expensive. The purer rock-salt is often 
simply ground for use, as at Wieliczka and elsewhere, but it is more 
frequently pumped as brine, produced either by artificial solution as 
at Middlesbrough and other places, or by natural means, as in 
Cheshire and Worcestershire. One great drawback to the use of 
even the purest rock-salt simply ground is its tendency to revert 
to a hard unwieldy mass, when kept any length of time in sacks. 
As usually made, white salt from rock-salt may be classified into two 
groups: (1) boiled: known as fine, table, lump, stoved lump, 
superfine, basket, butter and cheese salt (Fr. sel fin-fin, sel & la 
minute, &c); (2) unboiled: common, chemical, fishery, Scotch 
fishery, extra fishery, double extra fishery and bay salt (Fr. sel de 
12, 24, 48, 60 and 72 heures). All these names are derived from the 
size and appearance of the crystals, their uses and the modes of their 
production. The boiled salts, the crystals of which are small, are 
formed in a medium constantly agitated by boiling. The fine or 
stoved table salts are those white masses with which we are all 
familiar. Basket salt takes its name from the conical baskets from 
which it is allowed to drain when first it is " drawn " from the pan. 
Butter and cheese salts are not stove-dried, but left in their more or 
less moist condition, as being thus more easily applied to their 
respective uses. Of the unboiled salts the first two, corresponding 
to the Fr. sel de 12 heures and sel de 24 heures, show by their English 
names the use to which they are applied, and the others merely 
depend for their quality on the length of time which elapses between 
successive " drawings," and the temperature of the evaporation. 
The time varies for the unboiled salts from twelve hours to three or 
four weeks, the larger crystals being allowed a longer time to form, 
and the smaller ones being formed more quickly. The temperature 
varies from 55° to 180 F. 

One difference between the manufacture of salt from rock-salt 
brine as carried on in Britain and on the Continent lies in the use 
in the latter case of closed or covered pans, except in the making of 
fine salt, whereas in Britain open ones are employed. With open 
pans the vapour is free to diffuse itself into the atmosphere, and the 
evaporation is perhaps more rapid. When covered pans are used, 
the loss of heat by radiation is less, and the salt made is also cleaner. 
It has also been proposed to concentrate the brines under diminished 
pressure. In S. Pick's system a triple effect is obtained by evapora- 
ting in these connected vessels, so that the steam from one heats the. 
second into which it is led (see Soc. of Eng., 1891, p. 115). 

In Britain the brine is so pure that, keeping a small stream of it 
running into the pan to replace the losses by evaporation and the 
removal of the salt, it is only necessary occasionally (not often) to 
reject the mother-liquor when at last it becomes too impure with 
magnesium chloride; but in some works the mother-liquor not only 
contains more of this impurity but becomes quite brown from 
organic matter on concentration, and totally unfit for further 
service after yielding but two or three crops of salt crystals. Some- 
times, to get rid of these impurities, the brine is treated in a large 
tub (bessoir) with lime; on settling it becomes clear and colourless, 
but the dissolved lime forms a skin on its surface in the pan, retards 
the evaporation and impedes the crystallization. At times sodium 
sulphate is added to the brine, producing sodium chloride and mag- 
nesium sulphate by double decomposition with the magnesium 
chloride. A slight degree of acidity seems more favourable to the 
crystallization of salt than alkalinity ; thus it is a practice to add a 
certain amount of alum, 2 to 12 lb per pan of brine, especially when, 
as in fishery salt, fine crystals are required. The salt is " drawn " 
from the pan and placed (in the case of boiled salts) in small conical 
baskets hung round the pan to drain, and thence moulded in square 
boxes and _ afterwards stove-dried, or (in case of unboiled salts) 
" drawn " in a heap on to the " hurdles," on which it drains, and 
thence is carried to the -store. 

In most European countries a tax is laid on salt ; and the coarser 
as well as the finer crystals are therefore often dried so as not to 
pay duty on more water than can be helped. 

The brine used in the salt manufacture in England is very nearly 
saturated, containing 25 or 26,% of sodium chloride, the utmost 
water can take up being 27%; and it ranges from 38 to 42 oz. of 
salt per gallon. In some other countries the brine has to be concen- 
trated before use. 

Saltmaking is by no means an unhealthy trade, some slight 
soreness of the eyes being the only affection sometimes complained 
of; indeed the atmosphere of steam saturated with salt in which 



the workmen live seems specially preservative against colds, rheu- 
matism, neuralgia, &c. 

A parliamentary commission was appointed in 1881 to investigate 
the causes of the disastrous subsidences which are constantly taking 
place in all the salt districts, and the provision of a remedy. It led 
to no legislative action; but the evil is recognized as a grave one. 
At Northwich and Winsford scarcely a' house or a chimney stack 
remains straight. Houses are keyed up with " shaps," " face plates " 
and " bolts," and only kept from falling by leaning on one another. 
The doors and windows have become lozenge-shaped, the walls 
bulged and the floors crooked. Buildings have sunk — some of them 
disappearing altogether. Lakes have been formed where there was 
solid ground before, and incalculable damage done to property in 
all quarters. At the same time it is difficult to see how this grievance 
can be remedied without inflicting serious injury, almost ruin, upon 
the salt trade. The workings in Great Britain represent the annual 
abstraction of rather more than a mass of rock equal to a foot in 
thickness spread over a square mile. The table gives the outputs in 
metric tons of the most important producers in 1900 and 1905 (from 
Rothwell, Mineral Industry, 1908). 

Salt Production in Metric Tons. 






Hungary .... 



Russia ..... 


United Kingdom . 
United States . 


















See F. A. Ftirer, Salzbergbau- und Salinenkunde (Braunschweig, 
1900) ; J. O. Freiherr von Buschmann, Das Salz: dessen Vorkommen 
und Verwertung (Leipzig, vol. I, 1909, vol. 2, 1906). (X.) 

Ancient History and Religious Symbolism. — Salt must have been 
quite unattainable to primitive man in many parts of the world. 
Thus the Odyssey (xi. 122 seq.) speaks of inlanders (in Epirus ?) who 
do not know the sea and use no salt with their food. In some parts 
of America, and even of India (among the Todas), salt was first intro- 
duced by Europeans; and there are still parts of central Africa 
where the use of it is a luxury 'confined to the rich. Indeed, where 
men live mainly on milk and flesh, consuming the latter raw or 
roasted, so that its salts are not lost, it is not necessary to add 
sodium chloride, and thus we understand how the Numidian nomads 
in the time of Sallust and the Bedouins of Hadramut at the present 
day never eat salt with their food. On the other hand, cereal or 
vegetable diet calls for a supplement of salt, and so does boiled meat. 
The important part played by the mineral in the history of commerce 
and religion depends on this fact; at a very early stage of progress 
salt became a necessary of life to most nations, and in many cases 
they could procure it only from abroad, from the sea-coast, or from 
districts like that of Palmyra where salty incrustations are found 
on the surface of the soil. Sometimes indeed a kind of salt was 
got from the ashes of saline plants {e.g. by the Umbrians, Aristotle, 
Met. ii. p. 459), or by pouring the water of a brackish stream over 
a fire of (saline) wood and collecting the ashes, as was done in ancient 
Germany (Tac. Ann. xiii. 57), in Gaul and in Spain (Plin. H.N. 
xxxi. 7. 82 seq.); but these were imperfect surrogates. Among inland 
peoples a salt spring was regarded as a special gift of the gods. The 
Chaonians in Epirus had one which flowed into a stream where there 
were no fish; and the legend was that Heracles' had allowed their 
forefathers to have salt instead of fish (Arist. ut supra). The Ger- 
mans waged war for saline streams, and believed that the presence of 
salt in the soil invested a district, with peculiar sanctity and made it 
a place where prayers were most readily heard (Tac. ut sup.). That 
a religious significance was attached to a substance so highly prized 
and which was often obtained with difficulty is no more than natural. 
And it must also be remembered that the habitual use of salt is 
intimately connected with the advance from nomadic to agricultural 
life, i.e. with precisely that step in civilization which had most 
influence on the cults of almost all ancient nations. The gods were 
worshipped as the givers of the kindly fruits of the earth, and, as all 
over the world " bread and salt " go together in common use and 
common phrase, salt was habitually asspciated with offerings, at 
least with all offerings which consisted in whole or in part of cereal 
elements. This practice is found alike among the Greeks and Romans 
and among the Semitic peoples (Lev. ii. 13) ; Homer calls salt 
" divine," and Plato names it " a substance dear to the gods " 
{Timaeus, p. 60; cf. Plutarch, Sympos. v. 10). As covenants were 
ordinarily made over a sacrificial meal, in which salt was a necessary 
element, the expression " a covenant of salt " (Numb, xviii. 19) is 
easily understood; it is probable, however, that the preservative 
qualities of salt were held to make it a peculiarly fitting symbol of 
an enduring compact, and influenced the choice of this particular 
element of the covenant meal as that which was regarded as sealing 

an obligation to fidelity. Among the ancients, as among Orientals 
down to the present day, every meal that included salt had a certain 
sacred character and created a bond of piety and guest friendship 
between the participants. Hence the Greek phrase aXas nal 
T-pdirefai/ irapa.0a.ivav, the Arab phrase " there is salt between us," 
the expression " to eat the salt of the palace " (Ezra iv. 14, R.V.), 
the modern Persian phrase namak haram, " untrue to salt," i.e. 
disloyal or ungrateful, and many others. Both early in the history of 
the Roman army and in later times an allowance of salt was made to 
officers and men. In imperial times, however, this salarium was an 
allowance of money for salt (see Salary). 

It has been conjectured that some of the oldest trade routes 
were created for traffic in salt; at any rate salt and incense, the 
chief economic and religious necessaries ot the ancient world, play 
a great part in all that we know of the ancient highways of commerce. 
Thus one of the oldest roads in Italy is the Via Salaria, by which the 
produce of the salt pans of Ostia was carried up into the Sabine 
country. Herodotus's account of the caravan route uniting the salt- 
oases of the Libyan desert (iv. 181 seq.) makes it plain that this was 
mainly a salt-road, and to the present day the caravan trade of the 
Sahara is largely a trade in salt. The salt of Palmyra was an im- 
portant element in the vast trade between the Syrian ports and the 
Persian Gulf (see Palmyra), and long after the glory of the great 
merchant city was past " the salt of Tadmor " retained its reputation 
(Mas'udi viii. 398). In like manner the ancient trade between the 
Aegean and the coasts of southern Russia was largely dependent 
on the salt pans at the mouth of the Dnieper and on the salt fish 
brought from this district (Herod, iv. 53; Dio Chrys. ~>, 437). In 
Phoenician commerce salt and salt fish — the latter a valued delicacy 
in the ancient world — always formed an important item. The vast 
salt mines of northern India were worked before the time ot 1 . lexander 
(Strabo v. 2, 6, xv. 1, 30) and must have been the centre of a wide- 
spread trade. The economic importance of salt is further indicated 
by the almost universal prevalence in ancient and medieval times, 
and indeed in most countries down to the present day, of salt taxes 
or of government monopolies, which have not often been directed, 
as they were in ancient Rome, to enable every one to procure so 
necessary a condiment at a moderate price. In Oriental systems 
of taxation high imposts on salt are seldom lacking and are often 
carried out in a very oppressive way, one result of this being that the 
article is apt to reach the consumer in a very impure state largely 
mixed with earth. " The salt which has lost its savour " (Matt, 
v. 13) is simply the earthy residuum of such an impure salt after the 
sodium chloride has been washed out. 

Cakes of salt have been used as money in more than one part of 
the world — for example, in Abyssinia and elsewhere in Africa, and 
in Tibet and adjoining parts. See the testimony of Marco Poio 
(bk. ii. ch. 48) and Colonel Yule's note upon analogous customs 
elsewhere and on the use of salt as a medium of exchange in the 
Shan markets down to our own time, in his translation of Polo ii. 
48 seq. In the same work interesting details are given as to the 
importance of salt in the financial system of the Mongol emperors 
(ii. 200 seq.). (W. R. S.) 

SALTA, a N.W. province of Argentina, bounded N. by Bolivia 
and the province of Jujuy, E. by the territories of Formosa 
and the Chaco, S. by Santiago del Estero and Tucuman, and W. 
by the Los Andes territory and Bolivia. Area, 62,184 sq. m.; 
pop. (1904, estimated) 136.059. The western part of the province 
is mountainous, being traversed from N. to S. by the eastern 
chains of the Andes. Indenting these, however, are large 
valleys, or bays, of highly fertile and comparatively level land, 
like that in which the city of Salta is situated. The eastern 
part of the province is chiefly composed of extensive areas of 
alluvial plains belonging to the Chaco formation, whose deep, 
fertile soils are among the best in Argentina. This part of the 
province is well wooded with valuable construction timbers 
and furniture woods. The drainage to the Paraguay is through 
the Bermejo, whose tributaries cover the northern part of the 
province; and through the Pasage or Juramento, called Salado 
on its lower course, whose tributaries cover the southern part 
of the province and whose waters are discharged into the Parana. 
The climate is hot, and the year is divided into a wet and a dry 
season, the latter characterized by extreme aridity. Irrigation 
is necessary in a great part of the province, though the rainfall 
is abundant in the wet season, about 21 in. Fever and ague, 
locally called ckucho, is prevalent on the lowlands, but in the 
mountain districts the climate is healthy. There is considerable 
undeveloped mineral wealth, including gold, silver and copper, 
but its inhabitants are almost exclusively agriculturist. Its 
principal products are sugar, rum (aguardiente), wine, wheat, 
Indian corn, barley, tobacco, alfalfa and coffee. The Cafayate 
wines are excellent, but are chiefly consumed in the province. 


9 1 

Various tropical fruits are produced in abundance, but are not 
sent to market on account of the cost of transportation. Stock- 
raising is carried on to a limited extent for the home and Bolivian 
markets. The province is traversed by a government railway 
(the Central Northern) running northward from Tucuman to 
the Bolivian frontier, with a branch from General Giiemes 
westward to the city of Salta (q.v.), the provincial capital. 
The principal towns are Oran (1904, 3000) on a small tributary 
(the Zcnta) of the Bermejo, in the northern part of the province, 
formerly an important depot in the Bolivian trade, and nearly 
destroyed by earthquakes in 1871 and 1873; Rosario de Lerma 
(pop. 1904, 2500), 30m. N.W. of Salta in the great Lerma valley; 
and Rosario de la- Frontera (pop. 1904, 1200) near the Tucuman 
frontier, celebrated for its hot mineral baths and gambling 

Salta was at one time a part of the great Inca empire, which 
extended southward into Tucuman and Rioja. It was overrun by 
adventurers after the Spanish conquest. The first Spanish settle- 
ment within its borders was made by Hernando de Lerma in 1582. 
Salta was at first governed from Tucuman, but in 1776 was made 
capital of the northern intendencia, which included Catamarca, 
Jujuy and Tucuman. After the War of Independence there was a 
new division, and Salta was given its present boundaries with the 
exception of the disputed territory on the Chilean frontier, now the 
territory of Los Andes. 

SALTA, a city of Argentina, capital of a province of the same 
name, and see of a bishopric, on a small tributary (the Arias) 
of the Pasage, or Juramento, 976 m. by rail N.N.W. of Buenos 
Aires. Pop. (1904, estimated) i8,oco. Salta is built on an open 
plain 3560 ft. above the sea, nearly enclosed with mountains. 
The climate is warm and changeable, malarial in summer. The 
city is laid out regularly, with broad, paved streets and several 
parks. Some of the more important public buildings face on 
the plaza mayor. There are no manufactures of importance. 
Salta was once largely interested in the Bolivian trade, and is 
still a chief distributing centre for the settlements of the Andean 
plateau. Near the city is the battlefield where General Belgrano 
won the first victory from the Spanish forces (181 2) in the War 
of Independence. There is a large mestizo element in the popula- 
tion, and the Spanish element still retains many of the character- 
istics of its colonial ancestors. In Salta Spanish is still spoken 
with the long-drawn intonations and melodious " 11 " of southern 

Salta was founded in 1582 by Governor Abreu under the title of 
San Clemente de Nueva Sevilla, but the site was changed two 
years later and the new settlement was called San Felipe de Lerma. 
In the 17th century the name Salta came into vogue. 

SALTA (Italian for "Jump!"), a table-game for two intro- 
duced at the end of the 19th century, founded on the more 
ancient game of Halma. It is played on a board containing 
100 squares, coloured alternately black and white. Each player 
has a set of 1 5 pieces, one set being green, the other pink. These 
are placed upon the black squares of the first three rows nearest 
the player, and are classified in these rows as stars, 
moons and suns. The pawns move forward one square at a 
time, except when a pawn is situated in front of a hostile 
piece with an unoccupied space on the further side , in which 
case the hostile pawn must be jumped, as at draughts, but without 
removing the jumped pawn from the board. The object of the 
game is to get one's pieces on the exact squares corresponding 
to their own on the enemy's side, the stars in the star-line, the 
moons in the moon-line, &c. Salta tournaments have taken place 
in which chess masters of repute participated. 

See Salta, by Schubert (Leipzig, 1900). 

SALTASH, a municipal borough in the Bodmin parliamentary 
division of Cornwall, England, 5 m. N.W. of Plymouth, on the 
Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 3357. It is beautifully 
situated on the wooded shore of the Tamar estuary, on the lower 
part of which lies the great port and naval station of Plymouth. 
Local communications are maintained by river steamers. At 
Saltash the Royal Albert bridge (1857-1859) carries the railway 
across the estuary. It was built by Isambard Brunei at a cost 
of £230,000, and is remarkable for its great height. The church 
of St Nicholas and St Faith has an early Norman tower, and part 

of the fabric is considered to date from before the Conquest ; 
but there was much alteration in the Decorated and Perpendi- 
cular periods. The church of St Stephen, outside the town, 
retains its ornate Norman font. The fisheries for which Saltash 
was famous have suffered from the chemicals brought down by 
the Tamar; but there is a considerable seafaring population, 
and the town is a. recruiting ground for the Royal Navy. The 
borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 1 2 councillors. Area, 
194 acres. 

The Sunday market established by the count of Mortain at his 
castle of Trematon, which ruined the bishop of Exeter's market at 
St Germans, was probably held at Saltash a short distance from the 
castle. Saltash (Esse, 1297; Ash, 1302; Assheburgh, 1392) belonged 
to the manor of Trematon and the latter at the time of the Domesday 
Survey was held by Reginald de Vailetort of the count. Reginald's 
descendant and namesake granted a charter (undated) to Saltash 
about 1 190. It confirms to his free burgesses of Esse the liberties 
enjoyed by them under his ancestors, viz. : burgage tenure, 
exemption from all jurisdiction save the " hundred court of the said 
town," suit of court limited to three times a year, a reeve of their 
own election, pasturage in his demesne lands on certain terms, a 
limited control of trade and shipping, and a fair in the middle of the 
town. This charter was confirmed in the fifth year of Richard II. 
Roger de Vailetort, the last male heir of the family, gave the honour 
of Trematon and with it the borough of Saltash to Richard, king of 
the Romans and earl of Cornwall. Thenceforth, in spite of attempts 
to set aside the grant, the earls and subsequently the dukes of 
Cornwall were the lords of Saltash. It was probably to this relation 
that the burgesses owed the privilege of parliamentary representation, 
conferred by Edward VI. In 1584 Queen Elizabeth granted a charter 
of incorporation to Saltash. This was superseded by another in 
1683 under which the governing body was to consist of a mayor 
and six aldermen. In 1774, the corporation being in danger of 
extinction, burgesses were added, but it was not until 1886 that 
the ratepayers acquired the right of electing representatives to the 
council, the right up to that time having been exercised by the 
members of the corporation. The parliamentary franchise was 
enjoyed by the mayor, aldermen and the holders of burgage tene- 
ments. In 1814 they numbered 120. In 1832 Saltash was deprived 
of its two members. The count of Mortain's Sunday market had 
given place in 1337 to one on Saturday and this is still held. Queen 
Elizabeth's charter provided for one on Tuesday also, but this has 
disappeared. A fair en the feast of St Faith yielded 6s. 8d. in 1337. 
This is no longer held, but fairs at Candlemas and St James, of 
ancient but uncertain origin, remain. Saltash was sufficiently con- 
siderable as a port in the 1 6th century to furnish a frigate at the 
town's expense against the Armada. This probably represents the 
zenith of its prosperity. 

SALTBURN BY THE SEA, a seaside resort in the Cleveland 
parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, 
England, 21 m. E. of Middlesbrough by a branch of the North 
Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 2578. A frm 
sandy beach extends westward to Redcar and the mouth of the 
Tees, while eastward towards Whitby the cliffs become very fine, 
Boulby Cliff (666 ft.) being the highest sea cliff in England. 
Several fishing villages occur along this coast, of which nons is 
more picturesque than Staithes, lying in a steep gully in the cliff. 
There are brine baths supplied from wells near Middlesbrough, 
a pier, gardens and promenades. Inland the county is hilly 
and picturesque, though in part defaced by the Cleveland iron 

SALT-CELLAR, a vessel containing salt, placed upon the table 
at meals. The word is a combination of "salt" and " saler," 
assimilated in the 16th and 17th centuries to "cellar" (Lat. 
cellarium, a storehouse). " Saler " is from the Fr. (Mod. saliere), 
Lat. solarium, that which belongs to salt, cf. " salary." Salt 
cellar is, therefore, a tautological expression. There are two 
types of salts, the large ornamental salt which during the medieval 
ages and later was one of the most important pieces of household 
plate, and the smaller " salts," actually used and placed near the 
plates or trenchers of the guests at table; 'they were hence 
styled " trencher salts." The great salts, below which the 
inferior guests sat, were, in the earliest form which survives, 
shaped like an hour-glass and have a cover. New College, 
Oxford, possesses a magnificent specimen, dated 1493. Later 
salts take a. square or cylindrical shape. The Elizabethan salt, 
kept with the regalia in the Tower of London, has a rover with 
numerous figures. The London Livery Companies possess many 
salts of a still later pattern, rather low in height and without a 



cover. The " trencher salts " are either of triangular or circular 
shape, some are many-sided. The circular silver salt with legs 
came into use in the 18th century. 

SALTER, JOHN WILLIAM (1820-1869), English naturalist and 
palaeontologist, was born on the 15th of December 1820. He 
was apprenticed in 1835 to James de Carle Sowerby, and was 
engaged in drawing and engraving the plates for Sowerby's 
Mineral Conchology, the Supplement to his English Botany, and 
other Natural History works. In 1842 he was employed for a 
short time by Sedgwick in arranging the fossils in the VVood- 
wardian Museum at Cambridge, and he accompanied the professor 
on several geological expeditions (1842-1845) into Wales. In 
1846 he was appointed on the staff of the Geological Survey and 
worked under Edward Forbes until 1854; he was then appointed 
palaeontologist to the survey and gave his chief attention to the 
palaeozoic fossils, spending much time in Wales and the border 
counties. He contributed the palaeontological portion to A. C. 
Ramsay's Memoir on the Geology of North Wales (1866), assisted 
Murchison in his work on Siluria (1854 and later editions), and 
Sedgwick by preparing A Catalogue of the Collection of Cambrian 
and Silurian Fossils contained in the Geological Museum of the 
University of Cambridge (1873). Salter prepared several of the 
Decades of the Geological Survey and became the leading 
authority on Trilobites, contributing to the Palaeontographical 
Society four parts of A Monograph of British Trilobites (1864- 
1867). He resigned his post on the Geological Survey in 1863, 
and died on the 2nd of August 1869. 

SALTILLO, a city and the capital of the state of Coahuila, 
Mexico, about 615 m. by rail N. by W. of the city of Mexico. 
Pop. (1900) 23,996. Saltillo is on the Mexican National railway 
and another railway connects it with the important mining and 
industrial town of Torreon, on the Mexican Central. The city 
is on the great central plateau of Mexico, about 5200 ft. above 
sea-level. It has a cool and healthy climate, and is a resort in 
summer for the people of the tropical coast districts, and in winter 
for invalids from the north. The city is laid out in regular 
squares, with shady streets and plazas. The residences are of the 
Spanish colonial type, with heavy walls and large rooms to insure 
coolness during the heat of the day. Among its public institu- 
tions are a national college, an athenaeum, the Madero Institute 
with a good library, some fine churches, and the charitable 
institutions common to all Mexican cities. Saltillo is an active 
commercial and manufacturing town, and an important railway 
centre. Its manufactures include cotton and woollen fabrics, 
knitted goods and flour. The woollen " zarapes " or " ponchos" 
of Saltillo are among the finest produced in Mexico. There are 
undeveloped coal deposits in the vicinity. 

Saltillo was founded in 1586 as an outpost against the Apache 
Indians. It became an incorporated city in 1827. In 1824 the 
capital of the state of Coahuila and Texas was at Saltillo. A partisan 
controversy removed the seat of government to Monclova in 1833, 
but it was returned to Saltillo in 1 835. The battle of Buena Vista 
was fought near Saltillo on the 22nd-23rd of February 1847. After 
leaving San Luis Potosi, President Juarez established his capital at 
Saltillo for a brief period. 

SALT LAKE CITY, the capital city of Utah and the county-seat 
of Salt Lake county, in the N.W. part of Utah, immediately E. 
of the Jordan river in the Salt Lake Valley, near the base of the 
Wasatch mountains, at an altitude of about 4350 ft., about n m. 
S.E. of the Great Salt Lake, about 710 m. W. by N. of Denver 
and about 930 m. E. of San Francisco. Pop. (i860) 8236; 
(1900) S3,53i; (19/0 census) 92,777. Area, 51-25 sq. m. 
Of the total population in 1900, 12,741 (nearly one-fourth) were 
foreign-born, including 5157 English, 1 1687 Swedes, 965 Danes, 
963 Germans and 912 Scotch; 35,152 were of foreign-parentage 
(one or the other parent foreign-born); 278 were negroes, 
214 Chinese, 22 Japanese. Salt Lake City is served by the 
Denver & Rio Grande, the Union Pacific, the Western Pacific, the 
Oregon Short Line, and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake 
railways; it is also a terminus of shorter roads to Ogden, to Los 
Angeles and to Mercur, a mining town in the Oquirrh mountains 

1 The early Mormon missions in England were very successful, 
and many of the leaders of the church and those otherwise prominent 
in Salt Lake City have been of English birth. 

(S. of Great Salt Lake) whose ores are reduced by the cyanide pro- 
cess. The Oregon Short Line and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & 
Salt Lake have a union railway station (1909), and the Denver & 
Rio Grande and the Western Pacific also have a large union rail- 
way station (1910). The street railway system is excellent; 
electric cars were introduced in 1889; and the street railways 
were reorganized by E. H. Harriman, who bought a controlling 
interest in them. 

The situation of the city is striking, with views of mountains and 
of the Great Salt Lake, and the climate is dry and salubrious. The 
city is the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints (see Mormons). The streets are laid out, according to the 
plan of Brigham Young, with city blocks of 10 acres each (660 ft. sq.) 
and streets 132 ft. wide, and well shaded with trees planted along 
irrigating ditches, fed by mountain streams. Brigham (or South 
Temple) Street is a fine boulevard running 3 m. from the Temple 
to Fort Douglas. Most of the streets are numbered and named 
" East " or " West," " North " or " South," from their direction 
from the centre of the city, the Temple Block. State Street is the 
official name of First East Street ; and East Temple Street is called 
Main, and South Temple Street (east of the Temple block) is called 
Brigham. The only developed parks are Pioneer and City Hall, 
both small, and Liberty Park (no acres), in which Brigham Young 
built a grist mill in 1852 and which was bought from his estate by 
the city in 1880. There are bathing parks on the shores of Great 
Salt Lake, n-15 m. W. of the city — the best known being Saltair, 
which has a Moorish pavilion; and 5 m. S. is Wandamere (formerly 
Calder's) Park (64 acres). Three miles E. of the city is Fort Douglas, 
established as Camp Douglas in 1862 by Colonel P. Edward Connor 
(1820-1891), afterwards prominently connected with the develop- 
ment of the mineral resources of Utah ; the fort overlooks the city, 
being more than 4900 ft. above sea-level. In the city there are 
medicinal and thermal springs, and water at a temperature of 98- 
104 F. is piped to a large bath-house (1850) in the N. part of the city. 

The most prominent buildings are those of the Church of Latter- 
Day Saints, particularly, in Temple Square', the Temple, Tabernacle, 
and Assembly Hall. The great Mormon Temple (1853-1893) has 
grey granite walls 6 ft. thick, is 99 X 186 ft., and has six spires, 
the highest (220 ft.) having a copper statue of the angel Moroni. 
The elliptical Tabernacle (1870) has a rounded, turtle-shell shaped 
roof, unsupported by pillars or beams, seats nearly 10,000, and has 
a large pipe organ (5000 pipes). The Assemby Hall (1880), also of 
granite, has an auditorium which seats about 2500. In 1909 a 
bishopric building, with many of the business offices of the church, 
was built. Other buildings connected with the history of the 
Mormon church are three residences of Brigham Young, called the 
Lion House, the Beehive (the beehive is the symbol of the industry 
of the Mormon settlers in the desert and appears on the state seal), 
and the Amelia Palace or Gardo House (1877), which is now privately 
owned and houses an excellent private art gallery. Three blocks E. 
of the Temple is St Mary's, the Roman Catholic cathedral (1909, 
100-200 ft.; with two towers 175 ft. high). Other large churches 
are: St Mark's Cathedral (1869, Protestant Episcopal) and the 
First Presbyterian Church (1909). There is a large city and county 
building (1894), built of rough grey sandstone from Utah county; 
it has a dome on the top of which is a statue of Columbia; over its 
entrances are statues of Commerce, Liberty and Justice; its bal- 
conies command views of the neighbouring country and of the Great 
Salt Lake; the interior is decorated with Utah onyx. Other 
buildings are : the Federal building ; the Packard Library, the public 
library of the city (1905), one block E. of Temple Block, which housed 
in 1910 about 40,000 volumes; and several business buildings. 
Typical qf the city is the great building of the Zion's Co-operative 
Mercantile Institution, a concern established by Brigham Young 
in 1868 — there are several large factories connected with it, and 
its annual sales average more than $5,000,000. A monument to 
Brigham Young and the Utah Pioneers, crowned by a statue of 
Brigham Young, by C. E. Dallin, was unveiled in 1897, at the 
intersection of Main and Brigham Streets. The city has numerous 
hospitals and charities, and there is a state penitentiary here. 
In the S.E. part is the Judge Miner's Home and Hospital (Roman 
Catholic), a memorial to John Judge, a successful Utah miner. 

Salt Lake City has a good public school system In the city is the 
University of Utah, chartered in 1850 as the University of the state 
of Deseret and opened in November 1850; it was practically dis- 
continued from 1 85 1 until 1867, and then was scarcely more than a 
business college until 1869; its charter was amended in 1884 and a 
new charter was issued in 1894, when the present style of the cor- 
poration was assumed; in 1894 60 acres from the Fort Douglas 
reservation were secured for the campus. _ In 1909-1910 the 
university consisted of a school of arts and sciences, a state school 
of mines (1901), a normal school, and a preparatory department. 
Other institutions of learning are : the Latter-Day Saints University 
(1887) and the Latter-Day Saints High School, St Mary's Academy 
(1875; under the Roman Catholic Sisters of the Holy Cross), All 
Hallows College (1886; Roman Catholic), Gordon Academy (1870; 
Congregational) , Rowland Hall Academy ( 1 880 ; Protestant Episcopal) 



and Westminster College (1897; Presbyterian). There is a state 
Art Institute, which gives an annual exhibition, provides for a course 
of public lectures on art, and houses in its building the state art 
collection. The city has always been interested in music and the 
drama: the regular choir of 500 voices of the Mormon Tabernacle 
(organized in 1890) is one of the best choruses in the country, and 
closely connected with its development are the Symphony Orchestra 
and the Salt Lake Choral Society. Brigham Young was an admirer 
of the drama, and the Salt Lake Theatre (1862) has had a brilliant 
history. There is a Young Men's Christian Association (organized 
in 1890). The principal clubs are the Alta, University, Commercial, 
Country, and Women's. There are a Masonic Temple and buildings 
of the Elks and Odd Fellows. 

Salt Lake City is the great business centre of Utah and one of the 
main shipping points of the West for agricultural products, live stock 
(especially sheep), precious metals and coal; and the excellent 
railway facilities contribute greatly to the commercial importance 
of the city. In 1905 the value of the factory products was $7,543,983, 
being 76-3% more than in 1900 and being nearly one-fifth of the 
total value of the factory products of all Utah. There are three large 
steam-car repair shops in the city. Among the more valuable 
manufactures are: newspapers, books, &c. ($924,495 in 1905), malt 
liquors, confectionery, flour, foundry and machine-shop products, 
dairy products, salt, knit goods, mattresses, sugar, cement, &c. 
Electricity is largely used in the newer factories, the power being 
derived from Ogden river, near Ogden, about 35 m. away, and from 
cataracts in Cottonwood canyon and other canyons. 

The city is governed under a charter of 1851. The government is 
in the hands of a mayor, elected for two years, and of a unicameral 
municipal council, consisting of 15 members, elected from the five 
wards of the city for two years or for four years. The municipality 
owns the water works. In 1909 the assessed valuation, real and 
personal, was $52,180,789; the tax levy was $677,411; and the 
city debt was $4,399,400 (exclusive of $1,528,000, the bonded in- 
debtedness of the city schools). 

The history of the city is largely that of the Mormons (q.v.) 
and in its earlier years that of Utah (q.v.). The Mormons first 
came here in 1847; an advance party led by Orson Pratt and 
Erastus Snow entered the Salt Lake Valley on the 22nd of July. 
President Brigham Young upon his arrival on the 24th approved 
of the site, saying that he had seen it before in a vision; on the 
28th of July he chose the site for the temple. In August the 
city was named " the City of the Great Salt Lake," and this 
name was used until 1868 when the adjective was dropped by 
legislative act. In the autumn the major body of the pioneers 
arrived. The first government was purely ecclesiastical, the 
city being a "stake of Zion " under a president; "Father" 
Joseph Smith was the first president. The gold excitement of 
1849 and the following years was the source of the city's first 
prosperity: the Mormons did not attempt to do any mining — 
Brigham Young counselled them not to abandon agriculture 
for prospecting — but they made themselves rich by outfitting 
those of the gold-seekers who went to California overland and 
who stopped at the City of the Great Salt Lake, the westernmost 
settlement of any importance. On the 4th of March 1849 a 
convention met here which appointed a committee to draft 
a constitution; the constitution was immediately adopted, the 
independent state of Deseret was organized and on the 12th 
of March the first general election was held. In 1850 the city 
had a population of 6000, more than half the total number of 
inhabitants of the Great Salt Lake Valley, which, as well as the 
rest of Utah, was largely settled from Salt Lake City. In January 
1851 the general assembly of the state of Deseret chartered the 
city; and the first municipal election was held in April of the 
same year; the charter was amended in 1865. Immigration 
from Europe and especially from England was large in the earlier 
years of the city, beginning in 1848. Salt Lake City was promin- 
ently identified with the Mormon church in its struggle with the 
United States government ; in 1858 it was entirely deserted upon 
the approach of the United States troops. Since the Civil War, 
the non-Mormon element (locally called " Gentile ") has steadily 
increased in strength, partly because of industrial changes and 
partly because the city is the natural point of attack on the 
Mormon church of other denominations, which are comparatively 
stronger here than elsewhere in Utah. 

See the bibliography under Mormons and under Utah; and 
particularly E. W. Tullidge, History of Salt Lake City (Salt Lake 
City, 1886), the famous descriptions in Captain Stansbury's report 
(1850), and in R. F. Burton's The City of the Saints (1861), and H. H. 
Bancroft, History of Utah (San Francisco, 1890). 

SALTO, a town and river port of Uruguay and capital of a 
department of the same name, on the Uruguay river 60 m. 
above Paysandu. Pop. (1900, estimate) 1 2,000. It has railway con- 
nexion with Montevideo via Paysandu and Rio Negro (394 m.), 
and with Santa Rosa, on the Brazilian frontier (113 m.). 
It is also connected with Montevideo and Buenos Aires by river 
steamers, Salto being at the head of high water navigation for 
large vessels. There are reefs and rocks in the river between 
Paysandu and Salto that make navigation dangerous except 
at high water. Above Salto the river is obstructed by reefs 
all the way up to the Brazilian frontier, about 95 m., and is 
navigable for light-draft vessels only at high water. Farther 
up, the river is freely navigable to Santo Tome (Argentina) — a 
distance of about 1 70 m. Travellers wishing to ascend the river 
above Salto usually cross to Concordia, Entre Rios, and go up 
by railway to Ceibo, near Monte Caseros, from which point small 
steamers ascend to Uruguayana, Itaqui, and other river ports. 
The streets of Salto are well paved and lighted with electricity, 
and there are some good public buildings. The town has two 
meat-curing establishments (saladeros) and is the shipping port 
for north-western Uruguay and, to some extent, for western 
Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Behind Salto lies a rich, undulating 
grazing country, whose large herds supply its chief exports. 

The department of Salto — area, 4866 scj. m., pop. (1900) 40,589, 
(1907, estimate) 53,154 — is an undulating, well-watered region 
occupying the north-west angle of Uruguay. Its industries are 
almost exclusively pastoral About one-third of its population are 
foreigners, chiefly Brazilians. 

SALTPETRE (from the Lat. sal, salt, petra, a rock), the 
commercial name given to three naturally occurring nitrates, 
distinguished as (1) ordinary saltpetre, nitre, or potassium 
nitrate, (2) Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre, or sodium nitrate, (3) 
wall-saltpetre or calcium nitrate. These nitrates generally occur 
as efflorescences caused by the oxidation of nitrogenous matter 
in the presence of the alkalies and alkaline earths. 

1. Ordinary Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate, KNO3, occurs, 
mingled with other nitrates, on the surface and in the superficial 
layers of the soil in many countries, especially in certain parts 
of India, Persia, Arabia and Spain. The deposits in the great 
limestone caves of Kentucky, Virginia and Indiana have been 
probably derived from the overlying soil and accumulated by 
percolating water; they are of no commercial value. The 
actual formation of this salt is not quite clear; but it is certainly 
conditioned by the simultaneous contact of decaying nitrogenous 
matter, alkalies, air and moisture. The demand for saltpetre 
as an ingredient of gunpowder led to the formation of saltpetre 
plantations or nitriaries, which at one time were common in 
France, Germany, and other countries; the natural conditions 
were simulated by exposing heaps of decaying organic matter 
mixed with alkalies (lime, &c.) to atmospheric action. The salt 
is obtained from the soil in which it occurs naturally, or from 
the heaps in which it is formed artificially, by extracting with 
water, and adding to the solution wood-ashes or potassium 
carbonate. The liquid is filtered and then crystallized. Since 
potassium nitrate is generally more serviceable than the sodium 
salt, whose deliquescent properties inhibit its use for gunpowder 
manufacture, the latter salt, of which immense natural deposits 
occur (see below (2) Chile saltpetre), is converted into ordinary 
saltpetre in immense quantities. This is generally effected by 
adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which 
immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt 
salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling 
solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates 
on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, 
and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is 
separated and dried. 

As found in nature, saltpetre generally forms aggregates of 
delicate acicular crystals, and sometimes silky tufts; distinctly 
developed crystals are not found in nature. When crystallized 
from water, crystals belonging to the orthorhombic system, 
and having a prism angle of 6i° 10', are obtained; they are 
often twinned on the prism planes, giving rise to pseudo-hexagonal 
groups resembling aragonite. There are perfect cleavages 



parallel to the dome (on). The hardness is 2, and the specific 
gravity 2-1. It is fairly soluble in water; 100 parts at 0° dis- 
solving 13-3 parts of the salt, and about 30 parts at 20 ; the 
most saturated solution contains 327-4 parts of the salt in 100 
of water; this solution boils at 114-1°. It fuses at 339° to a 
colourless liquid, which solidifies on cooling to a white fibrous 
mass, known in pharmacy as sal prunella. It is an energetic 
oxidizing agent, and on this property its most important applica- 
tions depend. At a red heat it evolves oxygen with the formation 
01 potassium nitrite, which, in turn, decomposes at a higher 
temperature. Heated with many metals it converts them into 
oxides, and with combustible substances, such as charcoal, 
sulphur, &c, a most intense conflagration occurs. Its chief 
uses are in glass-making to promote fluidity, in metallurgy to 
oxidize impurities, as a constituent of gunpowder and in 
pyrotechny; it is also used in the manufacture of nitric acid. 

Potassium nitrate was used at one time in many different 
diseased conditions, but it is now never administered internally, 
as its extremely depressant action upon the heart is not com- 
pensated for by any useful properties which are not possessed 
by many other drugs. One most valuable use it has, however, 
in the treatment of asthma. All nitrites {e.g. sodium nitrite^ 
ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary 
muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, 
which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the 
bronchial tubes. Saltpetre may be made to act as a nitrite 
by dissolving it in water in the strength of about fifty grains 
to the ounce, soaking blotting-paper in the solution and letting 
the paper dry. Pieces about 2 in. square are then successively 
put into a jar and lighted. The patient inhales the fumes, which 
contain a considerable proportion of nitrogen oxides. This 
treatment is frequently very successful indeed in relaxing the 
bronchial spasm upon which the most obvious features of an 
attack depend. 

2. Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNOs, occurs 
under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering 
immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche 
or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca 
and Antofagasta in Chile. The nitrate fields are confined to a 
narrow strip of country, averaging 2J m. in width, situated on the 
eastern slopes of the coast ranges and extending from north to south 
tor 260 geographical miles, between the latitudes 25 45' and 19° 12' S 
The nitrate forms beds, varying in thickness from 6 in. to 12 ft ' 
under a covering of conglomerate locally known as lostra, which is 
itself overlain by a loose sandy soil. The conglomerate consists of 
rock fragments, sodium chloride and various sulphates, cemented 
together by gypsum to form a hard compact mass 6 to 10 ft. in 
thickness. The caliche has often a granular structure, and is yellowish- 
white, bright lemon-yellow, brownish or violet in colour. It contains 
from 48 to 75% of sodium nitrate and from 20 to 40% of common 
salt, which are associated with various minor saline components 
including sodium lodate and more or less insoluble mineral, and also 
some organic matter, e.g. guano, which suggests the idea that the 
nitrate was formed by the nitrification of this kind of excremental 
matter. 1 he caliche is worked up in loco for crude nitrate bv ex- 
tracting the salts with hot water, allowing the suspended earth to 
settle, and then transferring the clarified liquor, first to a cistern 
where it deposits part of its sodium chloride at a high temperature 
and then to another where, on cooling, it yields a crop of crystals 
of purified nitrate. The nitre thus refined is exported chiefly from 
Valparaiso whence the name of " Chile saltpetre." The mother 
liquors used to be thrown away, but are now utilized for the extrac- 
tion of their iodine (q.v.). 

Chemically pure sodium nitrate can be obtained bv reoeated 
^crystallization of Chile saltpetre or by synthesis. I? forms Sour 
less, transparent rhombohedra, like those of Iceland spar; the angles 
i^t n rt Y T a ' 1° "Singles, being 73 ° 30', so that the crystals 
look like cubes: hence the name of " cubic saltpetre." There are 
perfect cleavages parallel to the rhombohedral faces, and the crystals 
exhibit a strong negative double refraction, like calcite. One hundred 
Su-%°t r^tif* k -r nd at . IOO ° dissolve 72-9 and 180 parts of the 
tII' if boiling-point of the saturated solution, 216 parts. 

The salt fuses at 316°; at higher temperatures it loses oxygen [more 
SiTV^ corresponding potassium salt) with the formation 
of nitrite which at very high temperatures, is reduced ultimately 
to a mixture of peroxide, Na 2 2 , and oxide, Na 2 0. The chief 
applications of Chile saltpetre are in the nitric acid industry, and m 
the manufacture of ordmary saltpetre for making gunpowder 
ordmary Chile saltpetre being unsuitable by reason of its cfeliquelcent 
nature a property however, not exhibited by the perfectly pure 
.alt. It is also employed as a manure. For references to memoirs 

'\r? :Ti $ i 71,° i £ e C wx? ni H ate de P° sits . see G. P. Merrill, The 

Non-Metalkc Minerals (New York, 1904). 

3. Wall-saltpetre or lime saltpetre, calcium nitrate, Ca(N0 3 )j is 
found as an efflorescence on the walls of stables; it is now manu- 
factured in large quantities by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, i.e. bv 
passing a powerful electric arc discharge through moist air and 
absorbing the nitric acid formed by lime. Its chief applications are 
as a manure and in the nitric acid industry. 

SALT RANGE, a hill system in the Punjab and North- West 
Frontier Provinces of India, deriving its name from its extensive 
deposits of rock-salt. The range commences in Jhelum. district 
in the lofty hill of Chel (3701 ft.), on the right bank of the river 
Jhelum, traverses Shahpur district, crosses the Indus in Mianwali 
district, thence a southern branch forms the boundary between 
Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan until it finally merges in the 
Waziristan system of mountains. The salt range contains the 
great mines of Mayo, Warcha and Kalabagh, which yield an 
inexhaustible supply of salt, and supply the wants of all Northern 
India. Coal of an inferior quality is also found 

(1889), Russian satirist, was born on his father's estate in the 
province of Tula, 15th (27th) January 1826. His early education 
was completely neglected, and his youth, owing to the severity 
and the domestic quarrels of his parents, was full of the most 
melancholy experiences. Left entirely to himself, he developed 
a love for reading; but the only book in his father's house 
was the Bible, which he studied with deep attention. At ten 
years of age he entered the Moscow Institute for the sons of the 
nobility, and subsequently the Lyceum at St Petersburg, where 
Prince Lobanov Rostofski, afterwards minister for foreign affairs 
was one of his schoolfellows. Whfle there he published poetry' 
and translations of some of the works of Byron and Heine; and 
on leaving the Lyceum he obtained employment as a clerk in the 
Ministry of War. In 1884 he published Zaputennoye Dyelo 
( A Complicated Affair "), which, in view of the revolutionary 
movements at that time in France and Germany, was the Cause 
of his banishment to Vyatka, where he spent eight years as a 
minor government official. This experience enabled him to study 
the life and habits of civil servants in the interior, and to give 
L ,V. ?, 1 , CtUre ° f Russian Provincial officials in his GubernsMe 
Otcherki ( Provincial Sketches "). On his return to St Peters- 
burg as he was quickly promoted to administrative posts of con- 
siderable importance. After making a report on the condition 
of the Russian police, he was appointed deputy governor, first 
of Ryazan and then of Tver. His predilection for literary work 
!?i UC6 , d - hlm t0 kave the g° vernm ent service, but pecuniary 
difficulties soon compelled him to re-enter it, and in 1864 he 
was appointed president of the local boards of taxation succes- 
sively at Penza, Tula and Ryazan. In 1868 he finally quitted 
the civil service. Subsequently he wrote his principal works, 
namely, Poshekhonskaya Starina (" The Old Times of Poshek- 
hona"), which possesses a certain autobiographical interest- 
Istona odnavo Goroda (" The History of a Town "); A Satirical 
History of Russia; Messieurs el Mesdames Pompadours- and 
Messieurs Golovlof. At one time, after the death of the poet 
ISekrasov, he acted as editor of a leading Russian magazine, 
the Contemporary. He died in St Petersburg on the 10th of 
April (12th May) 1889. (G D ) 

SALUS, in Roman mythology the personification of health 
and prosperity. In 302 b.c. a temple was dedicated to Salus on 
the Quirmal (Livy x. 1); and in later times public prayers were 
offered to her on behalf of the emperor and the Roman people 
at the beginning of the year, in time of sickness, and on the 
emperor's birthday. In 180 b.c, on the occasion of a plague, 
vows were made to Apollo, Aesculapius and Salus (Livy xl. 37) 
Here the special attribute of the goddess appears to be health- 
and in later times she was identified with the Greek goddess of 
health, Hygieia. 

SALUTATIONS, or Greetings, the customary forms of kindly 
or respectful address, especially on meeting or parting or on 
occasions of ceremonious approach. Etymologically the word 
salutation (Lat. salutatio, " wishing health ") refers only to 
words spoken. 



Forms of salutation frequent among savages and barbarians 
may last on almost unchanged in civilized custom. The habit 
of affectionate clasping or embracing is seen at the meetings 
of the Andaman islanders and Australian blacks, or where 
the Fuegians in friendly salute hug "like the grip of a bear." 1 
This natural gesture appears in old Semitic and Aryan custom : 
" Esau ran to meet him (Jacob) and embraced him, and fell on his 
neck, and kissed him, and they wept " (Gen. xxxiii. 4) ; so, 
when Odysseus makes himself known, Philoetius and Eumaeus 
cast their arms round him with kisses on the head, hands and 
shoulders (Odyss. xxi. 223). 

The idea of the kiss being an instinctive gesture is negatived 
by its being unknown over half the world, where the prevailing 
salute is that by smelling or sniffing (often called by travellers 
" rubbing noses ") , which belongs to Polynesians, Malays, Burmese 
and other Indo-Chinese, Mongols, &c, extending thence 
eastward to the Eskimo and westward to Lapland, where 
Linnaeus saw relatives saluting by putting their noses together. 2 
This seems the only appearance of the habit in Europe. On 
the other hand the kiss, the salute by tasting, appears constantly 
in Semitic and Aryan antiquity, as in the above cases from the 
book of Genesis and the Odyssey, or in Herodotus's description 
of the Persians of his time kissing one another — if equals on the 
mouth, if one was somewhat inferior on the cheek (Herod, i. 134). 
In Greece in the classic period it became customary to kiss the 
hand, breast or knee of a superior. In Rome the kisses of in- 
feriors became a burdensome civility (Martial xii. 59). The 
early Christians made it the sign of fellowship: "greet all the 
brethren with an holy kiss" (1 Thess. v. 26; cf. Rom. xvi. 
16, &c). It early passed into more ceremonial form in the kiss 
of peace given to the newly baptized and in the celebration of the 
Eucharist; 3 this is retained by the Oriental Church. After a 
time, however, its indiscriminate use between the sexes gave 
rise to scandals, and it was restricted by ecclesiastical regulations 
— men being only allowed to kiss men, and women women, and 
eventually in the Roman Church the ceremonial kiss at the 
communion being only exchanged by the ministers, but a relic 
or cross called an osculatorium or pax being carried to the people 
to be kissed. 4 While the kiss has thus been adopted as a re- 
ligious rite, its original social use has continued. Among men, 
however, it has become less effusive, the alteration being marked 
in England at the end of the 17 th century by such passages 
as the advice to Sir Wilfull by his London-bred brother: " in 
the country, where great lubberly brothers slabber and kiss one 
another when they meet; . . . 'T is not the fashion here." 5 
Court ceremonial keeps up the kiss on the cheek between 
sovereigns and the kissing of the hand by subjects, and the 
pope, like a Roman emperor, receives the kiss on his foot. A 
curious trace which these osculations have left behind is that 
when ceasing to be performed they are still talked of by way of 
politeness: Austrians say, "Kiiss d'Hand!" and Spaniards, 
"Beso a Vd. las manos!" "I kiss your hands!" 

Strokings, pattings and other caresses have been turned to use as 
salutations, but have not a wide enough range to make them im- 
portant. Weeping for joy, often occurring naturally at meetings, 
is sometimes affected as a salutation ; but this seems to be different 
from the highly ceremonious weeping performed by several rude 
races when, meeting after absence, they renew the lamentations over 
those friends who have died in the meantime. The typical case is 
that of the Australian natives, where the male nearest of kin presses 
his breast to the new comer's, and the nearest female relative, with 
piteous lamentations, embraces his knees with one hand, while with 
the other she scratches her face till the blood drops. 6 Obviously this 
is no joy-weeping, but mourning, and the same is true of the New 
Zealand tangi, which is performed at the reception of a distinguished 
visitor, whether he has really dead friends to mourn or not. 7 

Cowering or crouching is a natural gesture of fear or inability to 
resist that belongs to the brutes as well as man ; its extreme form is 
lying prostrate face to ground. In barbaric society, as soon as 

1 W. P. Snow in Trans. Ethnol. Soc., n.s., i. 263. 

2 J. E. Smith, Linnaeus 's Tour in Lapland, i. 315. 

* Bingham, Antiquities of the Chr. Church, bk. xii. c. 4, xv. c. 3. 

* The latter term has supplied the Irish language with its term for 
a kiss, pog, Welsh poc ; see Rhys, Revue Celtique, vi. 43. 

6 Congreve's Way of the World, act iii. 

6 Grey, Journals, ii. 255. 

T A. Taylor, New Zealand, p. 221. 

distinctions are marked between master and slave, chief and com- 
moner, these tokens of submission become salutations. The sculp- 
tures of Egypt and Assyria show the lowly prostrations of the ancient 
East, while in Dahomey or Siam subjects crawl before the king, and 
even Siberian peasants grovel and kiss the dust before a noble. A 
later stage is to suggest, but not actually perform, the prostration, 
as the Arab bends his hand to the ground and puts it to his lips or 
forehead, or the Tongan would touch the sole of a chief's foot, thus 
symbolically placing himself under his feet. Kneeling